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Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario. v4 11/2015

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 4:20 am
by governato
(link to scenario files v4.0 fixed 11/17).

I am posting here the latest update (v4 November 2015) of my Eastern Front 41-45 Scenario. This version supersedes the one distributed with patch The goal of this TOAW scenario is to be playable and the same time provide an historical and detailed description at the Army and Corps level of the entire WWII Eastern front campaign, from the opening of 'Barbarossa' to the fall of Berlin. In this top post I will keep updated links to the scenario, including the scenario description and the equipment file. In this thread I will add a few short posts including a discussions of the design aspects that went into EF and a brief test AAR. I hope to get some feedback from the TOAW community [edit] for future updates All the info to play the game is included in the attached scenario description in pdf format.

205 Weekly Turns. Effective scale 32km/hex. Most units at Corps and Army scale.
Make sure that all Advanced Game Options are ‘on’, with the exception of ‘High Supply’ that must be ‘off’. EF also uses its own equipment file.

Download the scenario, including equipment file folder and scenario description.

Here is the scenario description in pdf format.
Files last modified: November 2015

These are the priorities that went into designing EF:

- Introduce the political/logistic constraints that shaped the military choices of The Axis and the Soviet Union sides (as the evacuation of the industrial regions and the Lend lease Program). This will make necessary for the Red Army and the Axis to 'fight forward' at certain times during the course of the war, and to plan their offensives based on the constraints of manpower and industrial production.

- Model a strong seasonality, with the rain season effectively stopping offensive operations in late Fall and Spring and the 1941 'Blizzard' strongly affecting the Wehrmacht.

- Follow a detailed, historical OOB that tracks the changing equipment for the Axis and the structural evolution of the Red Army from 'stumbling colossus' to a 'colossus reborn'. The scenario OOB tracks the number and composition of not only the major units, but also of
the very large amount of support units at the battalion, regiment and brigade level that in EF are attached to armies and corps. Many Red Army units will upgrade as they achieve Guards status.

- Model replacements separately for each individual nationality, type of squad and equipment. The correct replacement rates are modeled using a large number of units disbands, which allow to model peaks in production.

- Add a realistic amount of flexibility in the Order of Battle and the units that each side can produce. Production options will allow the players to shift emphasis between supply and heavy equipment as the campaign progresses and, inevitably, diverges from the historical one.

-Take advantage of the many improvements in TOAW 3.4, including the 2015 patch, 950+ events, variable ZOC costs, the possibility of setting optimal engineering and construction rates and of using a modified equipment file to model replacement for individual nationalities.

This is a scenario where the focus is on the operational choices and on the issues of logistics and production. Most importantly, I wanted a game that remains playable and realistic beyond the first year of the campaign. To achieve these goals a game at the army/corps level is a necessary choice, with individual turns taking 30-60 mins. Going for a 'non-monster' scenario also allowed me to test the game well into the late stages of the campaign. I also wanted a scenario that took advantage of the large amount of historical material that has been published in the past few years both on the web and in books.

Changes in v4 - November 2015 (this version is specific for patch)

1) MAJOR The equipment file has been modified to allow for realistic tank losses, especially of Soviet tanks, which operated at a tactical level disadvantage compared to the German ones (due to lack of radios, worst optics, buttoned up tanks etc). This was achieved by increasing the AT value of AT squads and pioneers, reducing the armor and AP strength of late war Red Army tanks and increasing their chances to be hit. Historically the Red Army lost 10,000+ tanks per year.
2) MAJOR Grozny (60,68) is now a major objective for the Axis, marked with both ‘Oil field’ and `factory’ icons. Its capture brings supply and production (replacement rate) penalties for the Red Army. Supply and replacement penalties for the loss Maikop and Stalingrad have been reduced. These changes highlight the strategic value of the Caucasus campaign and the need to balance between various objectives. `refugee events’ will reduce supply of Axis units in that area.
3) Reduced the number of trucks for the Red Army in late 44 and 45.
4) Increased the slots for SdKfz 251/1 in Panzer divisions and Korps, to model the widespread use of such chassis in many variations, which cannot be fully represented with just 24 entries allowed in a unit TOE. As a result the defense strength of Axis
Panzer/mech units will increase in the late stages of the war, especially vs artillery.
5) Added SdKfz 251/9 to AT Kampfgruppen units. They have AT and recon capabilities.
6) Changed the TOE of some Caucasus Front Armies as they used many Lend Lease tanks.
7) Added slots for Sherman tanks in some Red Army units, such as the 1st Polish Army
and a few late war Mech Corps, which will use less T34s.
8) Increased frequency of Storm events.

Changes in v3.6 - Spring 2015 (this is the version distributed with the patch)

This version includes a few minor changes that improve on the realism of logistics in Spring 1942 and 1943. Itshould take a little longer before before the Axis can start its Summer offensives.Supply of the Red Army in the Caucasus has been improved.
- Red Army AT Divisions cooperation set on Free Support
- Red Army Garrisons cooperation set on Force Support
- Red Army Hango Garrison (in Finland) gets no replacements to avoid unrealistic sieges.
- Small increase in entrenchment values around Leningrad to model civilians’ work.
- The Red Army gets more supply around Baku and in South Caucasus areas.
- The Caucasus railway system has less 'damaged' hexes to start with and should become operative earlier. - Axis Rail repair unit withdraws earlier in 1942, but automatic rail repair rate at 2 hex/turn extended. (to slow down the growth of the Axis supply network in 1942)
- Axis ‘42 and ‘43 Supply Spring bonus toned down a bit.

Changes in v3.4 - April 2014.

1) MAJOR: Added a Red Army 'Moscow T24' in Moscow. If the Axis destroys this unit by capturing Moscow, there is a global 30% chance for a Red Army 'sudden death'. The unit automatically withdraws on turn 24. Design note: it is doubtful if the Soviet government would have collapsed after the loss of Moscow (as Hitler and OKH believed at the time). But it is generally agreed by historians that the chances would have been higher earlier in the war. Most importantly, this event gives the Axis player a strong incentive to push on until late in the season and discourages players from digging in due to historical insight. This change should lead to more historical campaigns and a more dramatic 'blizzard'. Note: after turn 24 the Sudden Death chance for capturing Moscow remains 10% as in previous versions.
2) MAJOR: Production of Axis Mounted and Motorcycle squads slowed down significantly after Spring 43 (Turn 100). These squads get replaced with an equivalent number of AT+Heavy Infantry squads that arrive as replacements. This change reflects the historical TOEs of
many German units in the second part of the war, as the Werhmacht shifted to a defensive posture, and adds significant fire power to
about 3000 squads, at the expense of units' recon capabilites.
3) MAJOR: Added 3000 Axis construction squads in 43+. These additional squads (representing Hiwis, or foreign POW troops) will help Axis units to entrench faster in the late stages of the war. Historically more than one million Russian POW were (usually forcefully) enlisted in the Werhmacht. Similar to Red Army reinforcement units, one Hiwis unit will arrive in Vitbesk (SW Ukraine) in Summer 43 and needs to be manually disbanded by the Axis player. This requires the Whermacht to hold South Ukrainie to represent access to local manpower.

4) Map: more difficult terrain in the Leningrad area. Changes to rail lines in the Murmansk area. Increased supply rate from Baku.

5) Red Army shock penalty in Fall 41 and Spring 42 decreased to 50% from 40%. (100% means no penalty). This change makes it easier to
defend during mud turns and reflects the difficulty of mounting offensive operations during the rain season. Axis has a similar bonus
in 44/45, introduced in version 3.3.

6) Negative weather Air shocks in Fall 41, affecting both sides.

7) Axis decrease ZOC cost stays at 90% until end of game to reflect the tactical prowess of the Werhmacht at the tactical level.

8) AAA lethality increased (another) +5%

9) Red Army Air Shock set to 95% in 1943 90% in 1944, and to 85% in 45. This is done to offset the unrealistic high proficiency of Red
Army air units late in the game.

10) Red army 'Attrition Losses' unit arrives earlier, at Turn 13, with a higher priority for replacements. This will increase Red Army tank
losses in Summer/Fall 1941.

11) Added 76mm AA slots to Red Army Garrison units. Removed AA trucks slots from Red Army Garrisons. (Stahel's book 'Typhoon' mentions
that Moscow had formidable AAA defences)

12) Increased by +10% readiness/supply for 1st Shock Army, Western 10th, Bryansk 60th, 61st armies. This will make them a bit stronger
for the Winter offensive.

13) Slots for some AA trucks added to TOE of Red Army cadres and Support units (supply, RR).

14) Small changes to a few Red Army air units TOEs, to increase their chances of reconstituting.

15) Some naval units removed: Kriegsmarine unit removed. Baltic Fleet turned into static artillery unit in Leningrad (they only provided
gamey recon capabilities). Volga river flottilla removed.

16) Increase proficiency of Kiev M.D Formation/Infantry +5% This will make progress of AGS abit harder in the earlier stages of Barbarossa.

17) Totenkopf unit size changed to division (-)

18) Axis Air Transport capabilities end in January 1945.

19) Proficiency of some Axis Garrisons increased +5%

20) More Soviet Mounted Rifle Squads arrive early, but less produced overall.

Changes in v3.3 - November 2013.

- increased tank attrition losses for the Red Army in 43-44
- The Brandenburg Regiment now can reconstitute
- small increase in German Heavy Rifle and Support squads arriving in '44-'45 (Rifle squads mostly arrive as reinforcements in low proficiency units)
- 1% supply penalty if the Red Army activates the extra 'Kursk Front' option, to better simulate the additional strain on logistics
- AAA lethality increased by 5%
- changes to Red Army Summer 44 offensive TO: shock reduced to 102%, but added +5% supply bonus for 3 turns. This is to encourage the Red Army to take an operational pause and maximize the supply benefit representing the stockpiling of Fuel and ammunition depots.
- the Moscow - Leningrad 'highway' has been downgraded to road.
- Loss of Budapest will trigger a small Air Shock Penalty for the Luftwaffe
- Axis supply slightly improved in 44+, Red Army supply slightly decreased.
- Axis mud turns penalties decreased in 1944+ to simulate better road network in Romania and Bielorussia.
- Some Red Army units will withdraw off map after liberating Budapest and Bucharest, to simulate campaigns in Yugoslavia and Austria against already off map OKH units.
- the terrain West of Lvov made more difficult after new information from Google maps and a discussion on the WITE forum. This change will slow down AGS a bit during the first turn.

VPs have been rebalanced to better reflect the late stages of the war. This is a substantial change that I think will positively influence the way people play past turn 100.

- Losses VP penalty increased. This will hopefully force both sides, but especially the Red Army, to have some operational pauses in 43-44, in order to increase supply and decrease infantry losses.
- Some VPs are awarded to the Axis player during the late stages of the war. Now the Red Army needs to capture Berlin earlier than historical in order to gain an 'overwhelming victory'.

These two changes should present an interesting and realistic challenge to the Red Army player: push hard irregardless of losses in order to conquer Berlin and East Europe already in 1944, but then risk to suffer so many losses that the post war recovery will be endangered due to lack of manpower (W.Dunn Jr. books were useful here, especially "Stalin's Keys to Victory: The Rebirth of the Red Army"). Note that taking Berlin still triggers a 'Sudden Death' for the Axis, and an automatic Red Army victory.

Changes in V3.2

- The Kiev Military District Formation and some of its units have now slightly higher proficiencies, making it less likely that they will all go into reorganization on turn 1. Historically the Kiev M.D. offered the strongest resistance during Barbarossa.

- Historical records show instead that the strained logistics severely slowed the Panzer
spearheads once East of Minsk and the Dnepr. This is now modeled through an extensive use of refugee events during Summer 41 that will slow down Axis movement on roads and reduce Axis supply East of the Valdai Hills - Smolensk - Dnepr line. The area covered by refugee effects shifts further to the East in late Summer, and then disappears after the rain season.

- As pointed out in Stahel's 'Kiev 1941', in EF v3.2 a substantial number of Panzer replacements arrive in September (when Hitler released an existing tank reserve) and are not in the replacement pool from the start as before. An aggressive, fast moving Axis will find his units depleted of light tanks in late August, but will receive reinforcements in time for a Fall offensive.

- Some clarifications in the Scenario Description.

Changes in V3.0

-The AA-combat patch is included with the scenario. The use of the modified EXE file is recommended as it will ensure more realistic air losses and air attacks.

-Withdrawal of Soviet Garrison/Factory units delayed by a few more turns, to be more in line with the historical evacuation of factories. This will encourage the Red Army to attempt a forward defense in Summer 1941.

-Introduced a few ‘sink units’ (lower left of map) to model operational losses due to attrition and the removal of obsolete equipment.

-Proficiencies of 1944-45 units increased for the Red Army and decreased for the Axis.

-Proficiencies of some Axis Allies units decreased by 5%.

-The PO is now a bit more effective, due to the use of multiple PO tracks.

-The diamond symbols in Volkhov & Novorossisyk are explained in the text (page nine)

-Added 1945 pestilence effects.

-Reduced the number of tanks in Axis units arriving as reinforcements, to avoid ‘double counting’ Axis production.

-Slightly increased number German Rifle squads arriving with low proficiency, late war reinforcement, and reduced normal reinforcements accordingly. This approach reduced replacements for veteran, high proficiency units, to better represent the decline of German infantry as the war progressed.

-Reduced supply rate to 5% for supply points in German Festung cities.

-Added Rifle squads slots to Red Army Engineer Armies, to increase their ability to increase the entrenchment levels in a hex, but reduced their proficiencies to 20%, to emphasize their role as non-combat units. Again, these units should be disbanded asap!

-Reduced number of Red Army Sapper Squads arriving in Spring 43 and increased number of Rifle Squads accordingly.

-The loss of Koenigsberg or Bucharest activates a permanent (negative) shock of 98% for the Axis, to represent the decreased quality of replacements late in the war.

-Air Transport reduced for both sides.

-Sea Transport from Germany to Narvik (49,3) is now possible, but no sea invasions are now possible for Murmansk or Narvik.

-Air Shock return to normal (100%) values at turn 74, instead of 70. This gives the Luftwaffe an extra month of air superiority bonus.

-Fixed a withdrawal effect that left Helsinki without a garrison.

-Tests confirmed that limiting fortified units to ‘Limit Losses’ gives more realistic results.

-The scenario description has been updated in places to include the above changes.

- added suggested game options to this post.

-v3.01 Changed Factory units icons to Fixed Artillery so they will not retreat.

The AA patch. (July 2013)

The scenario is distributed with an additional file. The 'AA patch' was created by kmitahj (from the Matrix TOAW forum) and replaces the standard TOAW executable to fix a well known bug in TOAW v3.4 (version to be precise) that allows only units with the Anti-Aircraft (AA) icon to fire at aircraft. Drop the "AAA2Opart 3" executable in the TOAW folder, make a shortcut to the desktop and double click on it. It will start a version of TOAW with the latest v3.4 that also includes the AA-patch. The use of this patch is recommended to simulate a realistic loss rate of aircraft. It will affect both sides equally. To make it easier to verify the identity of the patch (thus avoiding any mistakes or possible malevolent fakes reposted as the original patch) below are checksums of the patch file:

MD5: 4887107d99e08db5888c48746ae27319
SHA-1: 36a1b3de471b12dde2a78d7a5324069c404374e4
SHA-256: 2f9496d54f6139798c8f32a2b75efb1b07cd78f77f75ed6e858d324aee30b4a3

Changes in V2.0

- Reduced fortification levels in the Kiev area and near the Luga
river. - ‘Refugees events‘ have been used to simulated a longer Spring
rain season. These events simulate rain patterns moving from the NW in
the SE direction and increase the cost of movement along roads.

- Reduced fortification and supply levels for a few German cites.

- Kiev and Rostov are not Soviet supply points anymore.

-Reduced pestilence effects for the Axis during Blizzard. I have
verified that historical losses were lower during Blizzard than during
the Summer and Fall.

- Soviet partisans are now modeled with ‘Guerilla events’ only. There
are no partisan units. This makes for a more realistic partisan
warfare and avoids some gamey effects.

- Edited the TOE of a few Panzer divisions so that the first entry is
the Heavy Rifle Squads (this makes it easier for those units to

- The 800mm German guns ‘Gustav’ and ‘Dora’ arrive in Spring 1942,
rather than at the start of the campaign.

- Reduced strength of Axis naval forces in the Black Sea.

- A few early (light red background) Soviet armies return as Corp
sized cadres when destroyed. This is to increase counter density and
to simulate the formation of weak Soviet units from stragglers during
the Summer of 1941.

- Most Soviet Armies scheduled to arrive in the Summer and Fall of
1941 arrive on map already split in three sub-units. When recombined
their proficiency will increase by 25%. This approach has been chosen
to increase counter density during the early stages of the campaign
and to better simulate the improvement of the Red Army. Both players
will likely feel necessary to broke down units to cover long stretches
of the front. Remember that broken down units suffer a 20%
non-permanent decrease of their proficiency (for example: from 80% to
64%). Proficiency goes up by the same amount when a unit recombine.

- Axis Rail Repair units start broken down in three subunits at the
start of the scenario. When in good supply, each broken down unit
has a 80% chance of repairing a damaged rail hex.

- The Axis Pontoon unit can now repair bridges (duh). - The PO
automatic rail repair capability has been substantially increased
for both sides.

- The scenario description has been updated in places to
include the above changes.


RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: TOE, OOB and Use of Disbandments

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 4:31 am
by governato
UNITS TOE, ORDER OF BATTLE AND EQUIPMENT FILE Axis Allies: each of them (Finnish, Romanian, Hungarian, Italian and Slovaks) have separate infantry units and equipment, with different disband events and replacement rates. This was important to simulate the relative contribution to each force to the campaign and to provide the Red Army a real incentive to knock the Axis allies out of the war as soon as possible. Assault units as Pioneer and Sappers Squads are now separate from Construction Squads that have no attack capabilities but provide 'engineering capabilities' to their parent units.Construction squads make a unit go into defensive (D,E & F modes)faster. (...btw the Red Army does not have many of them until Summer 1942).

The TOE of armies and corps is handled differently for the Axis and the Red Army. For the Axis units the crucial events were the modernization of tanks, (the Pz Kpw III and IV adopting guns with longer barrels and the introduction of the Panthers and Tigers), the introduction of high caliber AT guns and the improvement in infantry AT capabilities. These factors are modeled introducing the appropriate equipment slots in every unit. For the Red Army Armies and Corps formed in different years have very different TOEs reflecting the different structure of infantry divisions, tank corps and the attached support units. Several Red Army infantry armies and all tank armies withdraw (via Theater Options) and are replaced with Guard units with significantly more fire power. Glantz books and Matrix's WITE were a useful reference for the details of the TOEs. From the above sources Martin Schenkel created a list of all Red Army Support Units attached at different times , which I used extensively.

For example a Guard Army has the TOE of 3 Infantry Corps ( roughly nine divisions, but not quite), and many attached regiments: 3 Artillery, 3 Mortar, 2 Rocket, 2 AT, 3 Sapper, 2 Construction, 1 Heavy Thank, and 2 Self Propelled Guns..). It's a much stronger Army than one formed in 42, that would include 7 infantry divisions, 2 Artillery, one Mortar, 1 medium tank, 1 AT, one battalion of AA and Rockets, and one tank brigade. The armies upgrades make sure that the number of divisions and attached regiments stays close to historical at all times.

REPLACEMENTS MANAGED BY ACTIVE DISBANDS. For a campaign of this size and scope it is vital that the scenario adopts the correct replacement rates. The scenario models in great detail the replacement rate per turn for each weapon and infantry type, as provided from several historical sources. While Rifle Squads replacement peaked for each side in 41-42 and decreased later on, the production of heavy guns and tanks followed the opposite trend as the industrial output of the Axis and the Soviet Union peaked in 1944. Lend Lease was a major sources of trucks, medium tanks and planes for the Red Army. This complex process is accurately modeled by combining 1) the game varying replacement rate and 2) numerous 'disband unit' events that directly dump equipment in the replacement pool. Most of disbands event happen automatically and are transparent to the player. This allows the scenario to have a unique production rate for *every* equipment entry based on historical sources (and cross checked whenever possible!).

As an example the plot shows the total replacement rates for the Red Army rifle squads and the Wehrmacht rifle squads. The peaks in the Red Army are due to seasonal levies and the one for the Wehrmacht in the Summer of 44 from the release of a large number of reserves (see Dunn's 'Stalin's Keys to Victory' book). Note that Axis allies are not included. Also the Wehrmacht had alarger ratio of Pioneers to Rifles squads than the Red Army. Still the Red Army got a lot more infantry squads!


RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Victory Conditions & Lend Lease

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 4:35 am
by governato
SUDDEN DEATH VICTORY CONDITIONS. Victory Points are mostly assigned by the ownership of geographical locations rather than equipment and personnel losses. However, not everybody will want to play all 205 turns of this scenario to the bitter end, and often the scenario outcome will be decided much earlier. In the interest of playability I suggest the players should follow different guidelines to establish if one side has achieved a decisive victory at the end of each year of the campaign. The Victory conditions are detailed in the Scenario Description, but for example the Axis players wins a ‘Sudden Death Victory’ if he holds Leningrad, Moscow, Rostov and one of Grozny, Stalingrad or Murmansk at any time in 1941. The Red Army Player wins if by the end of 1941 he holds all the cities in the ’41 Axis list, plus Kiev and Riga.

POLITICAL CONSTRAINTS. In the Summer of 1941 it'd have been politically unsustainable for the Red Army to abandon major cities as Kiev, Sevastopol and Smolensk without a fight. But often in scenario of the Russian Front the Red Army player is compelled to a hasty retreat, abandoning Ukraine and Bielorussia to avoid destruction and encirclements. This is reasonable on a military perspective, but it'd have been completely unrealistic in real life. Later in the game, the German player 'd often find useful to abandon Romania and Hungary and shorten its frontline. In reality this would have caused a massive loss in manpower resources and allowed the Red Army to draft more men from territories liberated earlier than historical. These very relevant factors are modeled in the game. The Red Army will suffer production penalties if the Axis advance is much faster than historical. (see the scenario description for full details). At the start of the scenario several major Russian cities contain static units in garrison mode, representing both political and industrial centers. These units will automatically withdraw as the game
progresses, each at a turn marked on the unit.  But If a garrison unit is destroyed,  the Red Army will suffer extra replacement penalties AND  a small probability that the Axis achieves  a 'Sudden Death Victory' following the collapse of the Soviet government. Similarly the evacuation of Soviet industries is modeled in the game by a series of events and garrison units.

LEND LEASE Historically a large fraction of trucks, planes and small caliber used by the Red Army were produced in the US and the UK. In EF a large fraction of Lend Lease units arrive at Murmansk and Baku. The Axis can cancel and/or delay some of this reinforcements by occupying these strategic locations. Historically an offensive to capture Murmansk failed in
1941, while Baku was the ultimate objective of the German offensive in Summer 1942. Starting in 1943 Lend Lease reinforcements arrive as off map disbands independently of possession of the two cities, assuming that flexible transport lines have anyway been established.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Managing Production..

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 4:40 am
by governato
MANAGING PRODUCTION OVER THE COURSE OF THE CAMPAIGN: As the scenario extends over almost four years I felt it was necessary
to allow the players some freedom to decide the emphasis of their weapon production between Infantry, artillery and tanks. This approach has rarely been followed in campaign games of the Eastern Front. (Even in Matrix's WITE, the current game of reference production is essentially unchangeable). However, I felt important to constraint the game within what was historically achievable and politically realistic by the forces involved (good references are Dunn's 'Stalin's Keys to Victory: The Rebirth of the Red Army in World War II' and Robert's 'The Storm of War').

This goal is achieved through TOs appearing in 42-43 for both sides. Each option represents a realistic 'what if' based on the existing literature, and amounts to about 10-15% changes in the following production output. The effect is achieved taking advantage of the planned disbands for existing units. When a specific TO is selected, some units scheduled to be disbanded are instead withdrawn and replaced by others. As an example:In 1944 and following months the Red Army focused production on tanks and diverted significant personnel to that goal at the expense of infantry divisions, which where often understrength, (see the discussion in Dunn's book ). In the EF scenario the Red Army player can change this, by using the appropriate TO option. This is useful if, say, the front is static and tank forces are not required, or if the Axis occupied too many manpower centers. As a result a batch of 1000 T34 tanks scheduled to arrive in April 44 is withdrawn. In its place a unit is disbanded and several thousands of rifle squads become available as replacements.

Red Army TOs:

- More Tanks Less Guns: More T34s, and less guns More Guns Less
- Infantry: More large caliber artillery and less Rifle squads. More
- Infantry Less Tanks: More Rifle squads and less T34s Less Planes,
- more supply. (The Air Force was a resource hog, useful if the Axis takes Baku.).

Combinations are possible: Use of options 1 AND 2 corresponds to: 'More Tanks, less infantry’. Activating Options 1 AND 3 corresponds to ‘More Infantry, less Guns’. (Smart eh ;-))

Axis TOs:

- More U-Boats less Red Army Supply & Replacements:
- No Heavy Panzer Jagers (Anti Tank), more Pz Kpw IV
- Less Heavy Tanks (Tigers and Jagd Tigers), more Pz kpw IV.

Selection of all three options together results in supply  penalties for the Red Army in exchange of a severe cut in the production of heavy Panzers and an emphasis on producing modern type PzKw IVs.

Rebalance Option: If selected, this TO gives THE OTHER player a significant number of supply and engineering squads. This option is made available if players have very different skill levels (or while playing vs the AI) OR if, as the game progresses, one player thinks that his side has been severely underpowered and can convince the other player that this is indeed the case.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Design parameters.

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 4:50 am
by governato
The Design hidden parameters: weather, recon level, entrenchment rates, ZOC costs, supply and attrition rates.

- Weather: A crucial feature of Russian Winter campaigns was set by the freezing of major rivers. This is obtained by setting the general weather zone to COOL and using four cold patterns at the start of every Winter. Major rivers will freeze as South as Stalingrad. Several 'storm' events are included for every Winter season.

-Supply Squads: The supply efficiency of the Red Army Formations (Fronts) will improve from 1941 to 1943 as HQs include an increasing number of Supply Squads in their TOEs. For both sides, Supply squads losses or the destruction of a Front or Army HQ, will cause long term supply penalties for the parent Formation, even if they reconstitute.

- Recon Levels: Both armies suffered by largely incomplete knowledge of the opponent forces and their locations. To model this effect recon levels are set at 5-10 for both forces (recon improves for the Red Army and decreases for the Axis, and decreases for both forces in Winter). A good review on this topic is HERE

- ZOC costs: the cost to move into an enemy ZOC are decreased by 10-25% for the Axis during the Summer of 1941. This proved to be an important ingredient to model the tactical edge of the Wehrmacht and facilitate the large encirclements suffered by the Red Army until the Summer of 42.

- Shock Levels: appropriate levels were used to model the initial surprise achieved by the Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe, the Blizzard in Winter 41 and the declining quality of Axis troops in the late stages of the war. This last addition was also necessary to counterbalance the unrealistically high proficiency that some Wehrmacht units can achieve during a long campaign.

- Pestilence and Attrition rates: I used pestilence events to model the significant infantry losses due to illness, cold, and low level warfare as patrolling, mines and snipers. These losses amounted to almost 10% of total irrecoverable losses. A really good source is: Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. 1% pestilence is in effect for both sides for several turns every year and during Winter 41 for the Axis to model the effects of the blizzard. Pestilence accounts for an additional 5% (Axis) -10% (Red Army) permanent losses. Remember that 50% of pestilence squad losses return as replacements (100% of other equipment). Pestilence events also make sure that units with low replacements priority do not 'fill up' during quiet periods. With pestilence effects these units shed assigned equipment and forces, that then returns to the replacement pool and is then assigned preferentially to high priority units. This is a nifty design trick to replicate the fact that historically Axis infantry or non Guard Soviet units were systematically kept below 100% TOE. A simpler solution would be to add in TOAW a small separate attrition term (losses, supply readiness) to all units in an enemy ZOC at the end of a turn, maybe on a wish list for TOAW IV.

- Engineering and Construction Rates. EF adopts Engineering rate of 135 and a Construction rate of 20. Both sides have separate squads for Constructions units and Pioneers/Sappers to separate assault troops to rear forces in charge of building fortifications. The values adopted in this scenario make sure that it will take several weeks for units to achieve a 'Fortified' status, especially if not in full supply. The Red Army suffers from a scarcity of Construction squads until Summer 42. I did a fair deal of experimentation to find optimal values, as the default settings (100 and 100) applied at this scale cause allow the players to entrench their forces way to quickly. This is a problem common to many scenarios pre TOAW 3.4.

- MAP: the original map had originally been borrowed from the 'Russian War' scenario. It has been extensively redrawn following comparison with more detailed maps from recent TOAW scenarios and WITE. Major rivers introduce strong strategic constraints. The Dnepr was a major barrier for the Axis in 1941 and for the Red Army in 1944. At a scale of about 30km/hex the map suffers from only minor distortions and simplifications for the Finnish front and Baku. A few 'distant' hexes have been added to the east side of the map to represents hexes where the Red Army can place Air units away from the reach of the Wehrmacht. The Axis has a few close to Berlin.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Sources.

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 4:55 am
by governato
SOURCES: A list of the sources and links for the campaign research material and on the weapon production figures is added in the pdf file. OOB and June 1941 placement came mostly from Glant'z books, with several other sources to model the TOE of individual units ( yes, the 2nd Pz Division does arrives to Russia depleted of tanks as the transport ship on which they were traveling from Africa was sunk).

Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century

Recon levels.

Production Figures Dunn's 'Stalin's Keys to Victory: The Rebirth of the Red Army in World War II' and Robert's 'The Storm of War'.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 5:00 am
by governato
To obtain the correct replacement rates for every unit I used the following procedure.

-First I used historical sources to obtain how many units were made for every year.

- Then the fraction of German replacements going to the Eastern Front every year was assumed to be:

1941: 85%, 1942: 80%, 1943:70% 1944:60% 1945:50%. (I used Matrix's WITE estimates).

So Prod41*0.85 +Prod42*0.8 +Prod43*0.7 +Prod44*0.6 +Prod45*0.5 = Total_Production that went to the Eastern Front.

I divided the production of airplane models by a further half as most planes went to the defense of Germany.

Then I assumed that on average the total production for Axis equipment has the following multipliers that are introduced
in TOAW by specific replacement events.

Turn 0 to 40 baseline
41 to 88 115%
89 to 136 115%
136 to 160 115%
161 to 190 80%
190 to end 75%

These numbers reflect how production output increased 'on average' and eventually plunged for the Axis. These become the a1...a5 constants in the formula below. the aX coefficients will be zero during the period when a unit is not in production.

then Total_Production = prod*((t1-start) +a2*(t2-t1) + a3*(t3-t2) +a4(t4-t3) +a5*(end-t5)

where t1..t5 are the turns when production rates change (see above). Then I solve for 'prod' and that is the number I plug into the 'Rate' entry in the 'Inventory & Replacements screen'. If the production rate of an individual equipment or infantry squad does not follow the simple trend outlined before, a fraction of the replacement is subtracted from 'Total_Production' and modeled through automatic disbandments at specific times.

Important note: the effective production will be the number input in the editor multiplied by all the production multipliers scheduled from the beginning of the scenario. So if in EF you want the number of Pz Kpw III H to start at 20 per turn at turn 50 one has to input 18 in the editor, to keep into account the 15% production multiplier for the Axis on turn 41.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Mon Dec 24, 2012 7:32 am
by LLv34_Snefens

It looks very good and thoroughly thought through. Congrats on getting it out.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Wed Dec 26, 2012 4:29 pm
by Jeff Norton
Is it by design, but I don't see any fighter units... but see the support bomber ones.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Wed Dec 26, 2012 5:26 pm
by governato
Hi Jeff,
I suggest that on the first turn you use the 'airfields' button in the control panel to highlight the airfields. You can also use the view/Air Units command to find where the air units are and find fighers, fighter bombers and bomber planes. It's a big map! For example The Red Army VVS has some Mig-3s and a few Yak-1s planes in Lvov (17,36) and one of the Fliegerkorps is East of Warsaw in hex 16,28. You will find plenty of fighters in the scenario: Me-109s, Me110s, the Me-262 fighter jets arriving late in 1944 and even the old Polykarpov I-16 biplanes! The Lend Lease US and UK fighter planes start to arrive in Fall 1941, some Luftwaffe units will withdraw to the West in the Summer of 1943. Btw, the Luftwaffe should be able to shoot or destroy on the ground about 1-2k VVS planes on turn 1. Hope this helps.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Sun Dec 30, 2012 3:02 pm
by USXpat
Hi Governato, swamped from work and just got to read through it today and looking at the scenario now. Obviously, you invested a lot of work into the remake and poured a lot of time into the research, too. Congratulations on the completion & Happy New Year!

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Sun Dec 30, 2012 9:15 pm
by SMK-at-work
Looks fabulous!! :)

Here's another site that you may find useful for fine tuning LL - - the quantities of items sent by LL are fairly well known, but the statistics of each route is interesting - it gives a month-by-month breakdown of hte tonnages received by each route.

For example LL was arriving in the Russian Far East and Iran before it ever started arriving at Murmansk!

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Sun Dec 30, 2012 9:54 pm
by governato

Looks fabulous!! :)

Here's another site that you may find useful for fine tuning LL - - the quantities of items sent by LL are fairly well known, but the statistics of each route is interesting - it gives a month-by-month breakdown of hte tonnages received by each route.

For example LL was arriving in the Russian Far East and Iran before it ever started arriving at Murmansk!

That is a useful link. EF keeps into account the general trend that the Atlantic routes (and so Baku and Murmanks) became less important for LL in 43, but it is good to have handy the starting time and the relative contribution of the various routes. I will double check. Glad you like EF so far!

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Mon Dec 31, 2012 11:44 am
by Telumar
Fantastic! Congratulations on finishing this. Just one question: Is it playable against the PO?

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Mon Dec 31, 2012 3:03 pm
by governato
Hey T, the scenario was designed with PBEM in mind but certainly yes, you can play it as the Axis or the Red Army vs the PO and the first six-ten months are rather fun and especially challenging as the Russians. There are options to give extra Supply squads to the OTHER side for rebalancing, which is useful when playing vs the AI. After the first few months (this is potentially a 200 turns game!) the limitations of the AI definitely come out and one will need to actively change the PO objectives, but I have not tried that. In testing I have let the AI vs the AI play it out till 1943, then taking the Axis side as they go on the defensive. It was fun defending at the Dvina and the Dneiper
as the Guard Armies definitely carry some punch at that point.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Mon Dec 31, 2012 5:53 pm
by SMK-at-work
Yep - the Axis PO is very aggressive, and with so few units as the Soviets you cannot hold a line very well at all. The PO is good at making an end run against any objective it can see with any unit it can find - so will fire off a PzGrn/Mech Korp deep into the rear areas to capture a production city for example.

So far I'm up to T23 - Leningrad has gone - taken by 2 companies of commandos!! - personally I see no need for units like this - they are part and parcel of the shock values of the early turns.

So now I am fighting for Moscow - the Germans have entered the suburbs.

On the balance side of the ledger, Kiev remains....just, and AGS has had a thumping along the Dniepr, losing several Korps

Another question - why does Germany get garrisons for captured Russian cities with the Russians themselves get none for most of them - eg Smolensk, Kharkov and Leningrad?

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Mon Dec 31, 2012 6:51 pm
by governato
SMK, are you playing vs the Axis PO? Awesome. Here is some suggestions and comments to your questions.

-The PO seems to get some extra bonuses, especially in overruns, so during the first turns the Axis is stronger (but obviously not smarter!) than if it was played by a human.

-The Red Army side is designed to be a 'learning experience'... like the real one :-) The early Formations reorganize often and the Russian Player needs to split several armies to cover the front, especially in the South (which has the planned effect of bringing down their proficiency to the 30ies). When the number of units grows in December, some of those Armies can be recombined, bringing up their proficiency.

You make some good points: the Commando units are there partially for historical chrome, *but* especially in the first turns, they also help to speed up the Axis advance to historical levels, by changing the ownership of hexes before the tanks go through. This is how they were used historically. For example the Brandenburgers commandos occupied some vital bridges in the Leningrad area and in Rostov in 1942... These units do not reconstitute and have almost no replacements so they will probably be gone soon.
One could say that they are put in to frustrate the Red Army player, who should garrison his main cities carefully [8D]

The Wehrmacht garrisons: remember that most of them bring no extra replacements as they come as shells, so they actually take away squads from the front line units! Historically the Wehrmacht had a lot of security forces assigned to protect the rail network. In the game the garrisons abstract many of these small units and make sure that the city hexes are not easily taken by the partisan units or when guerrila events are in effect. The Axis player can disband those in Russia if he needs more troops, again as historically done in the later stages of the war. The Red Army gets garrisons where local Militia units were raised (again with some abstractions), the so called Narodnoe Opolcheniye Army. Be warned: they are not very strong.

As a reference, I attach the front situation at Turn 23, just before the blizzard in a human vs human game that was played close to historical for testing purposes, with Panzer Gruppe 2 turning South to encircle the Red Army around Kiev. Close to Moscow, but not quite! The semi transparent units were not visible to the other side.


RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Tue Jan 01, 2013 4:32 am
by SMK-at-work
Yes it's a great New Years activity when it's cold and today! :)

I didn't make my point about the Axis garrisons sorry - it's not that they exist - it is that they are Artillery - and they bombard if you are adjacent to them - it's just kind of weird! :)

I am now at T50 and generally my front lines have been nothing like as straight as your picture shows - and so there have been big gaps for the Axis to pass through and take cities in the rear with "suicide" units - not just the commando's, just a few corps going hell-for-leather regardless of supply. I lost Kharkov and Voronezh like this - 20 turns apart, when I thought I had the Axis bottled up but in reality there was a panzer corps (in one case) and the whole Hungarian army (in the 2nd) swanning around the countryside unbeknown to me!! :(

I discovered a problem with Finland - when Leningrad was captured the Finns came pouring across the border, as expected - but they wen too far south of course, since elmer does not recognize "stop lines" - but then when I recaptured Leningrad all the Finnish forces were trapped south of there, and there was nothing to stop a couple of 1941-era left over Mech Corps from capturing Helsinki except 1 HQ. To counter this I've left some forces in Finland - about what might serve as a garrison for the border anyway - the Karelian army is staying at Murmansk too.

Not sure how you can fix this - perhaps make most of the Finns static with just an "expeditionary force about to move significantly? Or perhaps have a theatre option to withdraw Finns at some point back to Finland?? (But would Elmer use it??)

The question is - What would Finland have don if Leningrad had fallen, and I don't think anyone really knows. IMO they would certainly have taken back the areas they lost in the Winter War, but with a small population I do not think they would have wanted their entire army to be in Russia so I've always thought if I ever got around to doing something like this (hah!) I'd just shift the border (is that possible?) with a whole new set of garrisons, and have a sizable expeditionary force - a couple of Corps perhaps?

Just my thoughts.

Also have just come across the fist TO for balancing - but I am getting one titled "Axis Rebalance Options" and am not sure what it is??

The map below shows the current position, with yellow arrows for my main offensives, and circles for areas where large pockets of Axis troops have been cut off and destroyed - or in the process of being destroyed in the case of Kharkiv at the moment!! :)


RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Tue Jan 01, 2013 4:48 pm
by governato
Glad you are having fun! I am a bit amazed that the PO made it to turn 50. At this point many scenario designers 'd suggest that the most fun thing is to switch seats. Can you stop the Red Army from getting to Berlin in 1943? Also, send me a turn save if you have it, I'd be curious.

and they bombard if you are adjacent to them - it's just kind of weird! :)
It was the best way to make sure they remained static and still allow the player to disband them. Think of bombardments as the effect of artillery emplacements..[:)]
there have been big gaps for the Axis to pass through and take cities in the rear with "suicide" units - not just the commando's, just a few corps going hell-for-leather regardless of supply. I lost Kharkov and Voronezh like this

The PO proudly disregards flank protection. Coupled to the scenario very low recon levels it makes for bad surprises.
I recommend keeping a continuous front. It's more realistic anyway.
I discovered a problem with Finland - when Leningrad was captured the Finns came pouring across the border, as expected - but they wen too far south of course, since elmer does not recognize "stop lines" -

There are a few things one can do. As a player you could edit the PO objectives on the fly (it's a great addition in TOAW 3.4, Check the official whatsnew.pdf file on page 13). I will consider setting the Finnish forces to 'static/defend'. This will only affect the PO and they will be less agressive once their obejctives have been secured.
Also have just come across the fist TO for balancing - but I am getting one titled "Axis Rebalance Options" and am not sure what it is??

I recommend you activate it. It gives a lot of supply squads to the Axis, increasing its supply rate. This is useful against the PO as it tends to run its units to the ground. It's also mentioned in the scenario description.

RE: Eastern Front 1941-1945 Scenario Notes: Calculating Replacement Rates

Posted: Tue Jan 01, 2013 10:25 pm
by SMK-at-work
Yes I think I'll go back to a T7 save I have and give Elmer a bit of a hand - he definitely struggles with some things, and looking at your PDF again I see you recommend it. I'll check out the reassigning objectives too - ta.

I got as far as T79, but now supply is the only opposition - which is really well done BTW - big tick. In you PDF you say not to operate with units in the red?? Well I've never had any units other than static more than red for the first 30 or 40 turns! :)

PM me your email & I'll send you a couple of game saves - T23 and T44