Let us go over the rules according to manual first:
"184.108.40.206. faCtIon demands
Factions are groupings of Leaders that try to promote a specific agenda.
If Faction Happiness is lower than 90, there is a chance that they make a Demand. The lower the Happiness, the higher the chance.
The Demands are always linked to one of your Regime Feats. A Regime Feat linked to a low value Regime Profile that is. A Regime Feat liked by the Faction is more likely to get involved in a Demand.
A Demand will most likely be made by a Faction that is part of the Majority of your Political Body (parliament, senate, politburo). In other words, only the Factions that did well in the elections are likely to make Demands. This is because it is easier to Demand things with a majority in your Political Body. A Minority Faction has 4 times less chance to make a Demand in a Parliament, 2 times less in a Senate and notably no difference in chance in a Politburo.
Their Demands can be very varied, but your Decision is always between (a) refusing the Demand and taking a medium hit or (b) accepting the Demand and become burdened with a problem you have to solve before a deadline.
Accepting all Demands might seem the cleverer course of action but the hit you take if you eventually fail to deliver on a Demand is much bigger than if you refuse the Demand on the outset, at the moment when it is made.
Maximum Active Demands
§If you have a Parliament, the maximum is 3 Demands.
§If you have a Senate, the maximum is 2 Demands.
§If you have a Politburo, the maximum is 1 Demands.
This means that the more democratic you are, the more you’ll have to deal with Demands from your Factions"