From: Vermont, USA
There are Heavy weapons, which hit much harder and have longer range, though they generally take more size, energy and are slower to shoot. Those can fit on all military hulls and some others. However, we do not have special hulls designed around one big weapon in terms of a true "spinal mount". Putting a single Heavy Weapon on an Escort or a Frigate though often uses much of the space you really have available for weapons due to the size required so conceptually it's similar.
There is one hull with a true "spinal mount" in the game, but it's not one of the researchable ones on the research tree.
You can absolutely make a station that's focused on heavy weapons and it will hit quite hard as stations have heavy-capable weapon bays and a lot of extra space for heavy weapons. Because stations are stationary though and have bonuses to effective range for their weapons, heavy seeking weapons that depend less on fire arc tend to work best on them.