I remember reading about the German fire being too high - I never knew about the second machine gun.
Also, according to Hastings, every German soldier was also taught the doctrine of so-called active defense. This required a focus not upon holding forward positions to the last man, but rather upon launching fierce counter-attacks while the attackers were still milling about in disarray upon newly captured positions. Especially towards the end of the war, on both Eastern and Western fronts the Germans would man their forward positions thinly, deploying their main forces further back, hopefully beyond the reach of artillery. When Allied attackers had made the initial punch, and secured German forward positions and then had given away to to physical and mental weariness or maybe relief after the surge of effort, the Germans would then counter punch, repeatedly evicted Allied troops from positions just won.
Allied commanders sought to drum into every unit the importance of digging in quickly on an objective but often easier said than done. Given the physical effort it took to excavate a hole that protected the whole body some soldiers were somewhat loathe to dig another when they might have to just walk away before even using it.
< Message edited by Shellshock -- 8/1/2020 5:36:14 AM >