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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion

 
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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/2/2021 6:07:32 PM   
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US Browning M1919A4 (0.3)

The most common variant of the series M1919 was the M1919A4. Production blueprints of the new variant were complete in late 1936, and slow-scale production soon followed. The driving force behind the development of this variant was the suffering reliability of the 18-inch barrel of previous versions, which did not produce enough recoil to cycle the action reliably. The bull barrel was made much thicker and was lengthened to 24 inches like the M1917. Various other small adjustments to the design were made, such as moving the front sight from the barrel jacket to the receiver, which made it easier to mount the gun on vehicles. The design of the barrel jacket was changed to include circular holes instead of long slits of earlier models, and a recoil booster in the muzzle end improved reliability. The recoil buffer assembly was also a new addition to the design between A3 and A4 development, designed to reduce the impact of the bolt hitting the backplate.
The M1919A4 was used in both fixed and flexible mounts, by infantry and on vehicles. When the gun was ready to fire, a round would be in the chamber and the bolt and barrel group would be locked together, with the locking block at the rear of the bolt. When the rear of the trigger was pivoted upwards by the operator, the front of the trigger tipped downward, pulling the sear out of engagement with the spring-loaded firing pin, allowing it to move forward and strike the primer of the cartridge. Two variants were developed specifically for vehicular use, the M1919A5, with an extended charging handle, and the M1919A4E1, a sub-variant of the M1919A4 refitted with an extended charging handle.
The M1919A4 weighed about 14 kg, and was ordinarily mounted on a lightweight, low-slung tripod for infantry use. Fixed vehicle mounts were also employed. It saw wide use in World War II mounted on jeeps, half-tracks, armored cars, tanks, amphibious vehicles, and landing craft. The M1919A4 played a key role in the firepower of the World War II U.S. Army. Each infantry company normally had a weapons platoon in addition to its other organic units. The presence of M1919A4 weapons in the weapons platoon gave company commanders additional automatic fire support at the company level, whether in the assault or on defense.
The M1919A5 was an adaptation of the M1919A4 with a forward mounting point to allow it to be mounted in tanks and armored cars. This, along with the M37 and the Browning M2 machine gun, was the most common secondary armament during World War II for the Allies. The coaxial M37 variant had the ability to feed from either the left or the right of the weapon, and featured an extended charging handle similar to those on the M1919A4E1 and A5. A trial variant fitted with special sighting equipment was designated M37F.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/2/2021 6:14:21 PM   
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quote:

ORIGINAL: dox44

Camp Geiger and Jacksonville NC...two blasts from the past.

2nd Radio Battalion 76-78


Do you have served in 2nd RadBn, also known as America's Radio Battalion?

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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/3/2021 5:58:04 PM   
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US Browning M1919A6 (0.3)

During the war it became clear to the US military that the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, while portable, was not sufficient as a sustained fire weapon due to its fixed barrel and 20-round magazine. The M1919A4 was faster and cheaper to produce, but did not have the portability of a rifle. Realising that producing an entirely new replacement machine gun would take time, the military decided that a stop-gap solution would be best and adapted an existing design. The M1919A6 was an attempt at such a solution, to parallel the designs of the German MG 34 and MG 42 machine guns, each of which were portable for a squad weapon and were effective at sustained fire.
The M1919A6 first saw combat service in the fall of 1943. It had a metal buttstock assembly that clamped to the backplate of the gun, and a front barrel bearing that incorporated both a muzzle booster and a bipod similar to that used on the BAR. A lighter barrel than that of the M1919A4 was fitted, and a carrying handle was attached to the barrel jacket to make it easier to carry. Previous M1919 designs could change the barrel, but it required essentially field stripping the gun to pull the barrel out from the rear - the pistol grip back plate, bolt group and the trigger group all had to be removed before the barrel could be replaced, and this put the gun out of action for minutes, and risked losing and damaging parts in the field. The M1919A6 muzzle device allowed the gun crew to replace the barrel from the front; an improvement, but still an awkward procedure compared to other machine guns of the day.
As a company support weapon, the M1919 required a five-man crew: the squad leader; the gunner (who fired the gun and when advancing carried the tripod and box of ammunition); the assistant gunner (who helped feed the gun and carried it, and a box of spare parts and tools); two ammunition carriers. The original idea of the M1919 was to allow it to be more easily packed for transport, and featured a light barrel and bipod when first introduced as the M1919A1. Unfortunately, it quickly became clear that the gun was too heavy to be easily moved, while at the same time, too light for sustained fire. This led to the M1919A2, which included a heavier barrel and tripod, and could be continuously fired for longer periods.
Another version of the M1919A4, the M1919A6, was an attempt to make the weapon into a true light machine gun by attaching a bipod, buttstock, carrying handle, and lighter barrel (1.8 kg) instead of 3.2 kg). The M1919A6 was in fact heavier than the M1919A4 without its tripod, at 15 kg, though its bipod made for faster deployment and enabled the machine gun team to dispense with one man (the tripod bearer). The A6 version saw increasing service in the World War II and was used extensively in Korea. While the modifications were intended to make the weapon more useful as a squad light machine gun, it was a stopgap solution. Even though it was reliable, it proved somewhat impractical for its intended role. While the M1919A4 had a crew of two or more to carry the gun and the 6.4 kg tripod, one M1919A6 gunner was expected to carry and deploy the 14.7 kg gun by himself.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/4/2021 6:12:35 PM   
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US Flamethrower

The flamethrower was extensively used during World War II. In 1939, the Wehrmacht first deployed man-portable flamethrowers against the Polish Post Office in Danzig. Subsequently, in 1942, the U.S. Army introduced its own man-portable flamethrower. The vulnerability of infantry carrying backpack flamethrowers and the weapon's short range led to experiments with tank-mounted flamethrowers (flame tanks), which were used by many countries. In the Pacific theatre, The U.S. Army used M-1 & M-2 flamethrowers to clear stubborn Japanese resistance from prepared defenses, caves, and trenches. Starting in New Guinea, through the closing stages on Guadalcanal and during the approach to and reconquest of the Philippines and then through the Okinawa campaign, the Army deployed hand-held, man-portable units.
Often flamethrower teams were made up of combat engineer units, later with troops of the chemical warfare service. The Army fielded more Flamethrower units than the Marine Corps, and The Army's Chemical Warfare Service pioneered tank mounted flamethrowers on Sherman tanks (CWS-POA H-4). All the flamethrower tanks on Okinawa were manned by the 713th provisional tank battalion. It was tasked with supporting all U.S. Army/ Marine infantry. All Pacific mechanized flamethrower units were trained by Seabee specialists with Col. UNMACHT's CWS Flamethrower group in Hawaii.
The U.S. Army used flamethrowers in Europe in much smaller numbers, though they were available for special employments. Flamethrowers were deployed during the Normandy landings in order to clear Axis fortifications. Also, most boat teams on Omaha Beach included a two-man flamethrower team.
The Marine Corps used the backpack-type M2A1-7 flamethrower and M2-2 flamethrowers, also finding them useful in clearing Japanese trench and bunker complexes. The first known USMC use of the man portable flamethrower was against the formidable defenses at Tarawa in November 1943. The Marines pioneered the use of Ronson-equipped M-3 Stuart tanks in the Marianas. These were known as SATAN flame tanks. Though effective, they lacked the armor to safely engage fortifications and were phased out in favor of the better-armored M4 Sherman tanks. USMC Flamethrower Shermans were produced at Schofield Barracks by Seabees attached to the Chemical Warfare Serice under Col. Unmacht. CWS designated M4s with "CWS-POA-H" for "Chemical Warfare Service Pacific Ocean Area, Hawaii plus a flamethrower number The Marines had previously deployed large Navy Flamethrowers mounted on LVT-4 AMTRACs at Peleliu. Late in the war, both services operated LVT-4 & -5 amphibious Flametanks in limited numbers. Both the Army and the Marines still used their infantry-portable systems, despite the arrival of adapted Sherman tanks with the Ronson system (cf. flame tank).
In cases where the Japanese were installed in deep caves, the flames often consumed the available oxygen, suffocating the occupants. Many Japanese troops interviewed post war said they were terrified more by flamethrowers than any other American weapon. Flamethrower operators were often the first U.S. troops targeted.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/5/2021 7:01:01 PM   
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US Johnson M1941

The M1941 Johnson Rifle is an American short-recoil operated semi-automatic rifle designed by Melvin Johnson prior to World War II. The M1941 competed unsuccessfully with the U.S. M1 Rifle. The M1941 rifle used the energy from recoil to cycle the rifle. As the bullet and propellant gases move down the barrel, they impart force on the bolt head which is locked to the barrel. The barrel, together with the bolt, moves a short distance rearward until the bullet leaves the barrel and pressure in the bore drops to safe levels. The barrel then stops against a shoulder allowing the bolt carrier to continue rearward under the momentum imparted by the initial recoil stage. The rotating bolt, with eight locking lugs, would then unlock from the chamber as cam arrangement rotates and unlocks the bolt to continue the operating cycle. The Johnson rifle utilized a two-piece stock and a unique 10-round rotary magazine, designed to use the same 5-round stripper clips already in use by the M1903 Rifle.
This system had some advantages in comparison to the M1 Garand rifle, such as a greater magazine capacity combined with the ability to recharge the magazine with ammunition (using 5-round clips or individually) at any time, even with the bolt closed on a chambered round. Finally; that the Johnson rifle did not—unlike the M1 Rifle—eject an en bloc clip upon firing the last round in the magazine, was considered an advantage by some soldiers. A widely-held belief among US soldiers was that the M1 Garand's distinctive clip ejection sound, the well-known "M1 Ping", presented a danger when fighting an enemy force, as the sound purportedly signaled to the enemy that the solder's M1 Rifle was empty and they could no longer fire in defense.
Unfortunately, despite the several advantages the Johnson Rifle design had over the M1 Garand rifle, the existing disadvantages were too great to change US rifle production from the M1 Garand. The Johnson's short recoil reciprocating barrel mechanism resulted in excessive vertical shot dispersion that was never fully cured during its production life, and was prone to malfunction when a bayonet was attached to the reciprocating barrel (short recoil weapons require specific barrel weights to cycle correctly). Additionally, the complex movements of the barrel required for proper operation would be subject to unacceptable stress upon a bayonet thrust into a target. The Johnson also employed a number of small parts that were easily lost during field stripping. Partially because of lack of development, the M1941 was less rugged and reliable than the M1, though this was a matter of personal preference and was not universally opined among those that had used both weapons in combat.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/6/2021 6:39:30 PM   
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US M18 Recoilless rifle

The M18 recoilless rifle is a 57 mm shoulder-fired, anti-tank recoilless rifle that was used by the U.S. Army. Recoilless rifles are capable of firing artillery-type shells at reduced velocities comparable to those of standard cannon, but with greater accuracy than anti-tank weapons that used unguided rockets, and almost entirely without recoil. The M18 was a breech-loaded, single-shot, man-portable, crew-served weapon. It could be used in both anti-tank and anti-personnel roles. The weapon could be both shoulder fired or fired from a prone position. The T3 front grip doubled as an adjustable monopod and the two-piece padded T3 shoulder cradle could swing down and to the rear as a bipod for the gunner. The most stable firing position was from the tripod developed for the water-cooled Browning M1917 machine gun.
The weapon was crewed by a two-man team, the gunner and the loader, who fired it from either a prone, kneeling, or standing position. It could also be awkwardly carried, fired from the shoulder and reloaded by one man in an emergency, fired prone from the extended T3 monopod and bipod, or fired from a fixed position on a cradle mounted on the M1917A1 machine gun tripod. The weapon was carried in a T27 Cover with two padded shoulder straps, designed to be simultaneously carried by two men in line with the straps slung over their shoulder on one side. Ammunition was packed four shells to a wooden crate, each crate weighing about 40 lbs and had a volume of 0.86 cubic feet. Three 57 mm recoilless rifle shells could be carried per M6 rocket bag and slung on one shoulder by the ammunition bearers assigned to the weapon.
The first fifty production M18 57 mm cannons and ammunition were rushed from the factories to the European theater in March 1945. Further examples were subsequently sent to the Pacific Theater. The first combat the new cannon saw was with the U.S. Army's 17th Airborne Division near Essen, Germany as well as U.S. Forces in the Po Valley in Italy during the 1945 Spring Offensive. While the performance of the high explosive (HE) warhead was impressive, the M18's 57 mm HEAT round was slightly less so, only about 76.2 mm of armor penetration at 90 degrees, compared with the M6A3 rocket for the Bazooka which had a penetration of 100 mm. The only effective way to knock out German tanks was a clean shot to the rear of the tank or to cause malfunctions by hits on the seams or joint of the tanks such as the gun turret elevation joint of the main gun, junction points of the turret and hull which would cause burn over of working mechanism and produce jamming and finally a hit on the tracks to immobilize a tank. They could then be destroyed by infantry Bazooka team, anti-tank guns or field artillery.
In the Pacific Theater, the new lightweight 57 mm cannon was an absolute success as "pocket artillery" for the soldiers of U.S. Army infantry units that were issued the M18. It was first used in the Pacific Theater during the Battle of Okinawa on June 9, 1945, and proved with its HE and white phosphorus rounds it was the perfect weapon for the hard fighting that took place against the dug-in Japanese in the hills of that island. The only complaint the U.S. Army had was the lack of sufficient 57 mm ammunition for the M18.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/7/2021 5:57:19 PM   
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US M37 Demolition charge

A satchel charge is a demolition device, primarily intended for combat, whose primary components are a charge of dynamite or a more potent explosive such as C-4 plastic explosive, a carrying device functionally similar to a satchel or messenger bag, and a triggering mechanism.
In World War II, combat engineers used satchel charges to demolish heavy stationary targets such as rails, obstacles, blockhouses, bunkers, caves, and bridges. The World War II–era United States Army M37 Demolition Kit contained eight blocks of high explosive, with two priming assemblies, in a canvas bag with a shoulder strap. Part or all of this charge could be placed against a structure or slung into an opening. It was usually detonated with a pull igniter. When used as an anti-tank weapon, charges were sufficient to severely damage the tracks. 4 kg charges were enough to destroy medium tanks. The demolition charge assembly consists of 8 block demolition charges, 8 block demolition charge hook assemblies, and 2 demolition priming assemblies. The priming assembly consists of a length of detonating cord, 2 hexagonal-shaped, plastic adapters, each holding a booster, and 2 detonating cord clips. The adapters attached to the cord, one at each end, are threaded to fit the cap well of demolition blocks or light antitank mines. Each booster contains a charge of 13.5 grains of RDX. The clips, on the cord about 20 inches from either end of the assembly, are for making junctions on main lines of detonating cord in a demolition system. The demolition charge assembly, main lines and their initiators are used to form a demolition system with one or more demolition blocks as the main explosive charge.
C-4 or Composition C-4 is a common variety of the plastic explosive family known as Composition C. A similar British plastic explosive, based on RDX but with different plasticizer than Composition C-4, is known as PE-4 (Plastic Explosive No. 4). C-4 is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer to make it malleable, and usually a marker or odorizing taggant chemical. C-4 has a texture similar to modelling clay and can be molded into any desired shape. C-4 is metastable and can be exploded only by the shock wave from a detonator or blasting cap. C-4 is a member of the Composition C family of chemical explosives. Variants have different proportions and plasticisers and include composition C-2, composition C-3, and composition C-4. The original RDX based material was developed by the British during World War II, and redeveloped as Composition C when introduced to US military service. It was replaced by Composition C-2 around 1943, and later redeveloped around 1944 as Composition C-3. The toxicity of C-3 was reduced, the concentration of RDX was increased, it improved safety of usage and storage.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/8/2021 6:21:19 PM   
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HaL American Availability SW Catalog




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/9/2021 6:12:05 PM   
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US Dodge WC62 1.5 ton tr

In late 1939 the U.S. Army standardized five classes of trucks: 1/2-ton, 1 1/2-ton, 2 1/2-ton, 4-ton, and 7 1/2-ton. In 1940 the Army revised its range of standard, payload-based, general-purpose truck classes. Although 428,196 of the 1 1/2-tonner had been built by 1945, it was largely superseded in the cargo-carrying role in U.S. units by the more versatile 2 1/2-tonner; consequently many were built with specialized bodies and fittings for use by the Signal Corps, engineers, etc.
The Quartermaster General wanted to start direct negotiations with Dodge, GM and Mack for certain models immediately, but not until after February 1941 could the Quartermaster Corps choose manufacturers directly, based on their engineering and production capabilities. One deciding factor had to do with availability of certain critical components, like transfer cases and especially constant-velocity joints, not used much on commercial trucks, but all-wheel drive vehicles all needed these; plus additionally, they would use two or three times the amount of driven axles, meaning more gears to cut for all the differentials. Produced up to the war by a few specialized firms with limited capacity, from spring 1942 Ford, Dodge and Chevrolet joined in fabricating these in mass quantity, with Dodge's experience in making quality, precision parts dating back from the earliest beginnings of the company.
The Dodge 6x6 1.5-TON WC62 is a cross-country transport intended for the carriage of goods and personnel which was produced between 1942 and 1945. The Dodge 6x6 had a open cabin and a open back cargo space. Version WC62 did not have a winch in the front, but version WC63 had a winch. Dodge 6x6 was used by US Army, US Navy, the Marines and the US Air Force during the Second World War.
The WC-62 is part of Dodge's famous WC-series of military trucks produced during World War II. Unlike other WC models, the WC-62 (along with its winch-equipped "brother", the WC-63) ran on six wheels instead of four. This change was primarily done to accommodate the U.S. Army's larger rifle squads (enlarged at some point during 1942 or 1943). The WC-62 can carry up to 17 soldiers or 3,300 lbs (1,500 kg) of cargo.
The WC-62 was powered by a 92 hp Dodge T214 six-cylinder engine. The truck could be powered by four of its wheels or all six. The vehicle was 5.47 meters long, 2.11 meters wide, and could be up to 2.21 meters tall (if fitted with a canvas roof). Total weight was 3,141 kg.
The WC-62 was produced during 1943 with a total of 23,092 trucks being built. 6,344 WC-62s and WC-63s were exported to America's allies during World War II, such as Free France and Britain. One or two WC-62s were converted into experimental T-230 (Dodge technical code) armored cars which would have been armed with Maxson anti-aircraft turrets. This design, however, never got past the prototype stage.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/10/2021 6:09:58 PM   
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US GMC CCKW 353 2 1/2 ton tr

During the Second World War, logistics played a important role. It was indeed very significant to have sure and fast lines of supply. The Americans and the Allies used all kinds of vehicles for this mission among which the truck of 2.5 tons GMC very known under the nicknames of "Deuce and a half", "Jimmy", "Eager Beaver", and "Workhorse of the Army". The 2 1/2-ton "light-heavy" truck was the most widely used transport vehicle of U.S. forces during WW2, and was also numerically the most important army truck of the period. There were two basic types: 6 x 6 and 6x4, with the latter being used almost entirely for road-bound cargo haulage.
Indeed, 812,262 of the 6 x 6 version were built, in majority by GMC. Jimmy was propelled by a standard engine 270 of 4.416 Cm3 cubic capacity producing 104 hp. The power was transmitted to the wheels by the means of a transmission with 5 speeds. The box was assembled directly on the casing of clutch, just behind the engine. Two type of driving shafts were used: the "Banjo" of Chevrolet and "Split" of Timkin. For the remainder, many components varied according to the version like the cabin, the plate or the chassis. The majority of the models were with 6 driving wheels but some were produced with 4 driving wheels (the nose gear wheels being only used for the steering). The most produced version was standard CCKW-353 with normal cabin and long wheelbase, weighing 4.8 tons, being able to transport 2.42 tons into cross-country and 4 tons on made-up roads. Maximum speed on road was of 72 km/h. The CCKW 353 is resulting from the CCKWX, itself modification of the ACKWX 353. This vehicle had been ordered from 2000 specimens per French Army. The defeat flash of 1940 did not allow the delivery of the vehicles and those were transferred in Great Britain and then for some in Russia.
After the landing of June 6, 1944 and the battle of Normandy, the Allies advanced quickly towards the German territory. This fast projection, put a long distance enters the units of the front and the deposits remained in Normandy. This established fact made more difficult day in day the supply in ammunition and various supplies of the fighting units. Thus, vast operations of logistics were setting-up from the summer 1944. Most known and most significant was "Red Ball Express" which of August 25 at November 16 1944, conveyed 420 000 tons of material enters Normandy and the front. This enormous operation was not possible that thanks to the enormous logistic vehicle fleet of the Americans and the thousands of trucks GMC. n addition to the western front, Jimmy was of course used on all the other fronts and provided to the allied armies of the USA.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/11/2021 6:21:14 PM   
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US M3A1 Bo HMG ht

The M2 Halftrack Car which had been conceived for the Cavalry and of the reconnaissance missions, could accomodate only 10 men, crew included, which was insufficient to play a part of transport of troop because a section of infantery was made up of 10 men. Moreover because of the rail for .30cal machine-guns making the circumference of the compartment of troop, M2 did not have back access doors to charge or discharge its passengers. A version longer and better adapted to this kind of mission was thus carried out.
The US M3A1 Bo HMG ht is differed from the M3 Halftrack by having a .50-cal MG on a ring mount (also commonly known as a "pulpit") to the right of the driver, and an air-cooled .30-cal MG on one of three pintle mounts that were located on the side and rear walls of the passenger compartment. Many M3 halftracks were also converted to M3A1 by the addition of a pulpit kit. Versions with additional MG were quite common. 2,862 M3A1 were built.
In fact, the M3 very resembled to the M2 if not that the hull was prolonged towards the back of a few centimetres, and that because of the removal of the rail, a door could be installed to the back. The trunks present behind the seats of the pilots on M2 were also removed to install additional seats. M3 comprised 13 seats now: two seats for the pilot and the copilot in the cockpit, the seat of the commander just behind them and the seats of the infantrymen laid out by 5 on each side of the compartment of troop. The fuel tanks were moved forwards, in the place of the trunks of arrangement. Sites of arrangement were located below the seats and racks for rifles or carabines were installed behind the backs of the seats to the back of the compartment. Because of the removal of the rail, 3 receptacles for .30cal machine-guns (7.62 mm) were installed on the circumference of the station of combat coming to reinforce the pedestal accomodating a .30cal or .50cal (12.7 mm) machine-gun.
As for M2, the provision of the armament of M3 was considered to be unsuited to the conditions of combat and the pedestal was replaced by a circular mounting M49 installed to the top of the right part of the cabin as on the M2A1. This mounting accomodated an anti-aircraft .50cal machine-gun. This model was called M3A1 Halftrack Personnel Carrier and started production at the end of 1943. Diamond T, White and Autocar produced T 2862 specimens of the M3A1 in 1943-1944. 2209 M3 were converted into M3A1.
A 1944-45 armored infantry platoon consisted of one M3A1 halftrack carrying the platoon leader and a squad, two M3 halftracks with a passenger squad apiece, one M3 with a passenger HS and a 60mm MTR, and one M3(MMG) halftrack. Such a platoon possessed tremendous firepower for an "infantry" unit (even with just its official weapons allotment), but it should be noted that the squads usually dismounted before attacking because their halftracks were vulnerable to the lightest of AT weapons and even close-range MG fire. In fact, halftracks were sometimes referred to as "Purple Heart Boxes".




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/12/2021 6:28:22 PM   
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US M3A1 Bo MMG AC

The M3A1 Scout Car was developed by White Motor Co in 1938 on the basis of commercial chassis also used by the parents models T7 and M3 Scout Car. This machine was produced to carry out fast reconnaissance missions above all on hard ways. Because of a very significant pressure on the ground, Scout Car was a vehicle of road and not all-ground where its performances were rather poor. It is in fact to increase the cross-country performances of this vehicle that M2 Halftrack Car was created.
The M3A1 had a crew of 2 men: the driver and the commander plus 6 passengers (in the back compartment of troop - opened with the top). This compartment counted indeed 6 seats: two directed forwards, both directed towards the sides and two directed backwards. The remainder of this back compartment consisted of 2 large trunks of arrangements located on the sides. The M3A1 Scout Car was 5.51 m long, 2.03 m broad and 1.99 m in height and weighed 5617 kg. The armament was made up in theory of a .50cal machine-gun and of a machine-gun .30cal mounted on mobile mountings sliding along a rail making the turn of the compartment of troop and the cockpit. The compartment of troop did not comprise a back door and the access was done via the side doors of the cockpit or spanning the walls. The windshield of the cockpit was equipped with a retractable armoured shutter, for the conditions of combat. The engine assembled in front was a Hercules JXD gasoline developing 110 hp, coupled with a transmission comprising 5 speeds (4/1). The radiator placed in front of the engine was protected by an armoured shutter made up from 4 swivelling horizontal blades (closed in condition of combat). In front, the M3A1 Scout Car was equipped with a roller to help the vehicle in very broken ground. The suspension of the leaf springs type comprised 2 axles equipped each one with 2 wheels. The two back wheels were driving and those of front were used for the direction which was obtained via a simple steering wheel located on the left in the cockpit. The M3A1 embarked 113.4 gasoline L, which allowed it an autonomy of approximately 400 km on its own fuel. The engine Hercules JXD allowed it a maximum speed on road from approximately 97 km/h. The shielding was 6 mm only safe for the armoured shutter of the cockpit which was thick 12 mm. The M3A1 Scout Car did not have any bottom shielding what made it very vulnerable to the mines. Radio embarked was of type SCR 506, 508 or 510.
This vehicle was used primarily for scouting, screening, and security. Most were found in the mechanized cavalry recon troops of infantry, and armored divisions—usually in platoons of three or four vehicles each. Others were used in TD battalions and the scout company of Marine light tank battalions—in both cases, in sections of two vehicles each. A total of 20918 specimens were produced by White between 1939 and 1944, and were one of the first U.S. vehicles to be Lend-Leased (in which role they were still being used in 1945). Some were still being used by the U.S. 1st Army in Europe as late as 10/44—probably as commanders' vehicles.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/13/2021 6:09:24 PM   
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US M4DD T75 AmphMT

Although other tanks pioneered the DD (Duplex Drive) principle, it was the Sherman that used it in action. While the US Army in Europe used the Sherman DD design, in the Pacific LVTs were equipped with armor and guns to support landings up to the sea line; from the sea line, tanks were supposed to support infantry. In Europe, The US used the M4A1 for their conversions.
The Sherman DD was water-proofed and fitted with a collapsible canvas screen around the hull sides, thus displacing enough water to keep it afloat even though the vehicle itself was suspended below the water's surface. Both propellers and 'Tacks were driven simultaneously, enabling the vehicle to engage the land transport mode instantly upon contact with the shore. The waterproof canvas screen was attached to steel decking that had been welded on around the tank's hull at the fender line, and was erected by using compressed air to inflate rubber air tubes attached to the decking and the frame of the screen. After the screen had been raised, hinged struts were locked into place to keep it rigid. Erecting and securing the screen took about fifteen minutes, and care had to be taken when moving the tank so as to not tear the screen by hitting a tree limb, etc. Steering was effected by the tank commander who stood on a platform attached to the rear of the turret and controlled a tiller that angled the propellers. Once ashore, the screen was dropped by the driver's actuating hydraulic plungers which unlocked the struts and opened the air valves. While afloat the DD tank itself was not visible from the ground due to the screen, and drew relatively little fire from the enemy who thought it just a small boat. The base of the canvas flotation screen was attached to a horizontal mild steel boat-shaped platform welded to the tank's hull. The screen was supported by horizontal metal hoops and by 36 vertical rubber tubes. A system of compressed air bottles and pipes inflated the rubber tubes to give the curtain rigidity. The screen could be erected in 15 minutes and quickly collapsed once the tank reached the shore. In practice there was about 0.91 m of freeboard. DD Tanks could swim at up to 7.4 km/h. Both the commander and the driver could steer in the water, although with different methods. A hydraulic system under the control of the driver could swivel the propellers; the commander from a platform at the rear of the turret, where he could see over the skirt, could contribute by operating a large tiller.
During the Normandy landings DD Shermans were used by three U.S. tank battalions: the 70th (30 launched, of which one sank) on Utah Beach, and the 741st (29 launched, of which 27 sank; 3 ship-landed on the beach) and 743rd (32 ship-landed) on Omaha Beach. The intention was to have them land several minutes before the infantry so as to provide covering fire but, due to rough seas and the general confusion of the day, those that made it ashore arrived late. DD Shermans were also used in the Anvil landings in southern France (8/44) and in several river-crossing operations in NW Europe (including the assault across the Rhine in March 1945).




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/14/2021 6:10:45 PM   
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US M5A1 37LL LT

To relieve wartime demand for the radial aero-engines used in the M3, a new version was developed using twin Cadillac V8 automobile engines and twin Hydra-Matic transmissions operating through a transfer case. This version of the tank was quieter, cooler and roomier; the automatic transmission also simplified crew training. The new model (initially called M4 but redesignated M5 to avoid confusion with the M4 Sherman) featured a redesigned hull with a raised rear deck over the engine compartment, sloped glacis plate and driver's hatches moved to the top. Although the main criticism from units using the Stuarts was that it lacked firepower, the improved M5 series kept the same 37 mm gun. The M5 gradually replaced the M3 in production from 1942 and, after the M7 project proved unsatisfactory, was succeeded by the Light Tank M24 in 1944. 2,074 M5 and 6,810 M5A1 were built—and altogether 19,316 M3-M5A1 Light Tanks were produced. An additional 1,778 M8 75 mm howitzer motor carriages based on the M5 chassis with an open-top turret were produced.
The M5 did not replace the M3A1 but rather was produced concurrently with it, and actually entered production several months before the latter. Its front hull plates were sloped to enhance protection and its turret-front armor was increased. This new armor configuration was then also applied to the M3A1, resulting in the M3A3 which was used only for Lend-Lease purposes. While the designers were thusly creating the M3A3 they decided to also improve its gun mount and move the radio from the hull to the rear of the turret. This new turret was judged superior to that of the M5 and was consequently introduced on M5 production lines, thus creating the M5A1.
Both M5 and M5A1 were used to replace combat losses in the light tank battalions of the 1st Armored Division in Tunisia. By the time of the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, all M3 and M3A1 Lights had been withdrawn from active service in the ETO, making the M5A1 the Army's standard light tank. In the PTO the U.S. did not use the M5A1 in action until Feb. 1944, with the 4th Marine Tank Battalion on Roi-Namur.
In Europe, Allied light tanks had to be given cavalry and infantry fire support roles since their main cannon armament could not compete with heavier enemy armored fighting vehicles. However, the Stuart was still effective in combat in the Pacific Theater, as Japanese tanks were both relatively rare and were lighter in armor than even Allied light tanks. Japanese infantrymen were not well equipped with anti-tank weapons, and as such had to use close assault tactics. In this environment, the Stuart was only moderately more vulnerable than medium tanks.
With the limitations of both the main gun and armor, the Stuart's combat role in Western Europe was severely hampered. Light tank companies were often paired with cavalry reconnaissance units, or else used for guarding or screening, and even used in supply or messengers roles for medium tank units. Five constituted a platoon in both Army and Marine use. The British referred to tanks of the M3-M5A1 series as "Stuarts". most U.S. tank battalions had three companies of M4 Shermans and one company of M3s or M5/M5A1s.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/15/2021 6:17:28 PM   
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US M7 B105 Priest SPA

The requirement for a self-propelled howitzer with mobility equal to that of the tanks it would support was met by modifying the M3 Medium Tank to carry a 105mm howitzer in an open-top non-turreted fighting compartment. It was standardized as the M7 Howitzer Motor Carriage, and 3,490 were built. Another 826 were built based on the M4A3 Medium Tank and designated the M7B1 HMC.
The M7 offered an appreciable mobility to the 105 mm field howitzer. It was the counterpart of German Wespe in the category of armoured Artillery. As the machines of the same type M7 was not a weapon of contact because its open superstructure and its weak shielding made of it an easy prey even for infantrymen. The standard use was to make fire into battery (section of M7) since the back lines to ram the enemy positions as a battery of standard howitzers would do it.
The crew was composed of 7 men: the driver sitting in the front-left corner of the hull, the commander and the 5 gun crewmen installed in the compartment of combat. The front cockpit was occupied by the pilot, the Hydramatic transmission comprising 12 speeds (8-4) and the final command device which transmitted the power to the front sprocket-wheels mounted perpendicular to the transmission and the instruments of control and steering. For his vision the pilot had a rotary episcope on the only oval trap door of access preserved compared to M24. The inclined nose of M24 was preserved just as it is, safe forthe machine-gun assembled on ball which was removed. The compartment of combat entirely occupied all the remainder of the tank covering the engine compartment to the back. Indeed M7 transported 69 projectiles of 105 mm. The armament consisted of an howitzer of 105 mm M4 assembled on M5 mounting assembled in front of the compartment of combat a little shifted on the right and a machine-gun of 12.7 mm installed on a cupola of shooting located at the right side of the principal weapon.
The Americans used M7 on all fronts: North Africa, Italy, Western Europe and the Pacific. The M7 HMC first saw combat with U.S. forces in Tunisia, where as the opportunity arose it replaced the T19 HMC Halftrack in the armored field artillery battalions of the 1st Armored Division. Thereafter it became the standard equipment of all armored field artillery battalions, with six per battery. The HQ company of an armored infantry battalion contained an assault gun platoon of three M7 HMC (instead of M8 HMC). In the PTO, six M7 HMC formed the cannon company of at least some Army infantry regiments that fought in the Philippines and on Okinawa, while the regimental weapons company of a Marine division was authorized a platoon of four M7 in May 1945. The British called the M7 the "Priest" because of the pulpit-like appearance of its .50-cal AAMG mount.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/16/2021 6:55:49 PM   
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US M8 T37LL Greyhound AC

Of all models developped by the Americans during the Second World War, few were used to the combat within the units of reconnaissance of US Army: M8 Greyhound Armored Car, M20 Utility Car and the M3A1 Scout Car. The other models developped were without a future or yielded to the British like T17, T17E1 and T17E2. The M3A1 was a vehicle of reconnaissance on road, M8 was a fast reconnaissance cross-country vehicle whereas M20 was rather a cross-country transport and command vehicle.
In July 1941, specifications for a self-propelled gun with wheels, were emitted by the very new Tank Destroyer. This vehicle was to be fast, to be equipped with 6 driving wheels, to be equipped with a discrete silhouette, to have cross-country capacities and to be armed with the anti-tank gun of 37 mm. Its weight was to be also weak and it was to be convertible in carrier of mortar, transport of ammunition or anti-aircraft vehicle. However, the experiment of the models of the series M3 Stuart in North Africa showed that the anti-tank possibilities of the gun of 37 mm were rather poor. The idea to use this armoured car as anti-tank weapons was thus abandoned but the Tank Destroyer Command as well as the units of reconnaisance of US Cavalry wished being equipped with a such machine for their reconnaissance missions.
It is the model of Ford, T22, which gained the competition between the three companies. A total of 11667 specimens of M8 were produced by Ford Motor Co between March 1943 and April 1945. Although originally designed as a light TD, the M8 Light Armored Car replaced both the M3A1 Scout Car and M2 Halftrack as the primary AFV in mechanized cavalry units. The M8's light weight and 6x6 drive gave it excellent speed and cross-country mobility, making it well-liked by its crews despite being rather thin-skinned and undergunned when confronting serious opposition.
M8 started production in March 1943 and was used for the first time in Italy in September 1943. It replaced quickly the old M3A1 Scout Car in the reconnaissance missions because of its cross-country capacities and its higher fire power. It was incorpored in the units of reconnaissance of the Cavalry. However, its employment in Italy was rather limited because of confined nature of engagements and their hardness, few favourable to a vehicle little armoured and designed for missions in-depth enabling it to use its speed. After the landing in Normandy in June 1944 and to have put the Norman bocage behind them, the Allies laid out of all space necessary to use their M8 in an optimum way. At this time, M8 was the standard vehicle of reconnaissance of the sections of armoured cars. Each section was made up of 3 vehicles. They were used jointly with Jeeps. The armament and the shielding of M8 did not enable it to engage the enemy tanks but the gun of 37 mm proved its utility against the enemy infantry and the light vehicles. From late 1943, each mechanized cavalry recon platoon was authorized one section of three M8, while each TD battalion was authorized 2-6 M8.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/17/2021 5:49:32 PM   
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US M8 T75* Scott SPA

In 1941-42, US Army tank battalions were divided between light or medium battalions. The first were equipped with M3/M5 light tanks and the second of M3/M4 medium tanks. In order to provide a mobile artillery support to the light battalions, one decided to produce a light motorized howitzer. Moreover, there was a request for a self-propelled 75 mm howitzer for the infantry cannon companies.
The howitzer of 75 mm was assembled in a broad turret open to the top and also equipped with a circular for anti-aircraft machine-gun of 12.7 mm. This AFV (sometimes called the "Scott") was often referred to as an assault gun and was used for both direct and indirect close support, was accepted for the production in 1942 as M8 75 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage and was finalized and produced by Cadillac Motor Car Division of General Motors Corp. A total of 1778 specimens were produced between September 1942 and January 1944.
M8 had a crew of 4 men: the driver sitting in the front-left corner of the hull, its assistant sitting in the front-right corner and the commander-loader and the gunner sitting in the turret. The first two men had sat behind the final command device and automatic transmission (Hydramatic) with 5 speeds (4-1). The steering was with controlled differential and was done via the steering levers while slowing down on one of the two tracks. The hull of M8 was nearly identical to that of M5. The glacis was inclined, the upper part was in the shape of reversed trapezoid and was welded whereas that lower was bolted. The glacis of M8 did not comprise machine-gun of hull. The access was done via two trap doors assembled on hinge either on the roof of the superstructure but on the glacis itself to even provide space necessary to the broad circular (1.38 m) of the turret.
The armament consisted of an howitzer of 75 mm M2 assembled on M7 mounting and of a machine-gun of 12.7 mm assembled on a circular in the back-right corner of the turret. The howitzer will full traverse shooting capacity, had a depression of 20° and an elevation of 40°. M8 embarked 46 shells of 75 mm. The commander who also had the function of loader had sat in the right part of the turret whereas the gunner had sat in the left part.
M8 as M5 was equipped with the engine Twin (double) Cadillac Series 42 of 2 X 8 cylinders (V) developing on the whole 296 hp to 3200 rpm. M8 reached the maximum speed of 58 km/h and had an autonomy of 161 km. The elevated rear deck was easily recognizable. The access to the engine was done is via the trap doors of the upper rear plate of lower hull or for a more significant maintenance by the plates of the rear deeck which were then dismounted.
Each divisional mechanized cavalry recon squadron had a troop of eight M8 HMC in four platoons of two each (three platoons if a nondivisional squadron), and the HQ company of armored infantry battalions and Army light and medium tank battalions had an assault gun platoon of three, replacing their old T30 HMC Halftracks. Those M8 in medium tank battalions were replaced by 105mm Shermans as the latter became available.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/18/2021 5:46:50 PM   
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US M10 T76L Wolverine TD

The Americans had an urgent need for specific tank destroyers having the mobility and the protection of an entirely tracked armoured tank. Up to now the role of tank destroyer were played by wheeled or half-tracked vehicles which did not have of the mobility and the protection necessary even of a satisfactory fire power.
In November 1941, one thought to transform into tank destroyer, the medium tank M4A1 equipped with a gasoline engine. But ultimately it was the chassis of the M4A2 equipped with a diesel engine which was selected and a model out of wooden of the new tank destroyer was produced in January 1942. The design of this new model was identical to that of the M4A2 but with a shielding side of 25 mm only and one new open turret (on the top and the back) accomodating an anti-tank gun of 76 mm. This model was baptized T35. During this time, reports of combat coming from the Philippines, mentioned all the advantages of n inclined shielding compared to the only thickness. The Tank Destroyer Board thus required a new design equipped with a superstructure whose less thick inclined walls (and thus lighter) offered an excellent protection all the same.
The M10 Tank Destroyer is based on the chassis of the M4A2 Sherman with diesel engine GM 6046 of 12 cylinders (mounted by couple on line), with liquid cooling, of 13.9 L of displacement, developing 375 to 410 hp to 2100 rpm. It is distinguished from the M10A1 thanks to its grid of ventilation of small size on the rear deck of the superstructure.
Designed to give the Army's Tank Destroyer Command a turreted and fully-tracked AFV to replace the M3 GMC Halftrack, the M10 Gun Motor Carriage used the basic chassis and drive train of the M4A2 Medium Tank; the hull, however, was completely redesigned using thinner but well-sloped armor to decrease weight and thus enhance mobility, and its pentagonal turret was open-topped to increase visibility. Its main armament was a modified 3-in. AA gun which was massive and heavy; consequently two 1800-1b. counterweights had to be attached to the rear of the M10's turret to balance it. Other features unusual for a U.S. "tank" were its lack of power traverse and the use of twin diesel engines. 4,993 were built.
The M10 GMC equipped the 899th and 776th TD Battalions (Heavy SP) in Tunisia, with four per platoon; after that campaign it became the standard AFV of all Tank Destroyer Battalions (SP) in the ETO until the latter half of 1944 when the M18 and M36 GMC began to replace it. In the PTO only three M10-equipped TD Battalions (or elements thereof) saw action: the 632nd, 640th, and 819th. A few were also used on Kwajalein by the 767th Tank Battalion. From late 1943 through 1945 a U.S. TD platoon (SP) consisted of four TD, two M20 (or M3A1) Scout Cars, and one Jeep.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/19/2021 6:03:28 PM   
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US M15A1 T37L AA ht

US Army worked on an anti-aircraft halftrack vehicle armed with the gun of 37 mm. The project was called T28 and was based on M2 Halftrack Car. The gun of 37 constituted its principal armament but was twinned with two .50cal machine-guns (12.7 mm) mounted on each side. Both MGs were used only for the localization of the targets (tracer ammunition), their destruction returned to the gun of 37 mm. In June 1942, US Armored Force required a new anti-aircraft vehicle intended to ensure the protection of the armoured columns during the invasion of North Africa envisaged in November 1942. The T28 project was thus began again, but the chassis now used is that of M3 Personal Carrier. This new vehicle was called T28E1 Combination Gun Motor Carriage and 80 specimens were manufactured by Autocar and envoyed in North Africa. The armament of the T28E1 was consisted of the gun of 37 mm M1A1 automatic twinned with two .50cal machine-guns (12.7mm) assembled to the top. These weapons were installed to the back of M3 in the place of the compartment of troop. They could swivel on 360° and had an elevation of 85° and a depression of 5°. No shield for the protection of the gunners was assembled.
The first 80 were designated T28E1 and sent to Tunisia where they were highly successful in the AA role. Their crews found that they could lure an enemy aircraft to its destruction by opening fire at long range with just the .50-cals; the enemy pilot would note the trajectory of the tracers and assume he could fly closer at no risk—but if he did the 37mm gun would then open fire with an increased chance of a hit. The T28E1 was standardized in 1943 as the M15 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage, and at this time the armor plates around the gun mount were added. The main production model was the M15A1, which differed from the M15 only in how the MA and CMG were mounted.
The T28E1 behaved extremely well in North Africa and US Army decided to accept the machine for the mass production at the beginning of 1943 under the designation of M15 Combination Gun Motor Carriage. Armament was installed in a turret equipped with shields. The .50cal machine-guns with water cooling were replaced by models with air cooling. The storage capacity of ammunition was also increased. These change increased the weight of the vehicle and decreased its mobility. In order to correct this defect a new mounting the M3A1 replaced M42. On the M3A1, the machine-guns were installed under the gun and not on the top. The shield and the equipment of aiming were also modified. The shield was more roomy and less heavy. The improved model was called M15A1 Combination Motor Carriage. Autocar produced in 1943 680 M15s and during 1943-1944 1652 M15A1s.
Those used in Tunisia were assigned to TD battalions (Heavy SP), with six vehicles per battery. Later in 1943 they were removed from TD battalions and placed in various types of AAA Automatic Weapons battalions, which were usually either attached to divisions or directly controlled at Army level. At the same time the size of an AA halftrack battery was reduced to four such vehicles.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/20/2021 6:22:26 PM   
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US M16 T4x12.7 AA ht

US Army wished increase the fire power of its anti-aircraft vehicles. The first prototype, was T61 based on M2 and equipped with a Maxson turret modified accomodating 4 .50cal machine-guns 50cal called M45. The M45 turret was accepted with enthusiasm and was also assembled on M3 and M5 Personnel Carriers. M3 equipped with M45 was called M16 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage.
The M16 was an improvement on the twin .50 caliber M2 Browning heavy machine gun equipped M13 MGMC and M14 MGMC (built on an M3 and M5 half-track chassis respectively and mounted coaxially on an electrically-powered Maxson turret). It was based on an earlier model of the M13 (the T1E2), but the M33 Maxson mount was replaced with the M45 Quadmount and the M2 half-track chassis was replaced by the M3 chassis. With a maximum rate of fire of 2,200 rounds per minute and a traverse rate of 60 ° per second it proved to be very deadly against low-flying aircraft, and was also a devastating weapon when used for ground support; hence its nickname of "meat chopper".
The chassis was derived from the T1E2 chassis, an earlier version of the M13. Based on an M3 half-track chassis, it replaced the M13 MGMC half-track after early 1944. As aircraft became more advanced, the usefulness of the M16 was reduced. In the Korean War, it was relegated primarily to the ground-support role, being put out of service in the U.S. Army in 1954.
It was 6.5 m long (with a wheelbase of 3.44 m), 2.16 m wide, and 2.34 m high and weighed 9.9 short tons. It had suspension consisting of vertical volute spring suspension for the tracks and leaf springs for the wheels.
It was powered by a 128-horsepower (95 kW) White 160AX 6,300 cc 6-cylinder gasoline engine. It had a compression ratio of 6.3:1 and a 230 l fuel tank. It could reach a top speed of 67.1 km/h and a range of 282 km and a power to weight ratio of 15.8 horsepower per tonne. It had a main armament of four 0.5 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in a M45 Quadmount and 12 millimeters of armor on the front and the sides.
The M16 was produced to 2700 were produced by White Motor Company from May 1943 to March 1944, with 568 M13 MGMCs and 109 T10E1 half-tracks being converted into M16s as well.
The M16 MGMC was used in AAA Automatic Weapons battalions in the same manner as the M15A1 MGMC, with the AA halftracks in these battalions ideally having a 50/50 mix of the two types.
The M16 MGMC entered service in early 1944, with the M13 taken out of action soon after. In addition to its anti-aircraft role, the M16 was used in an infantry support role, frequently accompanied by the M15 half-track.
The M16 saw service with U.S. forces in the Italian Campaign, and Operation Overlord, the Battle of Arracourt, and the Ardennes Offensive in northern Europe.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/21/2021 7:17:54 PM   
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US M18 T76L Hellcat TD

During the first part of the Second World War, the Americans wished to develop a light and fast hunter of tank. The M18 (nicknamed the "Hellcat") was a completely new TD design, and was intended to be as light and fast as possible. Thus it had only half-inch armor front, sides, and rear (with a 1-in. thick gunshield), and instead of using the heavy gun of the M10 it used the lighter 76mm weapon of the Sherman. The M18's low weight gave it a high degree of mobility which, it was believed, would compensate for its thin armor. Indeed, it proved to be the fastest tracked vehicle of WW2, and was well-liked by its crews since its mobility allowed rapid changes of position during an engagement. Overall the M18 came closest to the Tank Destroyer Board's original concept of the true TD.
In a situation of direct fire support , the American tank destroyers were particularly vulnerable because of their opened turret, leaving the crew without protection against the enemy shootings of artillery, mortars and the snippers. The standard battle tanks were much better adapted to the close combats, and nothing better than a battle tank to destroy another battle tank. The front shock absorber had to be doubled to compensate the weight of the tank. The lifespan of the tracks was hardly famous and works were carried out to improve it. After improvement of the design, the production began immediately at General Motors Buick Division in July 1943. In March 1944, T70 was renamed 76 mm Gun Motor Carriage M18. The 18 was also called Hellcat. From July 1943 to October 1944, 2507 specimens were produced under the designation of 76 mm Gin Motor Carriage M18 (name obtained in March 1944).
The M18 was the intended replacement for the M10 GMC and could have been in combat by the end of 1943, but its deployment was withheld because commanders in the ETO preferred to wait for the more-heavily-armed M36 GMC which was itself nearing the production phase in late 1943. No M18-equipped TD battalions served in Italy, but some M18 were used there in 1945 by the 752nd Tank Battalion. In France, especially in Normandy, the Tank Destroyers met similar conditions and could only seldom play their own role. The tank destroyer is a weapon for the distance combat and the Norman bocages offered only seldom such confrontations. However with their armament higher than the gun of 75 mm of Sherman (Shermans(76) were still very rare), they were the only ones able to counter Panthers and Tigers I & II (especially M36 with its 90 mm). In December 1944 the tanks destroyers make excellent ambush and defensives weapons and at the time of this battle they could finally play the role for which they had been conceived by pushing back the attacks of the panzers.
The tanks destroyers were also used in the Pacific but to a lesser extent. In the PTO only one M18 TD battalion saw combat; this was the 637th, which fought on Luzon. M10s were used for the first time on the island of Kwajalein in February 1944 to support the 7th division of infantry. M10 on this quite particular theatre offered a support direct fire to the units of infantry. The tank destroyers were very much used at the time of the reconquest of the Philippines to which three battalions took share. At the time of this battle, M18 Hellcat made its appearance in the Pacific.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/22/2021 6:14:27 PM   
asl3d


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US M20 Bo HMG AC

Ford Motor Co developed in April 1943 a version without turret of this famous US vehicle of the Second World War, known officially as the Armored Utility Car M20. This vehicle was derived from the M8 Armored Car by replacing the turret with a ring-mounted .50-cal MG and rearranging the interior to create a cargo/passenger compartment. The requirement for such a vehicle came from the Tank Destroyer Force who wished to replace their obsolete M3A1 Scout Cars; thus most M20 were used in TD battalions for command, scouting, and cargo-carrying purposes. A total of 3791 specimens were produced in 1943-1944 by Ford Motor Co.
M20 was rigorously identical to M8, except that the turret was removed to the profit of a superstructure slightly armoured and opened to the top protecting an entirely refitted central compartment. This compartment was equipped in front of a foldable table for the consultation of operation maps, foldable benches on the two sides and a seat for the machine gunner to the back. M20 in was equipped more with two radios SCR-508 or SCR-694. The crew was consisted of the driver and his assistant plus 4 passengers. The armament of M20 consisted of a .50cal machine-gun (12.7 mm) mounted on a circular mounting M49 to the back of the compartment of combat and a bazooka of 60 mm M9A1 and M1 rifles. A stock of 1000 rounds of 12.7 mm was embarked like 10 rockets for the bazooka.
M20 was a very handy and appreciated transport and command vehicle, which was used until the end of the conflict. As for M8 from which it was derived, M20 was a difficult target because its high speed enabling it to put itself out of reach. At high speed, these two vehicles was in any event quasi impossible to target for an anti-tank weapon. Because of its function of vehicle of reconnaissance, the M20 announced the arrival of the liberty forces in the cities and the villages of France and Western Europe. Towards the end 1944, the front was stabilized and the possibilities of carrying out reconnaissance missions were fewer, the allied advance being very slowed down and stopped by places. M20 and the other allied armoured cars were used at this time as vehicles of support and protection of the sides of allied divisions.
In 1944-45 each TD platoon (SP), in addition to four Gun Motor Carriages and a Jeep, also contained two M20 Scout Cars that conducted local reconnaissance for the platoon and afforded it extra protection against close assaults by enemy infantry.
At the time of the battle of the Ardennes, the allied units of reconnaissance were very hustled by the pressure of Panzers which they could not be opposed. It were often obliged to beat retirement sometimes by giving up their material and vehicles as in Poteau (14th Cavalry Group). Finally the German offensive in the Ardennes was contained and pushed back and the walk of Allies towards the victory could begin again at the beginning of 1945 and the units reconnaissance to take again their task by locating the increasingly rare enemy armoured tanks and infantrymen concentrations. They met less and less in fact resistance, Wehrmacht being in rout and in complete deliquescence. Very often these units were enough to capture whole cities without the use of tanks or troops of infantry.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 1/23/2021 6:52:51 PM   
asl3d


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US M24 T75 Chaffee LT

The M24 was the replacement for the M5A1, also known as the "Chaffee" (for Gen. Adna Chaffee, the "Father of the U.S. Armored Force"). The true work on the successor of Stuart began in April 1943. The new model of light tank was absolutely to remain within the weight limit of 18 tons. T24 had the same engines (twin) Cadillac and the same Hydramatic transmission as the last M5 Stuart as well as a Cletrac steering. The suspension of "torsion bars" type, was inspired by that of M18 Hellcat, with 5 independent double road wheels on each side. It used a modified M18 GMC chassis, while having a completely new turret that mounted a lightweight 75mm aircraft gun adapted from the B-25H Mitchell bomber.
The hull of M24 was divided into two parts, the engine compartment to the back and the compartment of combat to the front. The compartment of combat accomodated two crewmen, the driver sitting in the front-left corner and the machine gunner of hull in the front-right corner. The two men were separated by the Hydramatic (8 forward speeds and 4 reverse speeds) transmission. A driveshaft traversing the length of the floor of the compartment of combat made the junction between the gear box and the engine. The final command mounted perpendicularly with the transmission (in front of the drivers) transmitted the power of the engine to the two front sprocket-wheels. The pilot directed his tank via two steering levers while slowing down on one of the two tracks. The whole was protected by a nose made up of two inclined plates. The higher plate (glacis) in the diamond shape accomodated a trap door (bolted) of maintenance, the equipment of lighting and the machine-gun of hull (ball mount) .30cal (7.62 mm). The lower plate of the nose of trapezoidal form accomodated two loops of towing and two projections created by the drums of the brakes. The access to the compartment of combat was possible via the two trap doors located on the front deck, each one equipped with rotary episcope. The front deck still accomodated the air intake of a ventilator of hull (between the two trap doors). The hull was entirely located between the two trains of bearing. Those were surmounted by two mudguards where various equipment was stored (outside the tank).
T24 was armed with the gun of 75 mm M6 in a turret in the shape of flat stone with a back projection. To remain within the weight limit fixed, the shielding were hardly thick: 25 mm maximum for the hull and 38 mm maximum for the turret. Before even the tests, enthusiastic Ordnance Department, immediately ordered 1000 specimens of them. T24 was standardized in July 1944 under the name of M24. The first specimen was delivered at the end of 1944. The production began in April 1944 on the assembly lines of Cadillac Motor Car Division. M24 production totalled 4,195 in the period 4/44-6/45. At least two (used by the 740th Tank Battalion) saw action during the Battle of the Bulge. By VE Day all Light Tank companies in the 7th Armored Division, and all Light Tank troops in mechanized cavalry squadrons in NW Europe, had been completely re-equipped with the M24.




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