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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 7/26/2020 6:26:36 PM   
asl3d


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Type 1 Chi-He

Part II


Type 1 was slightly larger than the Type 97 and was equipped with a thicker frontal shielding,assembled by weldings and either by rivets. It was propelled by a diesel engine Mitsubishi Type 100 developing 240 hp in order to compensate the increase in the shielding and thus in the weight. Type 1 was armed with a gun of 47 mm Type 1 with high velocity, equipped of a barrel of 2.25 m and an initial muzzle velocity of 810 m/s. This swiftness got for Type 1 a capacity of penetration of shielding of 55 mm to more than 100 m and of 30 mm to more than 1000 m, which represented more of the double of the performances of the short gun of the Type 97 Chi-ha. In spite of these improvements, Type 1 of 47 mm was always ineffective against the Allied shieldings in 1941.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 7/27/2020 6:41:25 PM   
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Type 1 Chi-He

Part III


The gun took place in a triplace turret lately conceived which provided space for the integration of a loader. Let us note that this turret also equipped the Type 97 Shinhoto (new turret) Chi-ha and the Type 3 Ka-Chi Amphibian.
Although higher than the Type 97 Chi-ha and also than the Type 97 Shinhoto Chi-ha, Type 1 Chi-He remained well in low of the capacities of protection and destruction of the standard American medium tank, M4 Sherman.
An anti-aircraft version, Type 1 Ta-Ha, equipped with a gun of 37 mm anti-aircraft in the place of the gun of 47 mm was designed but never started production.





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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 7/28/2020 6:26:47 PM   
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Type 2 Ho-I

Part I


The infantry support tank Type 2 Ho-I was developed on the basis of Type 1 Chi-He. In fact it was more one self-propelled gun for the close combat that a traditional battle tank. It was to also to assist the Type 97 Chi-ha vis-a-vis the allied armored tanks. After a first attempt to adapt the 75 mm Type 41 of mountain on the chassis of the Type 97 Chi-Ha. However in April 1941, the choice was related to the 75 mm Type 99 for tanks. When the Japanese started to meet on the battle fields of the Pacific and Asia as from 1942, the American tanks M4 Sherman and M3 Stuart, they had anything comparable to oppose to them. It was thus decided to widen the field of actions of Ho-I to the anti-tank missions by providing piercing projectiles to the 75 mm Type 99.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 7/29/2020 6:06:29 PM   
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Type 2 Ho-I

Part II


In addition to the 75 mm Type 99 in turret, Ho-Hi was also armed with a machine-gun of 7.7 mm Type 97 on the hull. The turret was entirely swivelling what allowed to use of Type 2 Ho-I as traditional battle tank also. With if not, the chassis was that designed for Type 1 Chi-He. Because of problems of delivery of material (because of the bombardments), the production of Ho-I was limited to 30 specimens and at the end of 1944, the program was cancelled. All Ho-Is were retained in archipelago to defend the nation against a future American invasion. They were never used into the combat.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 7/30/2020 5:48:45 PM   
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Type 3 Chi-Nu

Part I



The medium tank Type 3 Chi-Nu was especially designed to thwart M4 Sherman American. The Technical Office worked already on another medium tank, the Type 4 Chi-To with a same aim but the delays and the problems in the development required the development of a simpler solution and more rapid to be realized. The development of Chi-Nu started in May 1943 and was finalized in October of the same year. The little interest of Japanese staffs for the tanks delayed the setting in production until in 1944. Moreover American bombardments caused great shortages on equipment and materials supply.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 7/31/2020 7:57:37 PM   
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Type 3 Chi-Nu

Part II


The Chi-Nu was produced at 166 specimens in 1944-1945. The Chi-Nu one was the last tank brought into service by the Japanese army. The Chi-Nu used the same hull that Chi-He but was equipped with a new three-seater turret accomodating the gun of 75 mm Type 3 L/38.4 (2.88 m long barrel). This gun had an initial muzzle velocity of 680 m/s and a capacity of penetration of 90 mm to more than 100 m and of 65 m to more than 1000 m. This gun was developed starting from the gun of 75 mm Type 90 based on the French mountain gun of 75 mm Schneider 1919. Type 3 remained in Japanese archipelago to push back American invasion projected in 1945. They were versed in 6 regiments (the 3rd and 4th armored division) on Kyushu and Honshu. Japan capitulated before American terrestrial invasion and thus, the Type 3 Chi-Nu was never used into the combat.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/1/2020 8:47:09 PM   
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Type 4 Chi-To

Part I


The development of the medium tank Type 4 Chi-To began in 1942, when it was obvious that the Type 97 Chi-ha was not size to face to American M4 Sherman. As for the majority of the projects of tanks that of Type 4 suffered from the lack of interest of Japanese staff and the development did not start really before the beginning of 1944. For this project the new German tanks as the Panther were studied and German consultants were brought to Japan to take part in the project. The first prototype was finalized in 1944, at one time or the shortages and the delays were legions in the Japanese industry because of the American bombardments. However the plans of production envisaged a rate of 25 tanks per month in two establishments by Mitsubishi. In 1945, only 6 chassis could be supplemented.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/2/2020 6:24:52 PM   
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Type 4 Chi-To

Part II

Chi-To weighed approximately 30 tons, which was enormous for a Japanese tank, mainly because of the increase to 75 mm of the frontal shielding. Broader and more length that the chassis of the Type 97, that of Type 4 accomodated one 7th wheel placed in 5th position. Type 4 was the Japanese version of the German Panther. Principal armament was consisted of the gun of 75 mm Type 4 developed starting from the 75 mm Type 88 anti-aircraft (itself a copy of a Vickers AA gun of the Twenties). The gun was mounted in a broad hexagonal turret equipped with a coaxial machine-gun. Another machine-gun was installed on the hull. A third machine-gun could be installed on the roof of the turret for the anti-aircraft defence. Only 2 tanks could be supplemented before the end of the war and both remained in the country to counter the invasion of Japan by the Americans. The Japanese decision makers plugged by their last illusions imagined the creation of broad armored divisions made up of Type 4 Chi-To which would drive back the Americans to the sea. The invasion was not necessary and none of the two finalized tanks fired the least shell.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/3/2020 6:33:23 PM   
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Type 5 Chi-Ri

Part I


The medium tank Type 5 Chi-Ri was completed that a only one specimen in May 1945. The project was finally abandoned with the profit of the Type 4 Chi-To smaller and easier to produce. As for this last the development of Type 5 was very slow because of the shortages in Japanese industry ravaged by the American bombardments. The Chi-Ri was in fact a lengthened version of Chi-To with tilted shielding assembled by weldings and included an eighth road-wheel. It was to be at the origin propelled by a diesel engine. But like any rather powerful diesel engine was still available, it was replaced by a gasoline aircraft engine, BMW of 550 hp. The Chi-Ri was equipped with the same gun of 75 mm Type 4 as Chi-To for the prototype.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/4/2020 8:01:08 PM   
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Type 5 Chi-Ri

Part II


The models of production were to receive the 88 mm Type 99 anti-aircraft. A gun of 37 mm Type 1 was installed with a coaxial machine-gun of 7.7 mm on the hull. Another machine-gun of 7.7 mm was installed on the left side of the turret. Possibility also to mount an anti-aircraft machine-gun on the roof of the turret. This tank was designed to counter the invasion of Japanese archipelago by the Americans, within great armored divisions. The end of the war will put a term at the project without the Chi-Ri not being able to fire only one shell. With the Type 4 Chi-To, the type 5 Chi-Ri could have constituted a much better adversary for M4 Sherman. An anti-tank version, the Type 97 Ho-Ri, was also considered, equipped with a gun of 105 mm in a broad frontal or rear superstructure according to the model. The auxiliary gun of 37 mm was preserved.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/5/2020 7:21:09 PM   
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Type 91 Heavy Tank

Part I


The heavy tank Type 91 is a part of a program of multi-turreted heavy tanks developed in Japan in inter-war period. Type 91 was developed starting from the Tank N°1 (Dai-chi Osaka Sensha) of 1927. The principal turret accomodated a gun of 70 mm L/18.2 and a machine-gun of 6.5 mm whereas the two secondary turrets (front and back) accomodated each one a machine-gun of 6.5 mm. The suspension of Type 91 included 17 to 18 road-wheels on each side assembled by pars and supported by a system of suspension on two-stage of leaf spring. Type 91 was finalized in 1932 although work continued until 1933.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/6/2020 7:54:20 PM   
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Type 95 Heavy Tank

Part I


The heavy tank Type 95 is the final result of the program of multi-turreted heavy tanks developed in Japan in inter-war period. None of these monsters however never started production. Type 95 was developed starting from Type 91 but was equipped with a more important shielding and another armament. Indeed if Type 91 were equipped with a gun of 70 mm and 3 machine-guns, Type 95 was equipped in main turret with a gun of 70 mm and a machine-gun of 6.5 mm, in front turret with a gun of 37 mm and in rear turret with a machine-gun of 7.65 mm.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/8/2020 8:27:59 PM   
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Type 95 Heavy Tank

Part II


Type 95 had a suspension equipped with 9 road-wheels (mounted on a system of suspension with leaf springs) on each side whereas Type 91 had some 17-18. The tank was propelled by an engine of 290 hp that allowed only one speed of 23 km/h on road. Only 4 Type 95s maximum were completed in 1934.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/9/2020 6:43:32 PM   
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O-I Super Heavy Tank (Type 100)

In 1939, the Japanese army began the study of a program of experimental super-heavy tanks, named O-I. This program takes the concept of multi-turreted tanks very popular in the thirties. Type 100 OI, weighing about 100 tonnes, was equipped with a main turret armed with a 105 mm (104.9 mm real caliber) gun, derived from the Type 92 model, having an initial velocity of 900 m/s. This gun fired projectiles with separate loads (16 kg shell and 30 kg cartridge), capable to pierce 150 mm of armor at 1000 m. Two secondary turrets, in charge of the close defense, were placed in front of the main turret, both armed with a 37 mm Type 1 gun. The armament was completed by three 7.7 mm Type 97 machine guns (two at the front and one at the back of the turret). The ammo carry includes 60 rounds for the 105 mm gun, 100 rounds for the two 37 mm rounds and 7470 rounds for the machine guns. With a 200mm frontal armor, the Type 100 shielding would have brought about defeating the vast majority of enemy anti-tank guns. To move the 100 tons of the monster, the assembly of two gasoline engines of 12 cylinders each, developing both 550 hp at 1500 rpm, was chosen. However, they would have a hard time to provide to the tank notable performances and it could hope to reach only 25 km/h on the road or flat ground. According to one of the engineers of the program, two prototypes (including a Type 120) could be assembled before the end of the war, but these words remain to be taken in the conditional.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/10/2020 6:42:47 PM   
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O-I Super Heavy Tank (Type 120)

Type 120 O-I is derived from Type 100 O-I. The weight was now around 120 tons. On the Type 120, the layout of the secondary turrets is changed. Indeed, one of them is placed in the back of the tank just behind the main turret. The two secondary turrets (intended for an anti-tank role) armed with a 37 mm gun are placed in the same axis as the main turret. The latter is still armed with a 105 mm (Type 5) gun, multi-role (anti-tank, fire support, anti fortifications ...), ... but the machine gun is now placed on the left flank of the turret. Two 7.7 mm Type 97 coaxial machine guns complete the armament of the secondary turrets and a last machine gun is mounted at the front of the hull. The Type 120 had the same engines as the Type 100 and the two 12 cylinders engines, developing each 550 hp to 1500 rpm would have logically known even more difficult to move such a monster because of the overweight of about 20 tons. The consumption was never really estimated but the weight of the monster would have greatly influenced. The placement of two auxiliary tanks at the back would not have been luxury. As with the Type 100, the Type 120 armor (maximum 200 mm) would have given it a good chance of survival on the battlefield. The use of a large number of weapons, logically required a large crew. The one of the two models was 11 men! The effective coordination of such a crew was a pious wish, a specific evil of all multi-turreted tanks, which will lead to their abandonment by the different armies. It is true that few projects were really completed and used in combat (the most famous was the Soviet T-35, which had a rather short career on the Russian front!). It is highly unlikely that Type 120 would ever go beyond drawing boards ... even though an engineer from the O-I program claimed that a prototype could be assembled and sent in Manchuria in 1944 in anticipation of a Russian invasion!?!




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/11/2020 5:49:50 PM   
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Type 1 Ho-Ni I

When the Japanese at the beginning of the second world war met the American medium tanks M4 Sherman, they had not in their rows no equivalent tank to oppose to them. The standard medium tank Type 97 Chi-Ha was completely obsolete compared to the American design and its powerful gun of 75 mm. The need of a tank destroyer, strongly armed able to pierce the shielding of the American tanks. The Japanese quite naturally used, in 1942, the chassis of the medium tank Type 97 to save time. The turret was quite simply replaced by an open casemate (frontal and side shielding only, thick of 50 mm) accomodating a field gun Type 90 of 75 mm. The gun had a horizontal field of fire limited to 10° on each side and a vertical field of fire limited to -5° in depression and +25° in elevation. Carrying in ammunition was of 54 projectiles. This provision did not predispose the vehicle to the close combat because of the vulnerability of the gun crew. New tank destroyer was of this fact conceived for the combat at long distance (until to 12000 m). Type 1 Ho-No I intended for armored divisions, did not have secondary armament and was extremely similar to the German first panzerägers. Let us note that Ho-Ni I could be used at the same time as and mobile armored artillery for the indirect fire. The shielding of the hull was improved by additional plates of 16 mm. The production began in 1942 and finished in November 1943 on a total of only 124 specimens. Type 1 Ho-No I was used for the first time at the combat during the battle of Luzon in Philippines in 1944 with an impact limited because available in small quantity. Indeed the majority of the specimens had remained in Japan to belong to the defense system against American invasion. The latter will never be used in combat.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/12/2020 6:27:08 PM   
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Type 1 Ho-Ni II

Japanese armored divisions in addition of a tank destroyer also needed of mobile armored artillery. It was logically decided d' to install an howitzer in the place of the gun on lately conceived Type 1 Ho-Ni I. The new self-propelled gun developed in 1942 was baptized Type 1 Ho-Nor II. The Type 1 Ho-Ni II was nearly identical to Ho-Ni I safe for the gun of 75 mm, replaced here by a howitzer of 105 mm Type 91, installed in the same half-open casemate that Ho-Ni I. This casemate made being gun crew very vulnerable to the attacks of enemy infantry and various projections. The production of Ho-Ni II began in 1943, but only 54 specimens could be supplemented before the end of the war, surely because of the shortages caused by the bombardments and the priority given to the navy and aviation. Ho-Ni II was used in combat in Burma and Philippines jointly with traditional artillery.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/13/2020 8:07:36 PM   
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Type 1 Ho-Ni III

The largest defect of Type 1 Ho-Ni I and the Type 1 Ho-Ni II was their half-open casemate which made vulnerable the gun crew and made the self-propelled gun unsuitable to the close combat that was to sometimes undergo. The Japanese solved the problem on the Type 3 Ho-Ni III by equipping the vehicle of an entirely armored and rotary casemate. The gun of 75 mm Type 90 of Ho-No I was replaced by a gun of 75 mm Type 3 (as on the medium tank Type 3 Chi-Nu). On this design not defensive secondary armament available, which could make the tank vulnerable to the attacks of enemy infantry. If an order were well placed at the beginning of 1944, the bombardments and the priority givent to the navy and aviation caused important delays and only 31 to 41 specimens of this tank destroyer could be supplemented before the end of the war in 1945. As much of the new Japanese tanks, Ho-Ni III was mainly assigned to the units stationed in Japan to counter a future American invasion. It was undoubtedly never used in combat.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/14/2020 6:43:54 PM   
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Type 4 Ho-Ro Self-Propelled Gun

The self-propelled gun Type 4 Ho-Ro was largely inspired by the series of German assault howitzers Grille, armed with howitzer of 15 cm sIG 33. The technical office of Japanese army decided to develop a similar vehicle to support its infantry. The design and the production of the new vehicle based on the chassis of the medium tank Type 97 Chi-Ha, were entrusted to the Mitsubishi firm. Approximately 25 specimens were produced. The howitzer of 15 cm Type 38 (based on a design of Krupp) was installed on the modified chassis of the Type 97 Ci-ha and was protected that by a broad shield (25 mm of thickness) top and back opened. This veteran of 1905 had been withdrawn from the service and had become obsolete in 1942. Its maximum range was of 6000 m. Because of provision of the shield, crew was vulnerable what made of this self-propelled gun a vehicle inapt for the close combat. It was as much more inapt for this kind of combat than its howitzer had a field of fire in azimuth limited to 3 degrees on each side, in more of a weak rate of fire because of the loading of the breech. Type 4 Ho-Ro was versed in batteries of 4 vehicles. The self-propelled guns Ho-Ro were used in combat in the sector of the Japanese 14th army during the battle of Philippines during the last months of the war. The remaining vehicles were deployed in Okinawa and some islands during the battle of Okinawa. They were largely submerged by American artillery.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/15/2020 8:36:43 PM   
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Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha I

The heavy armored car Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha (armored car) is in fact a light tank (Kei Sensha) developped for the Cavalry of the Japanese imperial army by the firm Ishikawajima Jidosha Seisakusho, but also for the reconnaissance and the support of infantry. After the 1st World war, many European countries tried to mechanize their Cavalry. The Japanese Cavalry made in the same way initially with wheeled armored cars, that without success. These vehicles were not adapted to the bad condition of the roads of Manchouria and to a very hard winter climate. Let us note that the Japanese Cavalry was the only cavalry of the world (with the British) with still using in concert the horses and the armored cars. From the Twenties, the School of Cavalry of the prefecture of Chiba tested a whole series of light tanks and tankettes. In 1929 it was decided to develop a domestic realization based mainly on British Carden-Loyd. This light tank was to be able to operate where the armored cars could not evolve. However the Japanese initially realized an amphibious hybrid vehicle able to evolve on its wheels or on tracks and able to leave in the direction opposed without swivelling at the same time in water and on ground. Nevertheless, this vehicle had rather poor performances and the concept of amphibious hybrid vehicle was given up, to the profit d' a terrestrial tracked vehicle. The production of the new light tank began in 1932 but this one known many technical misadventures and only 167 specimens could be produced between 1932 and 1936. After some modifications of the running-gear, Type 92 showed being well adapted to the bad grounds and the bad condition of the roads of Manchouria and China. Type 92 could reach the speed of 40 km/h on a road in good state.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/16/2020 7:51:44 PM   
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Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha II

Type 92 was divided into three compartments. The back compartment accomodated the engine gasoline of 45 hp. The central compartment accomodated the compartment of combat with the driver and the machine gunner of hull and the single-seat turret with the commander-machine gunner. The front compartment accomodated the transmission and final commands. The first tanks were built with a suspension made of 6 road-wheels attached to the chassis by semi-elliptic springs. This suspension was hardly a success and it was replaced by a suspension made of 2 bogies and 4 road-wheels on each side. The suspension of the bogies employed a system of belt-crank and helical-coil springs also used on Japanese tankettes. The light tank Type 92 was assembled by weldings and by rivets and its shielding varied between 6 and 12 mm. A quite light shielding essential to maintain the tank in the category of the 3 tons. Unfortunately it hardly offered protection to the crew even vis-a-vis the light weapons of Chinese infantry. The main armament was constitued of a machine-gun of 13.2 mm Type 92 (Japanese version of French Hotchkiss) assembled in casemate with limited traverse. The very first models were equipped of a machine-gun of 6.5 mm. The last models were equipped with a gun of 20 mm. The small single-seat turret accomodated a standard machine-gun of 6.5 mm Type 91 at the origin, then one 7.7 mm Type 92 thereafter. This tank had a quite relative value (see non-existent) like battle tank comparable with that of German Panzer I. It will be finally replaced by the light tank Type 95 Ha-Go and the tankette Type 97 Té-Ké.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/17/2020 6:17:08 PM   
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Type 94 TK Light Armored Car (Tankette) I

Like many countries in Europe, Japanese imperial army undertaken during inter-war period to mechanize itself. Initially it tested a whole series of wheeled armored cars but this kind of vehicle was not adapted to the conditions of combat in Manchukuo because of the poor state of the roads and the extreme climate of this area. Japanese army had also tested many European light tanks like the tankette Vickers-Carden-Loyd Mk.VI. In 1929, it was decided to develop a domestic vehicle largely inspired of the British tankette. The development of this vehicle initially gave rise to the Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha, which was delivered to the Japanese cavalry. However infantry wanted it also a similar vehicle to be used as vehicle of reconniassance, scout and connection between divisions and being able to operate in flying companies in order to give an occasional fire support to the operations of infantry. The development of this small tank was entrusted to Tokyo Gas and Electric Industry (renamed later Hino Motors) in 1933. A prototype was completed in 1934. This small tracked vehicle was equipped of a turret armed with a single machine-gun and could tractor draw a trailer of ammunition. It was baptized Tokushu Keninsha or TK (Special Tractor). After series of tests in Manchukuo and in Japan, the new vehicle was officially baptized Type 94 TK and entered in service in 1935.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/18/2020 6:00:12 PM   
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Type 94 TK Light Armored Car (Tankette) II

Type 94 was assembled by riveting and welding and its very light shielding could not offer to the crew that a relative protection even against the small caliber weapons. The crew was composed of two men: the commander in the rear turret and the driver sitting in front of the hull, to the right of the engine. This last, Mitsubishi Type 94 gasoline with 4 cylinders developed 35 hp and allowed the tank to reach 40 km/h on road. Interior of the compartment of combat was covered with sheets of asbestos intended to absorb heat. The hull rear hatch allowed to reach the compartment of storage. The first vehicles were armed with a single machine-gun of 6.5 mm Type 91, replaced later by a machine-gun of 7.7 mm Type 92 supplied with 1980 rounds. The turret was not powered and its handling was a task moreover to put on the back of the commander already monopolized by the loading and the firing of the machine-gun in addition to its missions of observer and of command.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/19/2020 6:04:15 PM   
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Type 94 TK Light Armored Car (Tankette) III

The suspension consisted of each side in two bogies with two double rubber road-wheels. These bogies were suspended by bell-cranks which converted a vertical movement into horizontal movement absorptive by horizontally assembled compressors. The sprocket-wheels were placed in front and idlers to the back. There was on each side two return rollers. Type 94 tended to lose its tracks at high speed. On the last models, idlers of largeer diameter in contact with the ground will be installed, without really to solve this problem. On these last models the chassis was lengthened and the suspension improved, however. Type 94 was used as a basis for a series of conversion as the vehicle of disinfection Type 94, the Gas Scattering Vehicle Type 94 or the layer of cable Type 97. Also let us note the experimental diesel engine vehicle equipped with turret armed with a gun of 37 mm. This vehicle will give rise to the Type 97 Te-Ke.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/20/2020 6:21:05 PM   
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Type 94 TK Light Armored Car (Tankette) IV

Initially conceived like tractor of ammunition, the Type 94 TK was largely used like reconnaissance vehicle and infantry support vehicle during the second Sino-Japanese war and the second world war. As all the Japanese light tanks it was effective in China against Chinese nationalist revolutionary army which did not have many anti-tank weapons and armored vehicles. However its shielding could be bored by the shooting of a standard individual weapon. Vis-a-vis the American and British tanks this vehicle had truly no chance of survival and even less victory. Type 94 was a vehicle not expensive to produce and it was thus produced in great number for a Japanese tank: 823 specimens (1935-1937). At the beginning of the second world war a big number of these small tanks were in service in Japanese infantry divisions operating in the Pacific. It took part in the battles of Burma, Dutch Eastern Indies, Philippines and the southern Pacific Islands. This vehicle was also used by the Japanese navy within its terrestrial forces. Type 94 was still in service in 1945, well that being generally replaced by the Type 97 Te-Ke.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/21/2020 8:00:27 PM   
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Type 97 Te-Ke Light Armored Car I

The Type 97 is the result of the development of the prototype of the diesel version of the tankette Type 94 TK developed in 1936 by the firm Hino Motors. This prototype although better armed and protected than the Type 94 TK, were considered to be insufficient by Japanese army which required many modifications before being able to accept this new vehicle for the production. A new prototype was thus presented in November 1937, with an engine laid out this time at the rear of the hull. In this form, the new tankette was accepted for the production under the name of Type 97 Te-Ke. The Type 97 was manufactured at a rate of 616 specimens as from 1938 (56 in 1938,217 in 1939 and 284 in 1940). Some (59) were still manufactured between 1941 and 1944. Although coming from Type 94, the Type 97 Te-Ke was however rather different. Like above mentioned, the engine was moved in front of the hull to the rear and the turret and the position of the chief-of-tank were moved in the center of the vehicle. Driver from now on had sat at the left of the commander what strongly improved the communication. Interior of the vehicle was papered with asbestos to absorb heat. Armament of Te-Ke was constitued of a 37 mm Type 94 L/46 supplied with 102 rounds. This gun had a muzzle velocity of 700 m/s, also equipped the light tank Type 95 Ha-Go. However because of the lack of guns available, important number of vehicles were equipped with a machine-gun of 7.7 mm Type 97 with a carrying in ammunition of 2800 rounds. The gun being already completely ineffective against the American and British tanks.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/22/2020 8:51:15 PM   
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Type 97 Te-Ke Light Armored Car II

The limitation of the crew to two people posed serious problems in operation. Indeed if the driver could concentrate on the drive of the vehicle, the commander owed as for him assume the missions of observer, pointer, loader, gunner and chief-of-tank at the same time what could put at fault an even tested person. The weak shielding of Te-Ke was of more unable to provide an acceptable protection to its crew even against the small calibers. To the level of the suspension, the idler was lowered compared to Type 94, so well that it came into contact with the ground by means of the track, thus getting for the vehicle a more large ground contact surface and a better stability. This modification allowed installation of the gun of 37 mm. The most known conversion of the Type 97 Te-Ke was Type 98 Soda, a light transport of troops and ammunition.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/23/2020 6:19:37 PM   
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Type 97 Te-Ke Light Armored Car III

The Type 97 Te-Ke was generally distributed to divisions of infantry as tank of support even if generally it were used as tractor or supply vehicle d' equipped with trailers. Ultimately this tankette was generally used like reconnaissance vehicle, liaison vehicle or police vehicle in conquered territory. A company of tankettes Type 97 consisted in 10 to 17 vehicles. This tankette known its baptism of fire in 1939 at the time of the battle of Nomonhan against the Soviet armored tanks largely higher than all Japanese designs. The Type 97 Te-Ke known its hour of glory during the second Sino-Japanese war in 1938-1945, face it is true to a Chinese nationalist revolutionary army extremely stripped in armored vehicles and anti-tank weapons. Its weak dimensions and its very light weight allowed an easy transport overseas and over rivers. Te-Ke still contributed with effectiveness to the Japanese victories in Malaysia and Philippines during the second world war. There still, its limited dimensions and its weak weight enabled it to cross strongly damaged bridges (which risked to break down completely under the weight of heavier armored tanks), to traverse the narrow and sinuous roads legions in these countries. It could more than all vehicle to cross the jungles considered wrongly to be insuperable by the Allies. Unfortunately once on uncovered ground it was very vulnerable vis-a-vis a consequent armored and anti-tank opposition; opposition which will be done more and more attends with the wire of the months and the years.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/24/2020 6:22:55 PM   
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Type 1 Ho-Ki

In 1941, Japanese army ordered the development of an armored artillery prime mover being able to be used if need be as transport of troop. Two different models were designed: a half-tracked vehicle, Type 1 Ho-Ha and a tracked vehicle, Type 1 Ho-Ki. However very few specimens were produced. In spite of the fact that the Japanese employ troops mechanized in China since the Thirties, armored transport was considered to be too slow compared to the standard trucks and in fact inapt to follow the modern tactics of infantry. As much from Japanese armored vehicles, this kind of vehicle suffered from the priority given to aviation and navy. When Ho-Ki was ready to start production, the destruction of installations and the shortages out of raw materials caused by the American bombardments did not allow any more one mass production.
The 1 Ho-Ki Type had funny silhouette, the steering compartment was a closed cabin in left-front of the vehicle with on its right the engine compartment. The rear was occupied by cargo area. If only one driver was required, the vehicle was in general controlled by two men who handled the movement of the two tracks by the means of a par of steering wheell. Cargo area could accomodate 13 troopers. The shielding was of 6 mm only, one quite poor protection in fact. As Ho-Ki was designed before-all like artillery prime mover, it had not rear access door to allow to tractor draw a gun. That prevented a fast evacuation of the troopers when the vehicle was used as carrier. The latter reached and evacuated the vehicle by two doors installed side by side on the left side of cargo area right behind the door of the steering cabin. No armament envisaged at the beginning, but it was always possible to mount a machine-gun behind the driver. The squadrons of Japanese infantry could mount their heavy machine gun Type 92 to this place.
Type 1 known Ho-Ki its baptism of fire on the continent in China during the second Sino-Japanese war but in very restricted number. One still met it in Philippines in 1944. However much were list with in their ships of transport because the American submarines during the crossing and very little took part indeed to the battle.




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RE: Pacific, Heroes and Leaders mod Expansion - 8/25/2020 6:15:29 PM   
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Type 1 Ho-Ha Halftrack Armored Personnel Carrier

In 1941, Japanese army ordered the development of a multi-purpose vehicle being able to be used as troop carrier. This vehicle was declined in two different configurations. The full-tracked version was named Type 1 Ho-Ki and the half-tracked version Type 1 Ho-Ha. Very few specimens were produced by Hino Motors because of the little interest shown by staff for the nonoffensive weapons. Moreover, when the Ho-ha were ready to start production, the raw materials and the material missed cruelly because of the American bombardments. The Ho-Ha was designed to transport a section of infantry in zone of combat and to protect it against the weapons of small caliber and the indirect projectiles generated by the shootings of artillery. It was to also be able to convey these infantrymen on badly practicable or impracticable grounds for the standard trucks, extremely frequent on the continent, in the north of China. The half-tracked solution was in theory preferable to the full-tracked version because faster and thus more useful for the mobile warfare.
Like all halftrack, the Ho-Ha was equiped in front by a pair of wheels ensuring the steering and in rear by a pair of tracked running-gear. Like the full-tracked version, the Ho-Ha had equipment necessary in rear to tractor draw guns. The shielding was of 8 mm, but the Ho-Ha suffered from the same defect as the contemporaries vehicles of this type: an open roof making the passengers vulnerable vis-a-vis the high-explosive rounds, shrapnels and grenades. The armament of the vehicle consisted of 3 machine-guns of 7.7 mm Type 97. Two machine-guns were assembled on the sides behind the driver's cab, the third was installed in rear and had in occasion assured the anti-aircraft defence of the carrier. Traverse of these weapons was limited, prohibiting the direct firing towards and rearwards impossible.
Like above mentioned, the Ho-Ha was designed for the Chinese theatre (second Chinese-Japanese war) but it was ever deployed in China considering the weak production. The Japanese will try to deploy it in Philippines but much will sink with their boat of transport under the torpedes of the American submarines and finally very few vehicles were at the disposal of the Japanese troops at the time of the second battle of Philippines.




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