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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage

 
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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/5/2020 6:38:49 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
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AG Types:

8) Soya Type (2 classes):

- Soya AG: A single ship in this class, in game on 12/41. A single bmp file (0093.bmp), shared with the Soya AKE class. Two database entries (12/41 & 3/43). Can upgrade to the AKE class on 3/43 (as with Mamiya AG, the upgrade is "one way" - once a Soya AG is upgraded, it can't come back). No conversions. No evidence of camo.

- Soya AKE: Zero ships in this class. A single bmp file (0093.bmp), shared with Soya AG class (1 ship). One database entry (3/43). No upgrades or conversions.

Soya (#1) was built as an ice-breaking cargo freighter for the Russians in 1936, but according to her TROM, worsening relations led to contract cancellation before it was completed. The ship was requisitioned by the IJN and converted into an ammunition and survey ship in 1940 (just in time to participate in the Imperial Naval Review*), and initially performed survey work in the northern Kuriles. Apparently the IJN felt that surveying was a higher priority than ice-breaking, because ultimately she spent most of the war in the South Pacific. Motoyuki has modeled her (#2), and like the two refrigerator ships, she carries several large "lighters" to support her fleet supply function. One of the few important ships to survive the war, Soya eventually served as an Antarctic Research vessel in the 50's and 60's, and today is berthed in Tokyo as a museum ship (#3).

As with Irako, the starting color will be navalized bluish-grey but soon thereafter we'll utilize one of the available Ansyu-C camo schemes (this class is a close match in size, speed and profile), specifically that of Akagane Maru. Motoyuki has modeled this vessel (#4), which has an interesting mixture of Dazzle and Aleutians camouflage. Although there's no photo to back up the model, by pure coincidence I recently stumbled across a new "Dazzle" ship, the Aden-class Borneo Maru. It was sunk at Kiska in October 1942, and the camo scheme (#5) looks a LOT like that of Akagane Maru. Perhaps a coincidence, but this is one more example of the unique camouflage being deployed in the Aleutians, possibly the result of centralized direction.

Akagane Maru does not have a TROM, but we know from that of the Escort Hachijo that she was sunk by US surface forces in the Aleutians while transporting ammunition to Attu. Accordingly, it seems strangely apt that the icebreaker/ammunition ship Soya should be given this particular camouflage. There's nothing certain to go on with respect to timing, so we'll implement this camo during the Japanese invasion of the Aleutians (June 1942) and remove it the month after the loss of Akagane Maru (3/43), coincidentally the same point at which the AKE upgrade becomes available. At that point we'll restore the navalized bluish-grey for the rest of the year, shifting to greyish-grey in early 1944.

Armament: The database calls for a pedestal-mounted Type 88 DP gun near the bow, 25mm AA at the stern and 13mm AA R&L (not visible in photos). The 3/43 AKE upgrade adds additional 25 mm AA, which the model suggests was placed atop the bridge. Most of this (along with other profile features) is not shown in the existing shipside, which will have to be revised.

Which brings us to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #6 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The new bluish-gray colors & altered profile 0093.bmp file (#7)
6/1942 = Shift to the Akagane Maru Dazzle camo file (#8)
3/1943 = Return to bluish-gray and add AA atop the bridge (#9)
3/1944 = Change to greyish grey (#10)

* Note: It's a curious thing that with all the vast seagoing power and might on display that bright October day in 1940 - almost 100 warships of every class arrayed in rows just offshore from Yokohama - the only one still afloat today is this one small icebreaker.





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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/7/2020 5:32:15 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
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AG Types:

9) Kinesaki AG: Four ships in this class (Kinesaki-see #1, Hayasaki, Shirasaki & Arasaki). A single bmp file (0100.bmp), not shared. One database entry. First ship arrives 2/42, the last in 5/43. No conversions. No evidence of camo.

This is a very small class of ship, and not surprisingly there aren't many models to reference (those which exist are poor depictions). All of these vessels were small, purpose-built refrigerated supply ships for the IJN. Hayasaki has the most interesting war record, to include ramming the submarine USS Growler (which was heavily damaged but survived) in early 1943 and surviving the "Raid on Rabaul" (#2) later that year. Three of four survived the war, two of which were ceded to the Soviets and Nationalist Chinese as "war reparations". The existing shipside does a nice job of representing the mid-war color (rusty brownish), but it should start with bluish grey since these were naval supply ships (there's a nice overhead shot of Kinesaki under attack near Mili in late 1943 (#3), and the sides are still pretty dark). By 1944 we'll transition to the existing shipside colors and will stay with those for the duration.

Armament: The database calls for a pedestal-mounted Type 88 DP gun near the bow and multiple 13mm AA located to the front, rear, and R&L (largely invisible in photos). Most of this (along with other profile features) is not shown in the existing shipside, and will have to be revised.

So here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #4 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The new bluish-gray colors & altered profile 0100.bmp file (#5)
1/1944 = Return to the original rusty brownish color but with revised profile (#6)

This completes the AG Types review - up next are the AKEs!





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Post #: 122
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/9/2020 2:24:10 PM   
Kull


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AKE Types:

There are 17(!) AKE Types, all but one of which were reviewed earlier as they share bmps with a number of associated xAK or AG types.

1) Kashino AKE: Reviewed in this post (see below)
2) Mamiya AKE: See Post #116
3) Irako AKE: See Post #120
4) Soya AKE: See Post #121
5) Ansyu AKE: See Post #59
6) Kyushu AKE: See Post #63
7) Yusen N AKE: See Post #64
8) Husimi AKE: See Post #66
9) Toho AKE: See Post #67
10) Lima AKE: See Post #68
11) Aden AKE: See Post #70
12) Ehime AKE: See Post #71
13) Akasi AKE: See Post #72
14) Std-A AKE: See Post #73
15) Std-B AKE: See Post #74
16) Std-C AKE: See Post #76
17) Std-D AKE: See Post #77


1) Kashino AKE: A single ship in this class, in game on 12/41. A single bmp file (0092.bmp), not shared. Two database entries (12/41 & 4/42). No conversions. No evidence of camo.

A truly unique ship, combinedfleet tells us that "Kashino was specifically built to transport the Yamato-class battleships main armament 457mm (18.1-inch) Type 94 guns and turrets from their point of manufacture (Kure Naval Arsenal) to the shipbuilders yard (#1). After transporting the last of Musashi's ordnance Kashino reverted to an ammunition transport." She didn't last long in her new role, and was sunk near Formosa in early September 1942 (coincidentally by USS Growler, the same submarine which had the unfortunate encounter with AG Hayasaki, as described in the previous post).

From a profile perspective, there aren't many differences between the look of this ship during it's specialized transport phase and its appearance following the ammunition ship conversion, and even these are only apparent from the top down (the specialized cargo holds may have been given more traditional tops - see #2). Perhaps due to the secrecy surrounding the Japanese Super-battleships (and by extension, this specialized support ship), I could only find a single partial picture of this vessel (a group photo of naval officers and various civilian luminaries seated in front of the bridge on the day of her entry into service in July 1940 - which, if nothing else, shows the placement of her massive forward kingposts and booms - #3), and so we have to rely almost entirely on models to determine profiles and placement of armament (even the TROM information is extremely sparse). Since it's not clear what sources were used in order to develop these, inevitably there's a degree of uncertainty here. Still, the existing shipside captures this pretty well, but there are a few small modifications we can make.

Interestingly, the search for photos and other graphics turned up a very strange drawing showing Kashino with a bow that could be raised and lowered in order to display a complete 18" gun turret, apparently fully functional (#4), but further research revealed that the whole concept was "furashita". ;-)

Armament: The database calls for 12cm DP guns fore and aft and 13 mm AA to R&L (the latter aren't visible on any of the models and are probably obscured by the superstructure). The 4/42 upgrade adds 25 mm AA to the stem and stern, and while there aren't any models which show this, there is room for AA aft of the funnel (the usual bridge locations are obscured by kingposts and antenna).

Here is the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #5 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The new bluish-gray colors & altered profile 0092.bmp file (#6)
4/1942 = Add AA behind the funnel (#7)
1/1944 = Change to greyish-grey (#8)

As outlined earlier there were 5 Types to be finished in "Category II", and that task is now complete. So a bit of a milestone! However, before digging into "Category III", there is some clean-up necessary. In particular, there are a few classes that were given perfunctory or incomplete attention way back in the early days of this project, so we'll talk about those next.





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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/10/2020 3:51:30 PM   
Kull


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AP Types:

1) Brazil Maru xAP: Two ships in this class (Brazil Maru & Argentina Maru - see #1), both in-game on 12/41. A single bmp file (0303.bmp), not shared. One data base entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions. No evidence of early war camo.

While nearing completion of the ships in the Category II group, I looked back at the earlier shipsides and realized that several were incomplete or simply not good enough. The Brazil Maru xAP class in particular stood out like a sore thumb - just one new shipside, and even that little more than altered hull coloration. Also, both ships of this class were beautiful pre-war passenger liners, loaded with high-end features, and this is our last chance to look at vessels of that by-gone era (#2).

The original profile wasn't bad, but there were some inaccuracies that needed to be addressed, in particular the absence of the lowest promenade deck. As for colors, we have the Bazil Maru photograph from April 1942 (discussed in the first review) which shows her in white uppers, dark lowers, and without armament. The TROM indicates she was requisitioned by the IJN in late 1941 as a "general transport", but the photo suggests that most of the conversion work was internal, such as removal of her high-end passenger accommodations. Accordingly, I've given her an "all commercial" look for the first month of the war, transitioning to a similar coloration (but now with painted funnel and armament) in 1942. As discussed earlier, the April-May 1942 conversion at Yokosuka Naval Yard is probably where she gains the "all bluish-grey" paint job (#3). Neither ship survived into the late war (Brazil Maru was sunk in mid-1942 while Argentina Maru began her conversion to CVE Kaiyo a few months later), but it's reasonable to assume that eventually they would have been painted in either late war grey or merchant green camo (I've chosen the former).

Armament: The AE database tells us this class had a stern-mounted 12cm DP gun, a Type 88 DP guns on the forecastle, and two more Type 88s along with some 13mm AA to the R&L (the latter groups obscured by the superstructure). None of these weapons are visible in models, photos, or even the ONI records (#4), so placement is just a guess.

Which brings us to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #5 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The white & green commercial colors & altered profile 0303.bmp file (#6)
1/1942 = Add armament and remove commercial funnel markings (#7)
5/1942 = Change to bluish-gray (#8)
1/1944 = Shift to silver grey (#9)





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Post #: 124
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/10/2020 9:01:52 PM   
Kull


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From: El Paso, TX
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Fortunately, Brazil Maru was an exception - none of the other classes needed a complete make-over (well, maybe Sanyo Maru...). So rather than give them the full individualized treatment (links in the class name take you back to the original review) let's look at them as a group, along with a few examples of the new shipsides. In no particular order:

1) Akashi (AR): Revised armament (from navy guns to DP type), more contrast between upper and lowers near funnel, progressive increase in rust, added a 1945 "silver grey" shipside. (see #1)

2) Kamoi (AV): Revised shipside in several ways. Lowered booms, added open space below the "railing", removed rust from the early shipside and added it to the greyish one. (#2)

3) Shinshu Maru (LSD): Improved the differentiation between the light & dark hull colors. (#3)

4) Akitsu Maru (LSD): Both sets of camo, the funnels, and the armament needed some tweaking. (#4)

5) Sanyo Maru (AV): Quite a few changes were needed here, to include removing the rear kingpost, adding a crane and a second floatplane to the aft weatherdeck, armament was completely redone, and a few tweaks were made to the superstructure. (#5)

6) Green Merchant camo: Seven shipsides had to be reworked in order to improve differentiation between the hull and the superstructure (#6). Also two of the smaller classes now have "1945 Green-with-rust" shipsides (#7).

I didn't keep track of everything that was altered in this fashion, and undoubtedly a few more will get minor adjustments along the way, but otherwise all the Category 1 and 2 shipsides are now complete.





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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/10/2020 11:24:53 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
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From: El Paso, TX
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It may seem odd, but I've been so focused on doing research and figuring out how to modify or (in some cases) create new shipsides, that I'd never actually seen any of them in game. Largely because while at some point backgrounds would be necessary, that felt like "problem #231" when I was still working on problem #12. But here we are with 187 new shipsides and two categories finished, and well, what WILL those backgrounds look like??

So a few weeks ago I started looking into the options, but ultimately it just seemed like the best approach would be to retain the same backgrounds and assign them to the very same bmps. While I didn't have access to the original AE templates, it turns out there were only two, but each of them was inverted or flipped, so you actually get 8 different "looks", which is what you see here (#1).

The next step was to figure out which bmps used which background, so I gave each of the 8 a different name and then set up a tracking spreadsheet and made sure that each background would be assigned to the same ships as you see in AE today (#2). Why go to all this trouble? Why not just pick some new backgrounds or even assign the existing ones randomly? Well, the whole idea of this project was to build upon the existing game - not changing the database or doing anything more than providing the player with greater, historically accurate, variety. Accordingly, it just feels right that when this mod is applied to your game, the ships will look different, but everything else will look the same.

So I plugged in four of the new shipsides, and here - for the first time - is what they look like in-game:

3) The fully commercial Brazil Maru unloading at Kota Bharu

4) Hokoku Maru seeking victims somewhere in the South Pacific

5) Hoten Maru on her way to the SRA

6) A rusty Daigen-class freighter cleaves the seas SW of Truk





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Post #: 126
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/11/2020 3:39:19 AM   
Kull


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From: El Paso, TX
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One last bit of housekeeping before we move on to the ships in Category III. It turns out that 11 of the AE Japanese shipsides have incorrect borders. Specifically, the 1-pixel wide border on the left is 2 pixels, and there isn't any border on the right (for example, here's the existing Yamabiko AR at 400% - #1).

The in-game effect is fairly subtle, but it's obvious once you know it exists. Here's the same ship selected in-game (#2).

This is NOT intended to call anybody out, because I was literally staring at these things for months before it finally sunk in that something was wrong (der), but all the mods I've looked at; Bottlenecks, B-mod, RA, Focus Pacific, DaBabes...well, yes, they have the same problem. I'll fix that as part of the eventual new shipsides download, but in the meantime the various mod folks out there might want to add this to their to-do list. This is "Japan-only", and the full set of affected shipsides is shown in the attachment (#3). Please note that 3 of the 11 aren't used at all (to my knowledge), so you could probably ignore 0286, 0287, and 0289.

Edit: Just to clarify, I looked at all the Allied shipsides, and none have this issue.




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< Message edited by Kull -- 2/11/2020 3:52:36 PM >


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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/13/2020 3:41:36 PM   
Voltreffer


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This is some seriously impressive work - well done Kull!

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Post #: 128
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/13/2020 4:25:29 PM   
Kull


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From: El Paso, TX
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quote:

ORIGINAL: Akos Gergely

Amazing work, and much appreciated. The amount of research you have put into this is just beyond comprehensible (and I've done a lot on warships :D). Very well done!

Can'T wait to see your warships pack.

I possible, make a package in the end so that a simple download/overwrite install would be enough, a'la BigB's art files.


Based on the link in your signature, the bolded is very true indeed! As for the "warships pack", the reality is that BigB (capital ships) and SuluSea (DDs) have already done a really nice job with those, and I was hoping that most of the work would involve subbing in their bluish-grey early war shipsides (available at BigB's shipyard) and then making (hopefully minor) adjustments to account for late war colors (primarily progressively lighter shades of greyish-grey) and the visible effects of upgrades (typically radars and additional AA).

Anyway, here's where I'm going with this - would you be interested in taking on that task, or at least assisting? If you can create the sorts of art shown on your blog, this should be well within your capabilities. There are definitely challenges in trying to represent something as complicated as a warship on a 200x60 pixel "canvas", but I've learned a number of tricks along the way and will happily share and guide. If interested, send me a PM - if not, no sweat.

Also, yes - the eventual "install" will be done much like BigB's replacement sides - unzip and then drag & drop.

quote:

ORIGINAL: Voltreffer

This is some seriously impressive work - well done Kull!


Thanks man. It's been quite a journey, that's for sure!

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RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/13/2020 4:48:09 PM   
Voltreffer


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One tip for the ship backgrounds - there is a great site called "Big B's Shipyard" (Google it, as I cannot post links). In that site, there is a section called "Work Bench" (it's in a list/ site directory on the left side). In the "Work Bench" section, there is a download link towards the bottom for a file called "ShipArt_Backgrounds.zip" with a bunch of blank background files. The sunset/sunrise backgrounds might be a bit much IMO, but it should provide a nice variety in the final ship art nonetheless.


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Post #: 130
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/13/2020 5:00:49 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
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From: El Paso, TX
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quote:

ORIGINAL: Voltreffer

One tip for the ship backgrounds - there is a great site called "Big B's Shipyard" (Google it, as I cannot post links). In that site, there is a section called "Work Bench" (it's in a list/ site directory on the left side). In the "Work Bench" section, there is a download link towards the bottom for a file called "ShipArt_Backgrounds.zip" with a bunch of blank background files. The sunset/sunrise backgrounds might be a bit much IMO, but it should provide a nice variety in the final ship art nonetheless.




I'm well aware of BigB's shipyard, believe me! Superb work. As for the backgrounds, I already discussed how that will be handled (see Post #126 above). Earlier I had even created a number of new ones (which looked pretty nice), but ultimately felt it was best to stick with the existing set. That said, I plan to also provide a download in which all the shipsides have blank backgrounds so folks can easily customize some or all to their own taste.

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Post #: 131
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/13/2020 5:12:09 PM   
Voltreffer


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Nice! I LOVE attention to detail - it transforms games like this into a "living history book" of sorts, with built-in context to help one remember various esoteric details of the real men, units, etc. Not that the game lacks detail... but any way to refine or polish it makes it just that much better!

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Post #: 132
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/15/2020 4:00:36 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
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From: El Paso, TX
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And so - on to the "Category III" group. For reference, here's what you'll be seeing next (in no particular order):

III. Types that are pending:

- LST Types - 2 classes, Not started (2 to go)
- LB Types - 4 classes, Not started (4 to go)
- ARD Types - 1 class, Not started (1 to go)
- AO Types - 7 classes, Not started (7 to go)
- TK Types - 13 classes, 5 complete (8 to go)

*********************************************************

ARD Types:

There is 1 class of ARD in WitP-AE:

1) ARD-3k ARD: One ship in this class, in game on 12/41 (Dublon ARD). A single bmp file (0297.bmp), not shared. One data base entry (12/41). Cannot upgrade or convert. No evidence of camo.

The best source for information on this is Don Bowen's thread on Floating Dry Docks, which includes several links and other information which confirms the existence of a Japanese floating dry dock at Dublon Island (part of the Truk group). The specific location is mentioned here:

"South Seas Development Company had docking facilities on the southwestern tip of (Dublon) island. Its supply storage and fish cannery were commandeered by the Navy, and it became the Fourth Naval Dockyard. It was the main receiving area for the military. More warehouses and a refrigeration building, HQ, and a two story barracks were constructed. A thousand men worked here on ship repairs, mostly damage sustained to ships from American submarine attacks. The facility also had a 30 ton floating crane and 2,500 ton dry dock. Nearby was a sawmill, and small rail cars connected most of the buildings."

There are several facilities which more or less fit that description, but I found a 1945 photo which clearly shows the floating crane (#1-A), so that confirmed the true location. At first I thought the ARD was also in the photo, pictured in a semi-submerged state, but the caption says they are a pair of submarines (#1-B), which seems more likely. That photo led to a review of my Hailstone archives, but the clearest photo from that group (#2) shows neither crane nor anything that looks like an ARD.

Without photos there's nothing that would mandate a change in the ship profile (which was developed based on these dimensions: L-117M x W-16.7M x H-9.2M). As to colors, the existing AE shipside is bluish-grey (which is fine for the start), while the DMP mod has a rusty version (perfect for the mid-to-late war).

Armament: Per the database, the ARD is equipped with 13mm AA to the R&L, none of which are present on the existing shipsides. Given that we have absolutely nothing to go on with respect to emplacement locations, and since these are very small weapons, it's probably best to leave them off.

Deployment will be:

12/6/41 = Use the as-is bluish-grey AE shipside (#3)
9/1943 = Switch to the DMP rusty shipside (#4)

As an aside, the Japanese also acquired at least three other floating dockyards. USS Dewey YFD-1 (#5) was scuttled off Bataan, but raised by the Japanese "at an unknown date" and put in working order. Later it was sunk again, this time by US Navy aircraft in Manila Bay in late 1944. Also there were two British floating drydocks (AFD-9 and AFD-10) that were scuttled at Singapore, but raised by the Japanese and put back into use. For our purposes this is just a point of interest, since placing them in game would involve modding the database and scenarios.





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< Message edited by Kull -- 2/18/2020 8:25:44 PM >


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Post #: 133
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/18/2020 4:47:58 PM   
Kull


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LSI-LST Types:

1) Type 1 LSI/APD: 28 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0328.bmp), not shared. One database entry (9/43). The first ship of this class arrives 5/44. Photo evidence of a 2-tone color scheme (not camo).

Technically I shouldn't be working on this ship yet, since it's officially an APD in the AE database. However, it was designed specifically to serve as an LSI, and has unique features which give it a different appearance than the other APDs.

The Solomons campaign demonstrated conclusively that large transports were unable to provide the troops and supplies needed to sustain combat operations in the face of American air superiority. In response, the IJN developed the new T.1-class fast naval transports (#1). As combinedfleet tells us, these vessels used "Matsu-class destroyer hulls with one set of engines removed to make space for troops and cargo. At 22 knots, the resulting 1,500-ton vessel was quite fast for an assault transport. One 13-ton and four 5-ton derricks were fitted to move cargo. The T.1-class design featured a distinctive stern (#2) equipped with rollers and sloped down to the waterline", which allowed for the rapid launching and retrieval of landing craft.

The existing ship-side is a very good approximation of this class (to include the trunked funnel and tripod forward mast - see #3), but a few things are needed:
- Starting colors should be much darker, as we see in this front-end shot (#4) of T.9 under construction at Kure (#2 was a rear view of the same ship)
- Look more closely at #3 and #4, and you'll see the lower part of the hull's bow-end is lighter in color (the same sort of two-tone scheme we saw earlier when looking at several classes of Escort).
- Altering the daihatsu colors will help them stand out better against the hull of the LSI.
- With minor alterations, the existing shipside works nicely as the late-war "lighter grey" version.

Armament: The database specifies forward turret-mounted twin Type 89 AA guns and a host of 13mm and 25mm AA Right, Left, and Rear. The profile captures all of this pretty well, so no changes are needed. Worth noting that historically these vessels carried Type 22 radar from the start and later added Type 13 (beginning with T.17 - see #5), but this is not reflected in the AE database.

Accordingly, here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #6 is the current AE shipside):

9/1943 = The new dark greyish-gray colors & altered profile 0328.bmp file (#7)
3/1945 = Change to the original light grey with modifications (#8)

Edit: A nod of the cap to old friend DivePac88 for the Type 13 Radar on the 1945 shipside. Fair winds always, Des!




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< Message edited by Kull -- 2/18/2020 4:59:58 PM >


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Post #: 134
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/20/2020 3:53:16 PM   
Kull


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LSI-LST Types:

2) Type HA LSI/LST: 50 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0329.bmp), not shared. One database entry (9/43). The first ship of this class arrives 1/44. No evidence of camo.

Per combinedfleet.com: "Built under the Japanese 1943 Program, the design for the 950-ton Landing Ship Tanks (LST) may have been supplied by Germany and based an American-built British LST used in North Africa. The Class could be constructed in 90 days using mass production techniques such as pre-fabricated parts and electric welding. The class were unstable in heavy seas. The design featured a bow door and the bow was fitted with a double skeg. The class was equipped with AA guns, depth charges and radar."

In AE these appear as a single class, but there were actually two; the T.101 (6 ships) and the T.103 (69 completed, 32 canceled - see #1). The main difference is the T.101s were diesel powered, while the T.103s had turbine engines (by the end of the war, several of the turbine-type were converted to coal-fired boilers). The hull profiles were almost identical, but the external observer would easily spot the wider gap between bridge superstructure and funnel on the T.101s (#2).

The existing shipside doesn't correctly capture the shape of the bow, and there are several other adjustments that will improve the accuracy of the image. In addition, we can create two different profiles and time phase them so the T.103 replaces T.101 in May 1944 (although both types existed concurrently, the vast majority of T.103s were launched after the first four months of 1944). For colors we'll start with a dark greyish-grey and transition to something lighter, although there's an interesting photo (#3) showing four T.101s side-by-side and they appear to be three different shades of grey: Light grey (two in the middle), a shade darker (left) and very dark (right). Almost certainly a nice example of the previously discussed shipyard-based color differences.

Armament: The database specifies a rear-facing Type 89 AA gun and a host of 13mm and 25mm AA on all sides. The profile captures only the rear gun, so changes are necessary. Based on photos, at least some of the T.103s were equipped with Type 13 Air Search Radar (see #4), but it was far from universal. Appropriately, it is absent from the AE database.

That said, here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #5 is the current AE shipside):

9/1943 = The new T.101 profile in dark greyish-gray 0329.bmp file (#6)
5/1944 = Replace with the T.103 profile in a lighter grey (#7)
4/1945 = Shift to a rusty light grey (#8)

This completes the LSI/LST types, next up are the LB Types (Barges). Small though they are, I've been playing around with ideas on these for months. Still am.





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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 135
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/22/2020 2:37:01 PM   
PTalvela

 

Posts: 19
Joined: 12/28/2019
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Yangtse river gunboats?

Respect for the massive work you have done.

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Post #: 136
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/23/2020 5:33:31 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
LB Types (Barges):

In-game there are four classes of Japanese barge. The 17 meter Daihatsus (2 each) have a little more capacity than the two 14 meter boats, and each class has slightly different armament and a different bmp file (see list below) which never changes. Barges do not upgrade or convert. The in-game profiles appear to be based on the attached document (see #1), although I could not determine the source. (Edit: Found the source - ONI 208-J Supplement No.2 "Far-Eastern Small Craft", Pg 22)

1) 14m Type LB Daihatsu (0162.bmp) - 105 total, the first 35 become available 12/8/41
2) 14m Type D Daihatsu (0160.bmp) - 105 total, the first 8 become available 2/14/42
3) 17m Type N Daihatsu (0159.bmp)- 43 total, the first 13 become available 12/8/41
4) 17m Type L Daihatsu (0161.bmp) - 45 total, the first 3 become available 2/14/42

The US Navy Technical Mission issued a report that specifically focused on Japanese Landing Craft, noting in particular that 85% of them were of the 14m type. In AE the percentage is only 70%, but there are reasons for that, which we'll come to. The most interesting part of the report is the section devoted to the division of responsibility between IJA and IJN:

"The division of responsibility between the Japanese fighting services in landing operations was unusual. The Navy provided escort craft and conducted the invasion force to the pre-elected anchorage. From then on the Army took over completely. All the landing craft and ships used for landing troops and their equipment were designed and built under Army supervision and were wholly manned by Army personnel. The Army maintained a special design and experimental staff at the Tenth Technical Research Laboratory, MUROTSU, which, in addition to designing landing craft and ships, produced submarines for transport and minelaying, underwater forts, special assault craft and other strange vessels and devices (See NavTechJap Report, "Tenth Military Experimental Station", Index No. S-93 (N)).

The naval landing craft were, in the main, improved copies of Army types and were for the specific use of a special naval landing force for purely naval purposes, the assault of strong points, or the capture of a base."


Let's talk about that division of responsibility and how it shows up in-game. Look back at the reviews of AK-type ships (or even the T.1 LSI from a few posts earlier) and you'll see that many of the Daihatsu were loaded aboard ships and used for amphibious operations of one sort or another (i.e. ship-to-shore). But the in-game "Barges" are something altogether different. Although nearly identical in size and function, these are small supply and troop boats which travel from one land location to another. Accordingly, it seems likely that these were primarily IJA vessels, albeit with a few IJN types mixed in.

Keep that in mind when Linton Wells ("Painting Systems of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1904-1945", Warship International, Vol. 19, No. 1 (1982), pp. 21-22) tells us that; "In the 1931 revision of the painting regulations, special service vessels [such as the Daihatsu] were not distinguished from other warships". That certainly implies that IJN Daihatsu were painted in warship grey, but the IJA might very well have utilized a different system - if not at first, quite certainly later as operations moved into the southern pacific regions and the Daihatsu transitioned to their in-game role. Among other things (and certainly during the Solomons and New Guinea campaigns in particular), the Daihatsu traveled fairly long distances in short stages (mostly at night), and usually spent the daylight hours in hiding, often heavily camouflaged with foliage (#2). Accordingly, it's not much of a stretch to imagine that many of these barges were painted in colors that were more green than grey. Camouflage too, perhaps, but I couldn't find any photos which prove that conclusively.

Lastly (and perhaps tantalizingly), there were quite a number of different Daihatsu types which do not appear in-game, but can be represented using a foldered system. :-) So that is the background for what you'll see as we review the colors and profiles for each class of AE Barge, beginning with:

1) 14m Type LB Daihatsu: As noted above, there are 105 in total, 35 of which are available on 12/8/41. A single bmp file (0162.bmp), not shared. One database entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions.

Colors & Profile: Given their early availability (as a reminder, these boats have arrival dates but are added to the "Barge Pool" instead of appearing at an on-map location), we'll assume that these Daihatsu start off with Naval bluish-grey, and will transition to greyish-grey in mid-1943, eventually shifting to a "rusty grey" in early 1944. The profile will alter slightly from the AE-original, but the most obvious difference is that we'll use a modified version of the CHS shipside (probably developed by Fremen) which does a GREAT job of showing the external support beams which run laterally along the top and sides of the hull (#3 - see photos and description on Pg 14 of ONI 225-J "Japanese Landing Operations and Equipment" - free download available here)

Armament: The 14m Type LB has two 13mm AA weapons with an "all sides" facing (which makes sense for such a small vessel). The existing shipside has one in the rear, but we'll need another, probably near the front.

Here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #4 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = CHS shipside modified and recolored bluish-grey (#5)
4/1943 = Switch to greyish-grey (#6)
4/1944 = Lighter grey with rust (#7)





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< Message edited by Kull -- 2/24/2020 7:30:43 PM >


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(in reply to PTalvela)
Post #: 137
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/24/2020 2:31:40 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
LB Types (Barges):

2) 14m Type D Daihatsu: There are 105 in total and the first 8 become available on 2/14/42. A single bmp file (0160.bmp), not shared. One database entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions.

Colors & Profile: This class has a delayed arrival, with only 17 available through the beginning of August 1942, so that allows us to do something different in order to keep them visually distinct from the 14m Type LB class. Accordingly, all of them will start off with an Army greyish-green color (as per this model - see #1), transitioning to a lighter tone (with rust) in mid-1942, and eventually turning more of a rusty brown. We'll feature the same modified CHS shipside as used by the 14m Type LB class, but will increase the coverage provided by the wheelhouse protective "armor".

Armament: The 14m Type D has two 25mm AA weapons (also with an "all sides" facing). The existing shipside has both, so no change is needed.

Which brings us to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #2 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = CHS shipside modified and recolored greyish-green (#3)
8/1942 = Switch to lighter tone with rust (#4)
10/1943 = Rusty brownish-green (#5)





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(in reply to PTalvela)
Post #: 138
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/25/2020 4:28:00 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
LB Types (Barges):

3) 17m Type N Daihatsu: There are 43 in total and the first 13 become available 12/8/41. A single bmp file (0159.bmp), not shared. One database entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions.

Colors & Profile: Although similar to the 14m Daihatsu, the 17m variety differs not just in length, but also features a raised afterdeck (see #1). Nearly 1/3 of this class are available right from the start, but the numbers are still quite limited compared to the 14m classes. Which is good, because that gives us the opportunity to further differentiate the barge types. Once again there's a nice CHS shipside which displays the external bracing, so we'll use that as the base model. The colors will be Naval bluish-grey until 8/42, at which point we'll shift to the Army greenish-grey - and also add a canopy (#2). Although one doesn't see many photos of individual "barges-with-canopies", we can form some estimate of their frequency by examining a picture taken during the November 1943 "Raid on Rabaul", in which at least 4 of 22 Daihatsu show evidence of canopies (#3).

The next transition will be to a different class of Daihatsu altogether. In late 1942 (as a result of steel shortages) the IJN ordered 1150 Moku ("wooden") Daihatsu (#4). In practice, this design didn't work out so well as the USNTM report tells us: "It was built of plywood on oak frames and floors, the sides being of one thickness (10mm, five ply) and the bottom two thicknesses of the same material. Due to it's inability to stand up to tropical conditions and structural weaknesses which became evident in a seaway it proved a poor substitute." Nevertheless, they were built in some number, and the profile is similar to the 17m Daihatsu (although 2m shorter), so we'll put them in game during 1944. Among other benefits, that allows us to see the original colors of the CHS shipside!

The final change takes place in mid-1945, when we introduce the "Type E" Landing Craft, which was actually an "air boat" powered by a large fan-type propeller mounted at the rear of the craft. The primary advantage of this vessel was its shallow draft, which (as with modern boats of this sort) gives access to waterways otherwise impractical for boats driven by sub-surface propellers. Other than one page from ONI-225J (#5), I couldn't find anything else about these vessels. However, placing an obscure boat of doubtful utility into the game during the final stages of the war? Well, it seems rather appropriate. ;-)

Armament: The 17m Type N has a single 13mm AA gun, and is the mostly poorly armed of all the barge classes (not that any of them are "flak castles"). The existing shipside already has one, so no change is needed. Worth noting that the Moku Daihatsu and the Type-E were also poorly armed, which is one reason why they were chosen for this class.

Here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #6 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = CHS shipside modified and recolored bluish-grey (#7)
8/1942 = Transition to greyish-green with canopy (#8)
12/1943 = Change to wooden Moku Daihatsu (#9)
4/1945 = Switch to greyish-grey "Type E" (#10)





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< Message edited by Kull -- 2/26/2020 2:05:26 PM >


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Post #: 139
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/26/2020 3:45:46 AM   
Dili

 

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This whole topic is an encyclopedia, congrats Kull.

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Post #: 140
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/26/2020 2:05:00 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
LB Types (Barges):

4) 17m Type L Daihatsu: There are 45 in total and the first 3 become available 2/14/42. A single bmp file (0161.bmp), not shared. One database entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions.

Colors & Profile: Although several of the new shipsides feature naval bluish-grey colors, the REAL Navy Type A had a very different profile, which this class will start with (#1). It's likely that most of these were used in the previously discussed "ship-to-shore" role, but probably some number of them participated in AE-type barge missions (#2). Since that would have been an early war role (we don't see any of this type in the many Solomons-New Guinea barge photos), we'll phase them out in late 1942. Fortunately this is yet another instance where CHS provides a nice model to start from, although it needs a few modifications.

As with the previous set of barges, once again the transition will be to a different class of Daihatsu, the "Type C" AB-tei armored boats (#3). Although it's perhaps a bit questionable to use these small gunboats as barge replacements, they were developed specifically for the purpose of escorting and supporting Daihatsus, had troop carrying capacity, and the ONI classified them in the landing craft category. In addition, they were first built in 1927 and served throughout the war in a wide range of theatres (for example, at least one surrendered in New Guinea in 1945 - see #4), so we're at liberty to insert them in-game at any time. (For those interested, some of the best information on these boats is available at (ironically) another gaming forum). Anyway, for our purposes they will come into play during late 1942 (greyish in color, as per all the photos), acquire some rust after a few months, and will stay in game until the end of 1943.

At that point we'll shift to yet another class, the "Type G" landing craft (#5), or as it's otherwise known, the "sampan". Throughout the war, the Japanese used these small boats for a variety of purposes, but later in the conflict - as the Allies arrived in the Philippines and approached the Home Islands - many of them were pressed into service as barge alternatives. Among other things, they are more seaworthy than the blunt-prowed barges, although the frequent late-war encounters with US subs were rather one-sided affairs (#6). The shipsides are wood-colored, and they'll stay in use until the end of the war.

Armament: The 17m Type L has three 25mm AA guns, the most of any barge class. That's one reason why these Daihatsu types were selected for this class - they have the most weapons of any boats in the Daihatsu group (well, maybe not the sampans). Although the existing shipside has most of these, the new profiles require alternate placement.

And so, on to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #7 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = CHS shipside modified and recolored bluish-grey (#8)
8/1942 = Switch to greyish "Type C" AB-tei (#9)
3/1943 = Transition to rusty-greyish "Type C" (#10)
1/1944 = Change to wooden "Type G" Sampan (#11)

This completes the Barge Types - hopefully all the new shapes and colors will add some historical pizzazz to what was otherwise a fairly boring set of boats! Next up are the Tankers and Oilers, at least some of which should be rather interesting. ;-)





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(in reply to Dili)
Post #: 141
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 2/28/2020 2:12:54 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

This is the 6th of 13 TK Types, the other 5 having been reviewed earlier since they share bmps with their associated xAK or xAKL types:

1) Std-AT TK: See Post #73
2) Std-BT TK: See Post #74
3) Std-CT TK: See Post #76
4) Std-DT TK: See Post #77
5) Std-ETd TK: See Post #84

6) Tonan Whaler (TK): Five ships in this class, all in-game on 12/41. A single bmp file (0099.bmp), not shared. One database entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions. 1 of 5 has photo evidence of "dazzle" camo.

Of this class, Tonan Maru #3 (see item #1 in the attachment) is famous for her involvement in the most egregious example of Mark 14 torpedo failure. "On 23 July 1943, the USS Tinosa, an American submarine on war patrol in the Pacific, spent the entire day trying to sink the Tonan Maru, a high-value, unprotected Japanese oil tanker. The Tinosa fired fifteen torpedoes and the net result was that twelve torpedoes hit the target but only one of them exploded. The Japanese ship eventually escaped and when the Tinosa returned to headquarters at Pearl Harbor, the commander of Pacific Fleet submarines describes the young skipper as still being almost speechless with rage."

As the class name implies, these were large pre-war whaling factory vessels which were converted to "oil transport ships" between late '41 and early '42. To give you some idea of their pre-conversion capacity, Nisshin Maru killed and processed over 1000 whales (including 800+ blue whales) during a 4 month expedition in 1936. Motoyuki has modeled two of this class, the first being Tonan Maru #3 (pictured "about 1942" in wartime grey - see #2) while the second is Kyokuyo Maru shown with her extremely unusual 1943 Dazzle Camo (#3).

For colors, it appears that some were painted warship grey right from the start, but others were pressed into service immediately and probably retained their commercial colors for several months. The Kyokuyo Maru TROM at combinedfleet has nothing to say about dazzle (or any sort of painting), but does tell us she spent six months undergoing repairs at Singapore starting in January 1943, so that's the most likely time and place for camo application. Accordingly, we're looking at a series of color changes: Start with the commercial look seen in the first photo (using a modified DMP shipside), shift to greyish (the existing shipside works fine) in early '42, transition to Dazzle in early '43 (although only 1 of 5 has photo evidence, it's a unique look that's well worth putting in-game), return to grey in early 44' (but this time a greyish-grey as per the photos of Tonan Maru #3 at Truk during Operation Hailstone - see #4), and then finish up with merchant green camo in late '44. That's a lot of shipsides, but then these are valuable high capacity fuel transport vessels, of critical importance to the Japanese economy! Other than colors, the profile looks fine and requires little alteration.

Armament: The database specifies front & rear Type 89 AA guns and both Type 88 DP and 13mm AA at R&L. The existing shipside has none of that while both models show only the forward gun, so changes are necessary. There is room at the stern for an additional weapon, but the absence of evidence (along with superstructure obstruction) makes it hard to determine where to put the others so we'll leave them off (no effect on the database, of course).

Accordingly, here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #5 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The black & white commercial colors & no armament 0099.bmp file (#6)
2/1942 = Use the existing shipside (with armament) (#7)
1/1943 = Shift to Dazzle (#8)
1/1944 = Change to greyish-grey (#9)
9/1944 = Switch to "merchant green" camo (#10)





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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 142
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 3/29/2020 1:52:38 AM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

7) Type N TL Type (2 classes):

Of the pre-war Tankers, these ships had the largest carrying capacity (12.8K) along with good speed (19-15 kts). They are also relatively few in number and cannot be replaced, making them quite valuable. As an aside most of the AE TK and AO class names include a 2-letter acronym:
TL = Tanker Large
TM = Tanker Medium
TS = Tanker Small

Motoyuki has 5 models for this class, of which the Nippon Maru (see #1) is a good example. Worth noting that while none of the models feature late war green camo, all but one of them were sunk before it was promulgated.

- Type-N TL (TK): 8 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0322.bmp), shared with Type-N TL AO class (4 ships). One database entry (12/41). No upgrades, but it can convert to the AO class on 12/41 (the conversion is "one way" - once a TK converts to AO, it can't come back). No evidence of early war camo.

- Type-N TL AO: Four ships in this class. A single bmp file (0322.bmp), shared with Type-N TL TK class (8 ships). One database entry (12/41). No upgrades or conversions. No evidence of early war camo.

Colors & Profile: The existing shipside matches the photos and models pretty well, but needs a few small tweaks. The front and rear gun platforms are pedestal mounts, all the models feature a large spotlight atop the rear of the forward superstructure, and the lifeboats need better delineation. For colors the existing shipside is fine at the start (a blue-green grey), but we'll transition to a greyish grey in early 1943 and then to merchant green camo in mid-1944.

Armament: The database specifies front & rear Type 88 DP guns and 13mm AA at R&L. The existing shipside has the DP guns, along with a rear-mounted naval gun (the latter will have to be removed as it's not in the database). None of the models or photos show the smaller AA guns, but they would probably be placed atop the bridge as per this model of the Type 1 TL tanker, Omenisan Maru (#2). The AO has additional 25mm AA, but it uses the same bmp file and there's no way to differentiate the two (so they won't be added).

Which brings us to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #3 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The original 0322.bmp file modified as noted above (#4)
1/1943 = Change to greyish grey (and add AA) (#5)
7/1944 = Shift to "merchant green" camo (#6)




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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 143
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 3/29/2020 4:34:53 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

8) Type 1&2 TL Type (3 classes):

There are 3 classes (TK and AO) which share this bmp file. Although the profiles are fairly similar (more on that below), the big difference is the Type-1 has greater speed (18-14 kts) than the Type-2 (14-12 kts), although the carrying capacities are similar (11.6K vs 10.8K). Unlike the Type-N, most of these ships arrive after the war begins, with Type-1 being an early war model, and the Type-2 appearing in 1944 and later.

Motoyuki has 14 models for this class, of which the Kyokuto Maru (see #1) is a good example of the early war Type-1 ships while Saban Maru (#2) has the late war green camo and Type-2 shape.

- Type-1 TL TK: 31 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0323.bmp), shared with Type-1 TL AO class (3 ships) and Type-2 TL TK (29 ships). One database entry (12/41). No upgrades, but it can convert to the AO class on 12/41 (the conversion is "one way" - once a TK converts to AO, it can't come back). No evidence of early war camo.

- Type-1 TL AO: Three ships in this class. A single bmp file (0323.bmp), shared with Type-1 TL TK class (has 8 ships at the start and gains 23 more) and Type-2 TL TK (29 ships). No evidence of early war camo.

- Type-2 TL TK: 29 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0323.bmp), shared with Type-1 TL AO class (3 ships) and Type-1 TL TK (31 ships). One database entry (9/43). No evidence of early war camo. The first ship of this class arrives 1/44.

Colors & Profile: Although the basic "tanker-shape" is universal among these vessels (see #3 for some of the more common items and terminology), the ONI Report (#4) along with the models and photos show quite a few variances, even within the same class:
- AOs have the tripod fueling assemblies at the rear, but TKs do not (#1)
- Most (but not all) of the Type-1 vessels have pipelines and raised walkways above both front and rear decks (#1)
- Most (but not all) of the Type-2 vessels have pipelines and raised walkways only above the rear deck (#2)
- Some of the ships have the funnel mounted toward the middle of the aft superstructure (#2) but most have it located further to the rear (as with the Type-N)
- In addition there are a host of smaller differences involving the shape of the bridge, number and location of masts, angle of bow, etc.

It's impossible to account for all that in a shared bmp file, but we can develop a shipside that is "mostly Type-1" for the opening phase of the war, and then transition to the "mostly Type-2" shape much later on (since none of the latter arrive until 1944). For colors we'll use the Type-N approach; the existing shipside at the start (a blue-green grey), then greyish grey in early 1943, and finally merchant green camo in mid-1944.

Armament: The database specifies a different weapons layout for each of the three classes. The lowest common denominator is the Type-1 TL with front & rear Type 88 DP guns and 13mm AA at R&L, so we'll use this for all of them. The existing shipside has the DP guns, while several of the models show the AA atop the bridge (we'll add this with the first color change, same as the Type-N).

Taking all that into account, here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #5 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The original 0323.bmp file with various modifications (#6)
2/1943 = Shift to greyish grey (and add AA) (#7)
8/1944 = Switch to "merchant green" camo and Type-2 profile (#8)




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< Message edited by Kull -- 3/29/2020 4:37:53 PM >


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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 144
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 3/30/2020 3:00:06 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

9) Manzyu TM Type (2 classes):

A mid-size size group of pre-war Tankers (as indicated by the "TM" acronym), these ships have low speed (14-11 kts) but medium carrying capacity (TK=7.9K, AO=6.8K). As with the Type-N (although significantly less important), they are few in number and cannot be replaced. Two classes (TK and AO) share a single bmp file. Motoyuki has 1 model for this class, the San Diego Maru (see #1) which features the late war green camo.

- Manzyu TM TK: 13 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0324.bmp), shared with Manzyu TM AO class (0 ships). One database entry (12/41). No upgrades, but it can convert to the AO class on 12/41 (the conversion is "one way" - once a TK converts to AO, it can't come back). No evidence of early war camo.

- Manzyu TM AO: Zero ships in this class. A single bmp file (0324.bmp), shared with Manzyu TM TK class (13 ships) from which it can convert. No evidence of early war camo.

Colors & Profile: The existing shipside works pretty well, but needs a bluff bow, fewer masts, and some other tweaks. For colors the current blue-green grey is fine at the start, but we'll transition to a greyish grey in early 1943 and then to merchant green camo in mid-1944.

Armament: The database specifies front & rear Type 88 DP guns and 13mm AA at R&L. The existing shipside has a rear-mounted DP gun, but nothing else, so the others are needed. As with the Type-N, the AO class has additional 25mm AA which can't be added since both classes share the same bmp file.

Here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #2 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The original 0324.bmp file with various modifications (#3)
3/1943 = Change to greyish grey (and add AA) (#4)
9/1944 = Switch to "merchant green" camo (#5)




Attachment (1)

< Message edited by Kull -- 3/30/2020 3:02:03 PM >


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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 145
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 3/31/2020 4:54:15 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

10) Type-1 TM Type (2 classes):

A mid-size group of Tankers (as indicated by the "TM" acronym), all of which were built after the war began. These ships have medium level speed (14-11 kts) and carrying capacity (TK=8.2K, AO=7.3K). Motoyuki has 3 models for this class, of which the Yuho Maru (see #1) is a good example of the mid-war ships while Ryoei Maru (#2) has the late war green camo.

- Type-1 TM TK: 30 ships in this class. A single bmp file (0325.bmp), shared with Type-1 TM AO class (0 ships). One database entry (2/42). No upgrades, but it can convert to the AO class on 6/42 (the conversion is "one way" - once a TK converts to AO, it can't come back). The first ship of this class arrives 4/42. No evidence of early war camo.

- Type-1 TM AO: Zero ships in this class. A single bmp file (0325.bmp), shared with Type-1 TM TK class (30 ships) from which it can convert. No evidence of early war camo.

Colors & Profile: Most of the models, pictures, and the ONI profile (#3) provide a strong indication that the existing shipside is incorrect. The raised pipelines & walkways need to be removed from the forward weather deck, while the funnel should move further to the rear. As with most other tanker classes, the existing shipside color is fine at the start (a blue-green grey), but we'll shift to a greyish-grey in early 194, to merchant green camo in mid-1944, and finally a rusty green in 1945.

Armament: Per the database, each class has front & rear Type 88 DP guns and both 13mm and 25mm AA at R&L. The existing shipside has the DP weapons, but not the AA. Both models show the AA in the usual place atop the bridge, but also in tubs positioned at the fore part of the after superstructure. We'll add these with the first color change.

Which brings us to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #4 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The revised 0325.bmp file (#5)
4/1943 = Switch to greyish grey (and add AA) (#6)
10/1944 = Change to "merchant green" camo (#7)
3/1945 = Shift to "rusty green" (#8)




Attachment (1)

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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 146
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 4/1/2020 4:30:23 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

11) Type-1 TS Type (2 classes):

A small-size set of Tankers (as indicated by the "TS" acronym). Oddly enough, the TSd class is not present in any of the standard scenarios (nor DaBabes). Presumably the devs felt that further subdividing the role of "small Tanker" was unnecessary. Even the January 1945 ONI report (see #1) reflects a high degree of uncertainty about these vessels: "There is a strong possibility, therefore, that the designation TS belongs to a design at present unidentified and of which few were produced." Anyway, Motoyuki has 1 model which is probably of this class, the Soei Maru (#2) which features the late war green camo.

- Type-1 TS TK: 31 ships in this class, all present at the start. A single bmp file (0326.bmp), shared with Type-1 TSd TK class (0 ships). One database entry (12/41) and no upgrades or conversions. No evidence of early war camo.

- Type-1 TSd TK: Zero ships in this class. A single bmp file (0326.bmp), shared with Type-1 TS TK class (0 ships). One database entry (12/41) and no upgrades or conversions. No evidence of early war camo.

Colors & Profile: The ONI report and the model differ from the existing shipside in several ways (raised pipeline location, funnel position, number of masts, etc), so those changes will be made. As for colors, we'll start with the existing blue/green-grey and then shift to merchant green camo in late 1944.

Armament: Per the database, both classes have a forward weapons platform (Type 88 DP for the TS class and 25mm AA for the TSd class) and both have 13mm AA at R&L (being adjacent to the bridge, the latter is effectively invisible). The existing shipside has a single stern-mounted weapon, so we'll need to move that to the stem.

Here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #3 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The revised 0326.bmp file (#4)
11/1944 = Change to "merchant green" camo (#5)

Note: While there are 13 TK types overall, all were reviewed in only 11 posts because there are two TK classes in #8 and two more here in #11. Which means we're now finished with the TKs. Next up, the AO types!




Attachment (1)

< Message edited by Kull -- 4/4/2020 9:10:18 PM >


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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 147
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 4/2/2020 1:20:21 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

This is the 5th of 7 AO Types, the other 4 having been reviewed earlier since they share bmps with their associated TK types:

1) Type-N TL AO: See Post #143
2) Type-1 TL AO: See Post #144
3) Manzyu TM AO: See Post #145
4) Type-1 TM AO: See Post #146

5) Sunosaki AO: Two ships in this class. A single bmp file (0097.bmp), not shared. First ship arrives in Oct 1943 (2nd on Jan 44). Two database entries (9/43 and 9/44) and no conversions. No evidence of camo.

From combinedfleet.com: "The IJN completed two types of aviation gasoline tankers, the SUNOSAKI and ASHIZURI-classes consisting of four ships in total. The ships were planned in the 1939 and 1940 constuction programs. Each ship was to provide underway replenishment for two fleet aircraft carriers with gasoline, ammunition, food, supplies and aircraft repair/parts shop. The SUNOSAKIs were fitted with a heavy-lift crane aft of the mainmast for handling spare aircraft engines.

Sunosaki was the lead ship of her two-ship class that included Takasaki. Three other ships of the class were cancelled before they were laid down. Sunosaki and Takasaki were completed in 1943, but by then they were needed to transfer fuel from the East Indies to Japan. Both were sunk by American forces in 1944."


Colors & Profile: The existing shipside is a very close match with the photos and line drawings (see #1), but will require a few armament changes (discussed below). Since these were specially constructed naval support vessels, the colors should begin with navalized bluish-grey, transitioning to a greyish grey in mid-1944 (the timing will match that of the upgrade), and ultimately getting quite rusty in 1945.

Armament: The database calls for front & rear 12 cm DP guns and 13mm AA at R&L. The existing bmp file has the DP guns, while the AA is invisible at this scale. The shipside does include a central weapons platform but that is really a late war modification - a close examination of the photo and as-built drawing reveals that it should start off as a spotlight (although we'll add it back as the 25mm AA platform during the 1944 upgrade. At which point it also needs Type 21 air-search radar. Although not visible in any photos, this is the large "bed spring" type which is typically mounted above the bridge, so that's where we'll place it.

Accordingly, here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #2 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The revised bluish-grey 0097.bmp file (#3)
9/1944 = Change to greyish grey (and add AA & radar) (#4)
4/1945 = Shift to rusty brownish-grey (#5)




Attachment (1)

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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 148
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 4/3/2020 3:09:14 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

6) Ashizuri AO: Two ships in this class. A single bmp file (0096.bmp), not shared. First ship arrives in Feb 1943 (2nd in December). Two database entries (1/43 and 3/44) and no conversions. No evidence of camo.

From combinedfleet.com: "Ashizuri (see #1) was the lead ship of a two-ship class that included Shioya (#2). The ASHIZURIs were larger than the SUNOSAKIs and were also designed to provide underway resupply of carrier groups with aviation gasoline, bombs, torpedoes and other supplies. Both Ashizuri and Shioya were completed in 1943 and sunk by American submarines in 1944."

http://www.combinedfleet.com/Ashizuri_c.htm

Colors & Profile: As with the Sunosaki class, the existing shipside is very similar to the photos and models, but will require a few small changes (such as double booms for the rear mast) and a few others that are discussed below. These too were specially constructed naval support vessels, so the colors should begin with navalized bluish-grey, transitioning to a greyish grey in early 1944 (the timing will match that of the upgrade). To help differentiate them from the similar Sunosaki-class, we'll forgo the rust.

Armament: The database calls for front & rear 12.7 cm DP guns and both 25mm (#3-A) and 13mm (#3-B) AA at R&L, all in place right from the start. The existing bmp file has the DP guns and the 25mm, while the 13mm AA is obscured by it's location adjacent to the superstructure. We need to add a spotlight amidships and (as part of the 1944 upgrade) a Type 21 air-search radar mounted above the bridge.

Which brings us to the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #4 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The revised bluish-grey 0096.bmp file (#5)
3/1944 = Switch to greyish grey (and add radar) (#6)




Attachment (1)

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(in reply to Kull)
Post #: 149
RE: Japanese Ships – Colors & Camouflage - 4/5/2020 3:40:54 PM   
Kull


Posts: 2029
Joined: 7/3/2007
From: El Paso, TX
Status: offline
TK-AO Types:

7) Shiretoko AO: 12 ships in this class (2 arrive in 1944). A single bmp file (0098.bmp), not shared. Three database entries (12/41, 9/42, & 3/44), and no conversions. Two of the starting 10 have photo evidence of "zebra" camo.

It's kind of appropriate that we finish off the "Category III" reviews with this class, since way back in Post #3, I talked about types of ship camouflage which the US Naval Technical Mission report (pg 7) called "conspicuously bad examples" that were "often traced to independent action on the part of individuals not qualified to plan camouflage."

And promptly posted a pic of AO Iro wearing her unusual zebra camo (see #1). Little did I know then, but another ship of this class, Hayatomo (incorrectly named "Hayamoto" in the AE database) had a different sort of white line camo that was, if anything, even stranger and more inexplicable (#2). Neither TROM gives a date for when this camo was applied, and the only clues come from photo captions: "IRO in warime camouflage scheme" and "Imperial Japanese Navy oiler Hayatomo on 26 December 1942, Seletar, Singapore"

It turns out the idea of "zebra camo" was far from unusual, and originated as one of many "razzle dazzle" WW1 ship camouflage patterns. Accordingly it's quite possible that both of these oilers had camo applied even before the war began, and absent anything definitive that's what we'll do here. Admittedly we only have camo evidence for 2 vessels in this class, but that equals the "1 in 5" ratio we've used as a baseline for camo yes-no decisions with other ship classes. As an aside, zebra camo was also used by some Allied ships in WW2 such as the French light cruiser Gloire (#3) and US PT-170 (#4).

But it doesn't end here. The USNTM report also tells us that Iro (incorrectly referred to as "Ishiro") was repainted in an experimental new camo pattern which (as per the drawing in the report - see #5) was almost certainly the precursor design for merchant green camouflage. The TROM expands on that, and in so doing confirms that the "dazzle" pattern was still in use:

"30 November 1943:
Dry docked (at Kure). While undergoing repairs, an experimental camouflage is painted on replacing the dazzle camouflage previously adopted. The new camouflage consists of dark grey overall, except for bow and stern that are painted light grey to give the impression of a smaller, faster oiler with raked bow and cruiser stern. The camouflage is deemed successful, but is not duplicated elsewhere."


The USNTM report expands on that: "The camouflage, designed to be seen from abeam to be effective, was a special case and was believed to have been left unchanged when the order for using the Number Two color system was issued." Utilizing this historically important camo scheme is clearly called for, but since it was not applied to any other ships in this class, we'll go ahead and shift them all over to merchant green camo in mid-1944.

As for the profile, Motoyuki has modeled a few ships in this class, of which Tsurumi (#6) is the best representative. For the most part it matches the existing shipside quite well, although we'll need to make a few minor changes.

Armament: The database says that front & rear Type 88 DP guns and 13mm AA at R&L were in place at the start, with 25mm AA (F&R) added during the 9/42 upgrade, and lastly additional 25mm at R&L along with Type 21 radar arriving in 3/44. Other than the Type 88s, none of this appears in photos or models, so we'll just assume that the early AA weapons were obscured by other structural elements, but will add the 9/44 items atop the bridge.

Taking all that into account, here's the foldered plan (for comparison purposes, #7 is the current AE shipside):

12/6/41 = The "zebra camo" 0098.bmp file (#8)
11/1943 = Shift to the experimental 2-tone grey camo (#9)
9/1944 = Switch to "merchant green" camo and add AA & Radar (#10)


This completes all the ships in Category III! In Post #100, I laid out a "first release" plan, which included all vessels in Categories I through III and possibly the odd ducks of Category IV. However I've given this a lot of thought recently, and believe this is the right time for the first release to occur. Sometime in the next few days I will open a new thread with a link to the download file (along with instructions and comments), and those who are interested can finally see what this thing looks like in-game. Here's hoping it's all been worthwhile!




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< Message edited by Kull -- 4/8/2020 4:10:49 AM >


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