Bases effect training in two ways:
1. Weather conditions in bases can cause aircraft not to fly (and reduce rate of training)
2. Limited Aviation support can cause aircraft to stay damaged longer and reduce training sortie rates.
To my knowledge there is no other effect.
You cannot talk about training programs without understanding how it all works. I have to talk about the factors that influence the rate of advancement in pilot experience and skill. Before all else, let me quote section 7 of the Pilot Management Addendum (I have edited a bit):
• Skill and experience training has been changed slightly. They both increase incrementally.
• Points are accumulated for each skill/experience and once a certain level is reached, a point is added to the actual skill/experience level.
• The cutover level is based on the current skill/experience level with some randomness thrown in. So as the skill/experience level increases, it takes more accumulated points to reach the next level.
• Combat gains points faster than straight training, and combat is generally required to reach 70+ skill/experience levels.
• Experience levels behave like skill levels with the one exception. If the Experience level is higher than the best skill by more than 5, then a skill, based on the group’s mission, might gains the accumulated points instead.
Groups can fly normal Training missions (with a training percent) which occur in the AM and PM air phases.
• These gain both skill and experience points.
• Groups will also gain skill and experience (after passing a training check against the training percent of the group) at the end of each day:
○ if the pilot’s experience is less 50 (plus pilot’s missions and kills) and less than the overall group experience level
○ if the pilot’s experience is less 50 (plus pilot’s missions and kills) and less than the leader’s skill
○ if pilot is in a dedicated Training group with some Instructors (adds higher increments to accumulators)
○ if pilot is in a dedicated Training group without Instructors (higher success and slightly higher increments than a normal group)
○ if pilot is in a group with some training percent (number of veteran pilots (experience of 80+) increases chance of successful training)"
I use the following terms to describe these factors:
• Training Flight Effects
• Group Experience Bonus
• Leader Bonus
Please note that the dedicated training squadrons were removed in a patch and do not exist in Scenario 1.
Experience Gain under 50 Exp
After performing a variety of tests on rates of training increase, there are three primary factors that influence training rates for pilots under 50 Exp:
1) Flying training missions: Each pilot that flies will gain some amount of experience, period. This does not mean that the pilot will gain a point in Exp or a skill like Air every turn. It means that the pilots will accumulate points toward skill and exp gains. To fly, they have to have a plane.
2) Pilots with Exp < 51 and a leader with Leadership rating greater than the pilots Exp will gain experience if he passes a flying check.
3) Pilots with experience less than the average experience of the group they are in will get some bonus experience.
After analyzing the testing results, the relative effects of the three sources of Exp gain for a given pilots rate of experience gain is something like the following:
The Leadership Bonus and Group Experience Bonus contribute approximately equal amounts to advancement. Training Flight Effects only apply to pilots that actually fly training missions, but each mission is approximately equal to the Leadership Bonus or the Group Experience bonus. Since up to 2 missions can be flown per pilot, per day, the Training Flight Effects can represent 50% of the pilot's advancement rate. The key factors in this are the number of planes (full complement of planes is best), training percentage (should always be 100%), and the weather (avoid monsoon, cold, northern zones for training). Veteran pilots appear to have some effect upon experience gain as well, but the impact seems to be lesser than the other three factors. It is difficult to quantify, but groups with Veteran pilots (81+ Exp) seemed to advance about 10% faster than similar groups with non-Veteran pilots.
Experience and Skill gain above 50 Exp
Experience gain above 50 seems to be solely influenced by flying missions, training or otherwise. None of the other bonuses appeared to have any effect, even when the mission count was increased as is suggested by the paragraph above from the Pilot Training Addendum.