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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/6/2020 6:01:41 PM   
asl3d


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Half Squads Japan Imperial Army




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/7/2020 6:12:27 PM   
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Jukikanju Type 92 MMG

With heavier MGs, the old Year-3 Type of 1914 vintage was the root of all subsequent mechanical woes in Japanese MGs. The 7.7mm version, the Type 92, became the "standard" Japanese MMG, and was a copy of the Hotchkiss, but rechambered for the small, no tapering 6.5mm round which compounded extraction problems even with oiled rounds. It was used extensively by the Imperial Japanese Army and Collaborationist Chinese forces. Captured weapons were also used by Chinese National Revolutionary Army troops against the Japanese.
The Jukikanju Type 92 had 30 round strip-feed, as well as the heavy, 122-lb tripod. At least three men were needed just to move the MG. The Type 92 refers to the Japanese Imperial year 2592 – 1932 in the Gregorian calendar – in which the gun entered service, was designed by Kijiro Nambu and was built by Hino Motors and Hitachi, and its total production was about 45,000 guns.
The Type 92 was essentially a scaled-up version of the Type 3 Heavy Machine Gun, with its calibre increased to 7.7 mm, and like the Type 3 was air cooled, ammo strip-fed, and based on the Hotchkiss M1914. It could use both a rimless and semi-rimmed 7.7x58mm Shiki round. A 7.7 mm round could be used if needed or if other ammunition supplies dwindled. Rounds fired from the gun traveled at about 730 m/s (2,400 ft/s), and the rate of fire was about 450 rpm. It was sometimes used as a light anti-aircraft gun during the Pacific War. It was nicknamed "the woodpecker" by Western Allied soldiers because of the characteristic sound it made when fired due to its relatively low rate of fire, and the "chicken neck" by Chinese soldiers due to its appearance. The Type 92 had a maximum range of 4,500 meters, but a practical range of 800 meters.
The gun was intended to be fired on a tripod with a team of 3 men. The unusual tripod was designed with removable carry poles, so that the weapon could be transported fully assembled for quicker deployment. An unusual characteristic of this gun was the placement of its iron sights – canted slightly to the right instead of center. A number of different sights were produced for the weapon, the Type 93 and Type 94 periscopic sights as well as the Type 96 telescopic sight. A ring-type anti-aircraft sight was also produced.
Major problems with this weapon included the short feed strips, which did not allow for as high a volume of fire as a belt-fed gun, and the oiler, which enabled better extraction in clean conditions but could bring dirt inside the gun in the field. The gun has an internal oil pump which is mechanically activated by the bolt. The oil pump dispenses a small amount of oil onto a brush, which then lubricates each cartridge as it is fed into the gun.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/8/2020 7:04:33 PM   
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Japan Kokura Type 96 LMG

A cause of the high incidence of misfires was the damp of the PTO's mate affecting the powder. Poor packaging and storage was the rule, hermetically sealed boxes were non-existent, and waterproof paper rarely used. Many of the components in Japanese munitions, as with the grenades, were simply inferior to their Western equivalents, and in the main were obsolete materials. As even these supplies ran out, the use of substitutes like pig-fat as a lubricant only added to the list of woes, jams and misfires. The Year-11 Type LMG's complicated feed mechanism could not cope with a high ROF and needed oiled rounds to ensure proper spent-round extraction, and to guarantee even a modicum of reliability the power of its 6.5mm cartridge had to be reduced with a corresponding deterioration in ballistic performance.
The Type 96 light machine gun was a light machine gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the interwar period and in World War II. It was first introduced in 1936, and fires the 6.5x50mm Arisaka from 30-round top-mounted magazines. A combination of unimpressive ballistic performance and a lack of reliability caused the Imperial Japanese Army to try and replace the Type 96 with the Type 99 Light Machine Gun, though both saw major usage until the end of the war. The earlier Type 11 light machine gun was a lightweight machine gun, which could be easily transportable by an infantry squad into combat. However, the open hopper design of the Type 11 allowed dust and grit to enter into the gun, which was liable to jam in muddy or dirty conditions due to issues with poor dimensional tolerances. This gave the weapon a bad reputation with Japanese troops, and led to calls for its redesign. The Army's Kokura Arsenal issued a new design, designated the Type 96 light machine gun, in 1936. The gun was produced at Kokura, Nagoya Arsenal and Mukden between 1936 and 1943, with a total production run of about 41,000. While the Japanese design was completely different internally, it did resemble the ZB vz. 26 in its basic layout using the top feed magazine and a bipod mount.
As with the Type 11, it continued to use the same 6.5x50mm Arisaka cartridges as the Type 38 rifle infantry rifle, although the more powerful 7.7x58mm Arisaka round had already been adopted and was starting to enter into service with front line combat units. The Type 96 also had a folding bipod attached to the gas block, and could be fitted with the standard infantry bayonet, which could be attached to the gas block below the barrel. The Type 96 came into active service in 1936 and was intended to replace the older Type 11; however the Type 11 had already been produced in large quantities, and both weapons remained in service until the end of the war. The Type 96 was regarded as rugged and reliable, but its 6.5 mm bullets lacked penetration against cover.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/9/2020 6:22:40 PM   
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Kokura Type 97 ATR 20L

Compared to the other participants of World War 2, the Japanese were badly equipped with infantry-held AT weapons. Only the emergence of the Tank Hunter Hero after 1943 partially remedied this major shortcoming. Apart from its weight, the 20mm Type 97 ATR had a savage recoil, poor sights and shoulder-controlled traverse which made it hard to hit moving targets; so, not surprisingly, it was unpopular and rarely used in action. This was probably just as well, given its inability to deal with even the early versions of the Stuart, let alone the Lee/Grant or Sherman tanks.
The Type 97 began development in the 1930s. The Kokura Arsenal built eight prototypes in 1937. It identified several problems that needed to fixed and a batch of fifty guns was built for operational trials in 1938. After another round of trials in December at the infantry and cavalry schools, the weapon was accepted as the Type 97 Automatic Cannon.
The gun has a gas-operated delayed-blowback mechanism in which the barrel and receiver also recoiled to help steady the weapon. The Type 97 was the heaviest anti-tank rifle of World War II and weighs 52 kilograms ready to fire, minus the gun shield. It uses a seven-round removable box magazine mounted above the receiver. The gun can fire a dozen rounds per minute. It has an overall length of 2.09 metres and the removable barrel, including the muzzle brake, was 1.065 metres (53-calibers) long.
The Type 97 fired solid-steel armour-piercing-tracer (AP-T), high-explosive-tracer and high-explosive incendiary-tracer shells. The initial AP-T round was the Type 97 and it had a softer grade of steel than the later Type 100.
Production of the Type 97 began in 1939 at the Kokura Arsenal with the first of 950 that were made through 1941. Production ceased that year, although a further 100 rifles were built by the Nihon Seikosho Company in the first half of 1943. Including prototypes, a total of 1,108 rifles were manufactured. Beginning in 1940, the barrels were chrome-plated to extend their lives. The Type 97 was assigned to Imperial Japanese Army infantry battalions, normally on the basis of a single anti-tank platoon allocated to each infantry company. Over long distances, the Type 97 was broken down into three parts to be carried by the horses. The weapon first saw combat during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939, where disabled a number of the lightly-armoured vehicles used by the Soviets. The Type 97 was not extensively deployed in China until the following year, by which time they were mostly used as infantry support weapons. The rifle was not widely deployed in the Southwest Pacific during World War II, although it was used by the Teishin Shudan paratroopers of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. The Type 97's 20 mm round was no longer effective against modern tanks after 1942.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/10/2020 5:52:08 PM   
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****otsubakurai lunge mine

The ****otsubakurai lunge mine was a suicidal anti-tank weapon developed and used by the Empire of Japan during the Second World War. It used a HEAT type charge. This weapon was used by the CQC units of the Imperial Japanese Army. The weapon itself was a conical hollow charge anti-tank mine, placed inside a metallic container and attached to the end of a wooden stick. The weapon was officially adopted by the Japanese Army in 1945; in that year it caused its first victims in the Pacific Theater, where it commonly saw action against American armour. Later that year, some Japanese Imperial Army manuals of the weapon were discovered by US troops.
The weapon itself was a conical hollow charge attached to one end of the weapon, which was a wooden stick used to hold the weapon during its transport and use. The mine had equally spaced three legs facing forwards, all around the conical explosive base of the weapon. The detonator of the weapon was situated at the end of the conical base.
The mine was 30.48 cm in length, and the wooden stick was 99.06 cm, which made the total length of the weapon 129.54 cm. The mine had a diameter of 8 cm, and its body was about 3.175 cm in diameter. Its total weight was 6.48 kg, of which 2.948 kg were explosives.
To use the mine, the soldier would remove the security pin, and then charge the enemy armour, just like in a bayonet charge, making the top of the mine collide with the objective. The weapon needed to be held by the center with the left hand and by the bottom with the other hand. When the legs of the mine hit the objective, the handle was pulled forward, cutting a pin and making the detonator move forward to the detonator charge. This would set off the mine, blowing up its user and, probably, the targeted enemy armour.
The mine was capable of penetrating about 150 mm of RHA at an angle of 90º, and up to 100 mm at an angle of 60º. However, the mine would almost always impact at 90º because the impact angle with the objective would be decided by the weapon's user, and he would probably aim for a 90º armour plate.
The weapon was used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the later stages of the Second World War in the Pacific Theater against American armour, until the end of the war in 1945, the same year that the weapon was introduced into service. However, no report has been given which shows that it actually worked as a weapon.
The U.S. Intelligence reports in March 1945 that they met this weapon for the first time in Leyte island, The Philippines in 1944, and later in Manila as well. It also reports that "To date all attempts by the enemy to use the Lunge Mine against our tanks have met with failure" and rates it as "Perhaps the oddest of these antitank charges".




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/11/2020 7:23:34 PM   
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Mukden Type 99 LMG

The Year-11 Type's replacement, the Type 96, never superseded its predecessor as supply never equalled demand—and it still required non-standard, low-powered cartridges. In addition, the low-power telescopic sight and the bayonet were extravagant "extras" of doubtful utility. The Type 96's solitary improvement over the Year-11 Type was the quick-change barrel. The Type 99 LMG finally dispensed with the need for oiled rounds, but was rather heavy for its role and, despite appearing in 1939, was built in relatively small numbers; by default it was Japan's best LMG—but demanded a new, rimless, non-standard 7.7mm round.
In 1939 the Japanese army was in the process of switching to a larger and more powerful 7.7 mm cartridge which also had no rim, which improved cartridge handling. This more powerful cartridge required a firearm that had more steel, bigger springs and a heavier bolt to handle the extra forces involved. This required a switch from the Type 38 rifle to the Type 99 Rifle which could handle the more powerful round. Similarly, it was necessary to develop a new version of the reliable Type 96 light machine gun that would also be able to use this new larger caliber; thus the advantages of common ammunition between riflemen and machine gunners could continue. The Type 99 light machine gun was produced at Kokura, Nagoya Arsenal and Mukden with a total production of about 53,000 weapons.
The Type 99 was basically the same design as the Type 96 light machine gun, and had a number of parts in common. However, it dispensed with the oiler and had better primary extraction, increasing reliability over its predecessors. Early models had a mono-pod at the stock and a flash suppressor on the muzzle, which was screwed onto a threaded portion of the gun barrel. A top-mounted curved detachable box magazine held 30 rounds, and the finned gun barrel could be rapidly changed to avoid overheating.
A standard infantry bayonet could be attached to the gas block below the barrel, but on the battlefield this feature proved inconsequential due to the weight of the gun and the fact that the blade was largely obstructed by the flash hider when it was fixed on the muzzle.
The Type 99 came into active service in 1939, and was used side-by-side with the older Type 11 and Type 96, as these models had been produced in large quantities and many front line troops continued to use the Type 38 rifles with their 6.5 mm ammunition. All three weapons remained in service until the end of the war.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/12/2020 6:58:44 PM   
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Nambu Type 11 Taisho LMG

Pride of place among Japan's poorest weapons must go to her machine guns. If Adolf Hitler has been described as the Allies' greatest general, then Colonel—later General—Kirijo Narnbu and his colleagues can be regarded as the Allies' greatest armorers, since their adoption of the already deficient French Hotchkiss mechanism, coupled with their inexplicable refusal to consider better foreign designs, left the Imperial Japan Army and Imperial Japan Navy (like their Italian allies) with a range of MGs collectively referred to as an "unpre-possessing collection of antiques" and as "some of the most abysmal designs ever to see daylight". Considering that Japan was among the first to use MGs in action with sound tactics, this was rather ironic. To make matters worse, the Japanese used no less than eight different MG cartridges throughout the war, all of which suffered from imperfect machining (by Western standards) during production—"an unwelcome by-product of industrial laxity", since Japan's weapons industry traditionally relied on extensive sub-contracting. Combat experience in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 had convinced the Japanese of the utility of machine guns in providing covering fire for advancing infantry. This was reinforced by first-hand observations of European combat tactics by Japanese military attachés during the First World War, and the Army Technical Bureau was tasked with the development of a lightweight machine gun which could be easily transported by an infantry squad. The resultant “Type 11 light machine gun” (named after the 11th year of the reign of Emperor Taishō, or 1922) was the first light machine gun to be mass-produced in Japan and the oldest Japanese light machine gun design to see service in the Pacific War.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/13/2020 6:33:19 PM   
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Japan Taisho Type 11 INF 37*

Many nations built equivalent 37mm infantry guns, including Japan and Russia. The Japanese initially built a rather more substantial weapon called simply the Sogekiho (flat trajectory weapon) using a fairly powerful 37x133 round, but the resulting gun was rather heavy and bulky for infantry work. After only three years a replacement was standardized as the Taisho Type 11 Infantry Gun, this firing a less powerful 37x113 cartridge, but reaping the benefits of being lighter and more portable, and adding a semi-automatic breech function.
The Type 11 37 mm infantry support gun was an infantry support gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army. The Type 11 designation was given to this gun as it was accepted in the 11th year of Emperor Taishō's reign (1922). This weapon was listed by the Japanese as "11th year model low trajectory infantry gun." The gun fired the Type 12 high-explosive shell, which contained 41 grams of explosive, as well as an ineffective anti-tank shell.
The Type 11 infantry gun entered service in 1922. It was intended to be used against enemy machine gun positions and light tanks. It resembles the U.S. 37-mm infantry gun, M 1916. The Type 11 infantry gun was based on the French Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modèle 1916 TRP, for which Japan bought a production license after World War I, and modified it to suit Japanese requirements. It fired from a tubular steel tripod and used a vertically sliding breechblock, that was opened and closed by a lever on the right side of the gun. The gun was fired by pulling sharply on a cord hanging from its rear, which drove a lever into the firing pin, which impacted and initiated the percussion cap in the rear of the shell.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/14/2020 6:43:01 PM   
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Type 93 and Type 100 Flamethrower.

The Type 93 flamethrower, largely based on European designs, entered service in 1933. It was used in Manchukuo against the ill-prepared National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and against local warlord forces with considerable psychological effect. However, its ignition system based on a heated electrical wire had reliability issues under cold weather conditions which led to a redesign designated the Type 100 flamethrower in 1940. Both types remained in service during World War II.
Both the Type 93 and Type 100 consisted of a fuel unit, fuel hose, and flame gun. A modification in the design of the flame gun is the only difference between the two types. The fuel unit consisted of three 38 cm long, 15 cm diameter cylinders: two outer fuel cylinders and a central nitrogen pressure cylinder. The total fuel capacity was 12.3 liters. Fuel was a mixture of gasoline and tar. Pressure was controlled by a manually operated needle valve, one on the top of each of the two fuel cylinders. This tank assembly was fitted with straps to permit it to be carried on the operator's back like an infantry pack.
The 1,140 mm fuel hose was made of reinforced rubber tubing, with brass fittings on both ends. The flame gun, three to four feet long, was a 25 mm diameter tube with a fuel ejection handle located near the hose connection, and a 6 mm nozzle with the firing mechanism attached to the other end.
Fuel (in the Type 100) was ignited by a blank cartridge fired from a revolver mechanism in the flame gun, which held ten rounds. The fuel ejection handle fired a cartridge when it opened the fuel ejection valve. When the handle was returned to its closed position parallel to the tube, the flow of fuel stopped, and the magazine revolved to place a new cartridge in the firing position. The duration of a continuous discharge was 10 to 12 seconds with a maximum range of 22 to 27 meters.
Flamethrowers were assigned to engineering regiments within each Japanese infantry division. A typical engineering regiment would be equipped with between six and twenty flamethrowers, which were operated by a designated flamethrower company. The Type 100 Flamethrower was primarily used in the early stages of the Pacific War, mostly in the Dutch East Indies, Burma and the Philippines. Type 100-equipped Japanese paratroopers participated in the Battle of Palembang in 1942.
Flame-projecting weapons took a backseat to more conventional ranged infantry arms such as rifles, grenades, and anti-tank systems by the end of war. Flamethrowers were always specialist weapons to be used under special circumstances and often within the range of enemy rifle and machine gun fire. Flamethrower infantry were easily identified on the battlefield and targeted when possible by the enemy all the while requiring something of a protective entourage when plying their battlefield trade. Interestingly flamethrowers were used by the Japanese against enemy tanks (though with limited success) - mostly due to the fact that the Japanese Army managed no better substitute for stopping a well-armored tank.



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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/15/2020 6:33:45 PM   
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Type 99 Satchel Charge

The Japanese, like the Germans and to a lesser extent, the British, had experimented with magnetic anti-tank weapons. Unlike both of them though, Japan was successful. The primary magnetic anti-tank weapon was the deceptively simple Model 99 Hakobakurai ‘Turtle’ mine, reminiscent in shape to a turtle. The Japanese had, from about May 1942, obtained shaped charge technology from the Germans. Appearing on the battlefield from 1943 onwards, the Hakobakurai weighed just over 1.2 kg and was filled with 0.74 kg of cast blocks of Cyclonite/T.N.T. arranged in a circle. A further development of it, known as the ‘Kyuchake Bakurai’, was rumored and capable of being thrown up to 9.1 m, although as of October 1944, no examples were known to have been found. This Type 99 anti-tank mine resembles a disc-shaped canvas cloth bag, with a snap-fastened flap on the outer edge for inserting eight blocks of explosive. There are also four equally spaced permanent magnets attached to the outer edge of the mine and an external fuze. When used, the safety pin was pulled, the fuze cap given a sharp tap, and the mine was then placed or tossed on armour plate within a range of ten feet, there being a delay of about five to six seconds. Four magnets were attached to the casing made of hemp cloth, along with an external fuze. The fuze had a time delay, which enabled it to be used as an anti-tank hand grenade, or a demolition charge. Once the safety pin was removed, it was armed, striking the fuze ignited a powder delay train. The mine detonated after a five to ten seconds delay, giving enough time for it to be thrown. Although “the device appears to be workable,” using Type 99 hand grenades in this way as detonators would cause a delay. Presumably it would detonate quickly enough to stop a slow-moving tank that ran over it. Placed against thin points of armor or on the hatch of a tank, this mine, when detonated, could penetrate 20 mm of steel plate. With one mine on top of another, this could be increased to 30 mm, although, depending on the armor it was on, it could cause damage to a plate thicker than that. The mine was not a shaped charge and 20 or even 30 mm of armor penetration was not much use against anything but the lightest of Allied tanks deployed against the Japanese, such as the M3 Stuart, unless they were placed in a vulnerable spot such as underneath, on the rear, or over a hatch. However, British testing and examination of these mines reported that, although the penetration was poor, just 20 mm, the shockwave from the blast could scab off the inner face of an armor plate up to 50 mm thick, although the penetration was still limited by it not being a shaped charge. The result also did not include vehicles designed with an inner ‘skin’ either, but the results were still substantial, as it meant that all of the Allied tanks used in the Pacific theatre were vulnerable to these mines depending on where they were placed.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/16/2020 6:53:57 PM   
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Yokosuka Type 93 HMG

The biggest members of the Japanese MG family were the 13.2mm Type 93 (1933) ground gun, and the 12.7mm Type 1 (1941) aircraft gun. The Type 93 HMG was originally designed by the French firm of Hotchkiss. Japan imported a number of twin and quadruple mountings for evaluation purposes in the early 1930s and officially adopted the weapon on 4 February 1933. The Type 93 was produced by the Yokosuka Navy Yard for the Japan Imperial Navy, though the Japan Imperial Army also used this weapon, whose designation was Type Ho. The Type 93 was designed as an antiaircraft gun, but was also often used against ground targets. Production of the Japanese version started in 1935.
Production reached 1,200 guns per month late in 1944. The magazine held 30 rounds and was similar in design to that for the 25 mm AA gun. Used a forged monobloc barrel and the automatics were gas-operated. Actual bore diameter was 13.2 mm. The barrel was secured to the breech mechanism by screw threads, but the gas cylinder connections made changeouts difficult. Two men using a hammer and a spanner wrench could complete a change out in about five minutes.
The Type 93 was used mainly as a ground-based AA weapon on a single tripod or in multiple mounts. It had a top-mounted box magazine holding 30 rounds, and like the German 20mm AA used on the “Flakvierling” mount with similar 20-round magazines, had a little trouble with sustained fire. Like most nations, Japan found that small caliber MGs were inadequate against modern aircraft, but this gun was still produced in large numbers right up to the surrender.
About the effectiveness of the Type 93 the opinions are somewhat divided. According to some the heavy mounts made the weapon unwieldy. Others are of the opinion that the Type 93 was capable of a sustained rate of fire if manned by a well trained crew that changed magazines real fast.
Not surprisingly the Japanese later attempted to copy the US Browning designs to obtain a belt-fed MG; and in due course 7.7mm, 12.7mm and 13.2mm versions appeared (albeit mostly for aircraft use) with a few (officially) available for ground deployment. Consequently, the ever-resourceful Japanese stripped such weapons from wrecked or unserviceable aircraft and improvised mountings for a ground role with, usually, great success. To complete the Japanese quartermaster's nightmare, a host of captured weapons (like the Bren, BAR, Dutch-owned Madsen, Chinese-built Maxim and ZB, and other types) were pressed into service.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/17/2020 6:55:02 PM   
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Japan AVAILABILITY OF SUPPORT WEAPONS




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/18/2020 6:26:26 PM   
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The Type 1 ATG 47L.

The Type 1 47 mm anti-tank gun entered into service in 1942 and the production was assigned to the army's Osaka Arsenal, and approximately 2,300 were produced. The Type 1, developed in 1941, was the first Japanese gun designed specifically for the AT role. It incorporated features of both the German 37mm and Russian 45mm AT pieces, including pneumatic tires which enabled it to be towed by vehicles (hence its "Machine-Moved" designation). When it started to be manufactured was already becoming obsolete against the heavier Allied tanks. The Type 1 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2601 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1941 in the Gregorian calendar.
The design was the first completely indigenous anti-tank gun design completed in Japan, and In terms of performance, the design was still inferior to advanced contemporary designs in western nations. The Type 1 47 mm AT gun was relatively light and easy to handle. It had a very low profile and was intended to be operated from a kneeling or prone position. The gun had a gun shield to protect the gunner. It used a semi-automatic breech block with a horizontal sliding wedge. When the gun was fired the spent shell casing was automatically ejected, and upon loading a fresh shell, the breech block closed automatically. A hydro-spring recoil mechanism was housed under the barrel. The weapon had a split trail which opened to an angle of 60 degrees for firing to improve stability. Transport was by towing behind a truck or horse, via two steel disc wheels fitted with sponge rubber filled tires.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/19/2020 7:22:33 PM   
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Type 10 AA 120L

Originally designed for use aboard destroyers and various other Imperial Japanese Navy vessels, this 4.7" gun was the most common Japanese dual-purpose AA/coast-defense weapon of 100mm or larger calibre. The Japanese Type 10 dual-purpose guns entered production in 1921. They remained in production through the inter-war years and into WW2, equipping both ships and coastal defense batteries. It was still being produced in 1944 and the production of these guns surged due to the demands of the war. A relatively large numbers were employed both to protect airfields and on the more important Pacific islands. In 1944. The Type 10 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, the 10th year of Emperor Taishō's reign, 1927 in the Gregorian calendar.
It was derived from the 12 cm/45 3rd Year Type naval gun. It served as the secondary armament on a number of Japanese aircraft carriers and cruisers and as the main armament on smaller ships, in single or twin mountings. The weapon was originally designed for ship use and was produced in large numbers during 1944. The gun was also adapted for land use as a dual-purpose gun.
The barrel was of auto-fretted mono-block construction and was held in a sleeve cradle mounted on a pedestal mount which permits 360° of traverse. The gun uses a hydro-spring recoil mechanism attached to the sleeve cradle and there are three recoil cylinders located on top of the breech with the two outside cylinders housing the recoil springs, and the center cylinder housing the hydraulic recuperator. The elevating hand wheel is on the right side of the mount, while the traversing hand wheel is on the left. To compensate for muzzle preponderance, spring equilibrators are mounted below the gun barrel. The gun is well balanced, and easy to elevate. A semi-automatic horizontal sliding-wedge breech is used and Fixed QF 120 x 708R ammunition was used.
The gun fired either high explosive or incendiary shrapnel shells that weighed 20.6 kg, with a complete round weighing 32.4 kg. When fired as an anti-aircraft weapon, they had the effective ceiling of 8,500 meters and maximum ceiling of 10,000 meters; when firing at surface targets, the effective rage of 16,000 meters.
A company generally comprised four guns, manned by naval personnel. By 1943, some Special Naval Landing Force contained two companies of these guns.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/20/2020 6:23:54 PM   
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Type 11 Mortar 70*

The Type 11 de 70mm infantry mortar, was a muzzle-loading, rifled bore infantry mortar used by the Japanese. The Type 11 designation was given to this gun as it was accepted in the 11th year of Emperor Taishō's reign. It was first used in 1922 and was the first mortar to be introduced by the Imperial Japanese Army. The mortar was later replaced by the Type 92 battalion gun. It comprised a large, metal-reinforced wooden baseplate to which were attached the barrel, traversing gear and elevating screw. Unlike most medium mortars it had no bipod, its barrel was rifled and it fired unfinned projectiles. To facilitate rapid movement it could be carried on two poles which fit under hooks on the sides of the baseplate.
The Model 11 de 70 mm mortar is exceptional among Japanese mortars in that, although a muzzle-loading weapon, it has a rifled bore. A monopod, similar to the support of the US 4.2-inch chemical mortar, is another distinguishing feature. The total weight of the weapon is 60.7 kg, of which 45.1 kg represents the weight of the base plate. The traverse of the piece is 23 degrees, and its elevation is 37 to 77 degrees. A gunner's quadrant is used to lay in the weapon. It has a level vial, actuated by a knob, a movable arm, and a fixed elevation scale. The elevation scale is graduated in half-degree units from 0 to 55 degrees. The movable arm has a vernier scale which permits readings of 1/16th degree. Before the weapon can be fired, by means of a lanyard attached to a striker arm, a latch pin on the breech end of the tube must be set in its recess.
The complete high explosive (HE) round consists of a fuze, the shell body, and the propellant charge assembly. The fuze is a point-detonating type, consisting of a two-piece brass body, a booster cup, a detonator holder, and a washer. The steel shell body is threaded at the top to receive the fuze assembly, and at the bottom to accommodate the propellant charge assembly. It is marked with a white band near the base, indicating the body of the shell is made of high grade steel and a red band at the nose, indicating it is filled with black powder. The propellant charge assembly consists of the percussion cap, the propellant powder, and an expanding copper rotating band. The propellant charge is ignited when the firing pin hits the percussion cap. The propellant gases expand the copper rotating band against the rifling in the interior of the barrel; the rifling causes the projectile to rotate and thus increases the accuracy of its flight. The projectile is 218.9 mm long and 55.4 mm inches in diameter; the complete round weighs 4 pounds 2.12 kg.
Two 70mm mortars were authorized in the infantry-gun company of infantry battalions; however, in the 1930s they were gradually replaced by Type 92 de 70mm infantry guns. By 1942 few 70mm mortars remained in frontline service.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/21/2020 8:02:47 PM   
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Type 38 75 mm field gun

Although Japan had extensive experience with artillery, as the result of its war with Russia in 1904-05, and had the technology and industrial infrastructure to construct medium or large caliber naval weapons prior to World War I, planners at the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff turned to Krupp in Germany, for the latest trend in artillery design. After the Russo-Japanese War the Japanese imported 400 Krupp Mod. 1905 field guns, and then eventually over 2,000 units, which were designed "Type 38" in Japan, were produced under license by the army’s Osaka Arsenal. The Type 38 designation was given to this gun as it was accepted in the 38th year of Emperor Meiji's reign (1905).
At some point prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War the Type 38 was extensively modified. The piece was trunnioned forward and equilibrators were added to compensate for muzzle heaviness. It was given a hollow box trail that allowed elevation to 43°. The new version was called the "improved Type 38", which remained the main divisional artillery piece of the Imperial Japanese Army through the end of WW2. Both types were still in service in limited numbers by the start of World War II, despite efforts to replace the design with the Type 90 75 mm field gun.
The Type 38 75 mm field gun was a thoroughly conventional design for its day, complete with crew seats on the gun shield and a solid box trail. It had a hydrospring recoil system, interrupted screw type breechblock, and a 1/16-inch gun shield. The original Type 38 gun had a conical interrupted screw, a single box type trail which limited gun elevation to only 16°30'. Also, there were no equilibrators as the trunnions were at the gun barrel's center of balance. All of these shortcomings were remedied with a redesign following World War I. After World War I, these weapons were considered largely obsolete. However, by this time, Japanese production capabilities had improved, and the Type 38 underwent a re-design in Japan to improve the carriage, with a corresponding increase in elevation, range and rate of fire to 10-12 rounds per minute. The Type 38 75 mm field gun (improved) was capable of firing high-explosive, armor-piercing warhead, shrapnel, incendiary, smoke and illumination and gas shells.
Type 38 75 mm field gun equipped independent field artillery battalions and was issued to some Independent Mixed Brigade and Independent Mixed Regiment. Despite its obsolescence, the Type 38 75 mm field gun was found in theatres of operation in the Second Sino-Japanese War, Soviet-Japanese Border Wars and in the Pacific War. The game piece also represents the Type 95 Field Gun (which was adopted in 1935 to replace the Type 90 Field Gun) and the Year-41 Type Horse (i.e., cavalry) Gun. Two 75mm field guns formed a platoon, and four a company.



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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/22/2020 7:35:44 PM   
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Type 41 Rentaiho INF 75*

The Type 41 75 mm mountain gun is a Japanese license-built copy of the Krupp M1908 mountain gun which the Japanese modified to reduce weight. The Type 41 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, the 41st year of Emperor Meiji's reign, 1908 in the Gregorian calendar.
Originally it was the standard pack artillery weapon (i.e., mountain), but in 1936 was turned over to the infantry who authorized a company of four in each infantry regiment for direct-fire support (sometimes two companies were allotted). . After it was superseded by the Type 94 75 mm mountain gun, it was then used as an infantry "regimental" gun, deployed four to each infantry regiment, and referred simply to as the "regimental gun" (rentaiho) (regimental artillery). Two gun shields were produced for the weapon, an early type, which folded into thirds, and a late type, which folded in half.
Two types of impact fuze were available for the Type 97, a 75 mm high explosive round, one with a delay of 0.05 seconds, the second with a delay of 1 second. U.S. Army testing of the weapon at a range of 3,200 yards resulted in 75 percent of the rounds falling in a rectangle 20 by 30 yards. At maximum range (7,800 yards) 75 percent of the rounds fell within a rectangle 10 yards wide and 200 yards long.
As originally organized, a Special Naval Landing Force generally had one or two regimental gun platoons (each with two guns); however, by 1943 they were often replaced by coast-defense/AA artillery. Despite its design age, the Year-41 Type remained in production and was frequently encountered by the Allies. In addition to replacing the Year-41 Type in pack artillery units (which themselves were commonly used as divisional artillery), was issued to certain Independent Mixed Brigade and Independent Mixed Regiment.
In Japanese service the gun was crewed by thirteen men, twelve gunners and a squad leader. When the weapon was being fired there would be one aimer, one loader, one firer, one person to swing the guns aim left or right, a man inserting the fuzes into rounds and handing them to the loader, two gunners lying in reserve to the left and right of the gun position, and the squad leader sitting a little distance to the rear of the weapon. The remaining five men would ferry ammunition in relays from the ammunition squad, which would typically be in cover a few hundred meters behind the gun's position.
The weapon could be transported complete by its thirteen-man squad, or broken down into parts and carried on six pack horses using special harnesses, a seventh horse was used to carry ammunition.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/23/2020 6:28:14 PM   
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Type 88 AA 75

The Type 88 75 mm AA gun was based on the World War I-vintage British Vickers QF 3 inch 20 cwt AA gun. It entered service between 1927 and 1928, and was deployed to virtually every anti-aircraft field artillery unit as protection against medium level aircraft attacks. The Type 88 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2588 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1928 in the Gregorian calendar. It replaced the earlier Type 11 75 mm AA gun in front line combat service, and at the time was equal in performances to any of its contemporaries in western armies and continued to be used on many fronts until the end of the war. Although it was difficult and expensive weapon for Japan to produce with its limited industrial infrastructure and production technology, it was produced in larger numbers than any other medium anti-aircraft weapon in the Japanese inventory. Over 2000 units completed by the time of the surrender of Japan.
The Type 88 75 mm AA gun had a single piece gun barrel with sliding breech, mounted on a central pedestal. The firing platform was supported by five legs, each of which (along with the central pedestal) had adjustable screwed foot for leveling. For transport each of the legs could be folded, and the barrel was also partially retractable. Its maximum effective vertical range was of 7,250 metres.
Tactically employed in battle as a four-gun field battery, and Japanese combat forces found the Type 88 gun's high velocity rounds were extremely effective anti-tank weapon when fired horizontally. The weapon was the standard Japanese mobile antiaircraft artillery weapon and used against Allied forces more than any other artillery weapon.
During both the Battle of Iwo Jima and the Battle of Okinawa it was used effectively with armor-piercing rounds against American M4 Sherman tanks and as a coastal-defense gun. Against armor, it had the advantage of a 360 degree traverse, but it was not easily moved and so it was less effective when fired from ambush against tanks. In the early phases of World War II, Allied military intelligence initially assumed that the Japanese Type 88 was a copy of the formidable German Flak 36/37 88 mm gun due to its name. However, there is no connection between the two weapons. The confusion arose from the Japanese Army's nomenclature system. “Type 88” corresponds to the year 2588 in the Japanese imperial year, and not to the caliber of the weapon.
There was nothing outstanding about its design or performance, but it was available in numbers and hence was widely used, not only in the AA role but also for defense against ground attack and as a coast-defense gun. It was issued to the various types of independent/field high-angle-gun regiments, battalions and companies; and, by 1943, some Special Naval Landing Force also contained a company. Two guns formed a platoon, and four (sometimes 6) a company.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/24/2020 6:09:15 PM   
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Type 89 Knee Mortar 50*

The Type 89 "knee mortar" was developed to provide the infantry with an indirect-fire capability at ranges out to 600m, suited to warfare in typical short-range combat environments such as urban, trench, and jungle warfare. Adopted in 1929, it replaced the older and much shorter-ranged Year-10 Type light grenade launcher. The Japanese Army, noting that grenades were short-ranged weapons, began efforts to optimize these weapons for close-in infantry fighting.
The Type 89 was unusual in having a rifled barrel and being trigger-fired, and unique in that range alteration was accomplished by turning a knob to move the firing pin up or down inside the barrel. With its curved support plate, the Type 89 was designed to be placed on the ground or against a log or trunk at a fixed firing angle of 45 degrees. However, since it used a spring-loaded, lanyard-operated firing pin mechanism, in an emergency it could fire grenades or shells at point targets while braced horizontally against a tree or building.
The Japanese Army had adopted by 1932 a set of fragmentation grenades with almost universal adaptability. The Type 91 fragmentation grenade could be thrown by hand, fired from a spigot-type launcher, or used in a mortar-like grenade discharger, the Type 89. Its projectiles included standard infantry HE and WP grenades (to which a finned propellant container would first be attached), and unfinned smoke and HE shells.
The Type 91 grenades could be launched through jungle cover or through small openings without the danger of premature detonation in the event the grenade struck an object on its way to the target. Although the Type 89 could be fired by a single person, it was typically operated with a crew of 3, enabling it to reach a rate of fire of about 25 rounds per minute.
Since a soldier could carry the dismantled mortar strapped to his leg, the Japanese sometimes referred to it as the "leg mortar". However, a translation of this term as "knee mortar" led some Allied troops to believe it was meant to be fired with its curved baseplate resting on one's thigh—a notion that led to a number of shattered femurs. Initially, two Type 89 mortars were authorized per rifle platoon; about 1940 this allotment was increased to three (or in some cases four). One was also authorized in the infantry battalion headquarters. The Type 89 was used by both Imperial Japanese Army and Special Naval Landing Force troops.
The Type 89 discharger was used effectively against the Allied defenders during the Battle of Corregidor in May 1942. It also saw service in Burma and the Pacific islands. Japanese Navy paratroopers carried special containers for the Type 89 clipped to their harnesses to provide fire support right on the landing zone. Allied troops quickly learned to take cover when they heard the weapon's "pop" when launching its grenades or shells, in some cases from more than 180 m away.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/25/2020 4:51:45 AM   
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Golly those Japanese unit cards look so good. Smoking hot!

asl3d, I just reinstalled LnL Heroes of Stalingrad. What is going on here? Are you making battles for the Pacific War?
That must be very fun. I want to try.

I want to try some of your classic Stalingrad battles too. Wow you've built up a treasure trove of material here. Thank you for your incredible creativity.
More people should find out about this and make you famous.

What do you recommend for me? I am thinking of some of your earlier Stalingrad battles first. I was a beginner when I tried before so I did very poorly. I am slightly more experienced now from playing the LnL Normandy and Vietnam battles but still no expert. My hapless Wehrmacht troops will probably go down under a fusillade of Russian rifle and submachine gun fire.

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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/25/2020 7:27:06 PM   
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Type 90 Howitzer 75L

The Type 90, based on a modern French design (the Schneider 85mm mle 1927). The Type 90 designation was given to this gun as it was accepted in the year 2590 of the Japanese calendar (1930). It was intended to replace the Type 38 75 mm field gun in front line combat units, but due to operational and budgetary constraints, the Type 38 continued to be used.
It was adopted in 1930 amid great secrecy, and was produced in two versions: with wooden spooked wheels for horse draft and with pneumatic tires for vehicular towing (the latter being dubbed the "Machine-Moved" version). The horse-drawn version was intended for use in divisional, and the vehicle-towed model was to be used in independent, field artillery battalions. Once in service, however, it was found to suffer from excessive bore wear and, reputedly, recoil malfunctions.
However, few units were built, and the design never achieved its intended purpose of replacing the Type 38 75 mm field gun. The Schneider design was very complex and expensive to build, requiring very tight dimensional tolerances that were beyond the limits of Japanese industry at the time. In particular, the recoil system required a high amount of complex maintenance, which was difficult to sustain in front line combat service. The Type 90 75 mm field gun was unique among Japanese artillery pieces in that it had a muzzle brake. The carriage was of the split trail type.
The Type 90 75 mm field gun was capable of firing high-explosive, armor-piercing, shrapnel, incendiary, smoke and illumination shells. Its range of 15,000 metres for a weight of 1,400 kilograms compared well with its contemporaries.
The Type 90 75 mm field gun was issued primarily to units based in Manchukuo, and was rarely deployed to the Pacific theatre of operations. Its initial use in combat was against the Soviet Red Army at the Battle of Nomonhan. The Type 90's anti-tank potential was noted as early as 1939 in combat against the Russians at Nomonhan, so later in the war some were used as AT guns, primarily against the Americans. When deployed later against Allied forces, it was often used as an anti-tank gun, as its high speed shells were effective against armored vehicles. It was also used at the Battle of the Philippines, Battle of Iwo Jima and Battle of Okinawa, often deployed together with armored units. The Type 90 continued to be used as field artillery until the surrender of Japan.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/25/2020 8:20:09 PM   
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quote:

ORIGINAL: GiveWarAchance

Golly those Japanese unit cards look so good. Smoking hot!

asl3d, I just reinstalled LnL Heroes of Stalingrad. What is going on here? Are you making battles for the Pacific War?
That must be very fun. I want to try.

I want to try some of your classic Stalingrad battles too. Wow you've built up a treasure trove of material here. Thank you for your incredible creativity.
More people should find out about this and make you famous.

What do you recommend for me? I am thinking of some of your earlier Stalingrad battles first. I was a beginner when I tried before so I did very poorly. I am slightly more experienced now from playing the LnL Normandy and Vietnam battles but still no expert. My hapless Wehrmacht troops will probably go down under a fusillade of Russian rifle and submachine gun fire.



Hello GiveWarAchance,

Thank you very much for your words, always so kind and generous.

I am working on the expansion for Heroes and Leaders mod, "Pacific", which includes the Imperial Army of Japan as well as the rest of the United States Army Order of Battle (Marines, Artillery, Vehicles, Amphibians and Aircraft).

I am also working on a new Historical Module, "Ardennes", which will simulate the main battles of the winter of 1944 in the Ardennes. This will allow you to pit the best tanks in Germany against the best tanks in the United States.

"...... What do you recommend for me? ........"

Well, it is a difficult question. My main recommendation is that you keep in mind that the most important thing, at least for me, is to have fun. Therefore, it is not necessary to win every scenario, but the important thing is to have fun playing each scenario.

If you have not finished the Barrikady scenarios, perhaps it is best to finish the scenarios that you still have to play.

You also have a historical module focused on the territory of Russia: "Grossdeutschland". You will be able to play with the vast majority of tanks and units that the Soviet Army and the German Army deployed during the Second World War. As you are a fan of World War II, you will see the reproduction of some of the most famous battles of the war.

You also have another new historical module: "Partizani", with battles between the German Army in the rear and the main resistance forces in Europe. There are several stages located in Warsaw.

Well, you have a lot of stuff to have fun with. I hope you have as much fun as I have.



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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/25/2020 11:57:05 PM   
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Thanks asl3d for the detailed reply and advice.
I will go for some Barrikady action and I have no lofty expectations of ever winning a battle but just want to trade some fire in the beloved ruins of Stalingrad.
You sure branched out over a lot of campaigns. Even partisans! Sweet.

I like Grossdeutschland and read about that regiment/division in two books. One was "On a Knife's Edge: Ukraine 42-43" by Prit Buttar and a David Glantz book about Russia's failed invasion of Romania in 1944. This Gross...etc division was in deep in both operations and saved the front from collapse many times. Oh ya and I read about them at Kursk too.

Hey if you ever want another idea for more battles, you can try the Warsaw Uprising. It was a major urban battle very difficult for both sides but also fun and interesting. I read about it the Osprey Campaigns book about it and there is a Stackpole book about one Polish fighter in the battle. Now that I mention it, I see your partizani battles include Warsaw. Is that the Uprising itself or earlier partisan activity?

Maybe I can write some AARs in December. I have to move next week so very messed up my life is, but I can do some AARs after settling in if you don't mind seeing AARs about me losing badly but don't worry I will take full responsibility for my inevitable failures. I did do well in the other LnL titles but I think your Barrikady scenarios are much more difficult than the LnL material. I remember getting whipped really badly before.

Thank you for your huge contributions to this game. There should be thousands of people hanging out here using your material. I wonder if Lock n Load would like to re-release this game with all your material included in it?

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Post #: 1043
RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/26/2020 6:41:22 PM   
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Type 92 Daitaiho INF 70*

Commonly referred to as the "battalion gun" (daitaiho), the Type 92 designation was for the year the gun was accepted, 2592 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1932 in the Gregorian calendar. Each infantry battalion included two Type 92 guns; therefore, the Type 92 was referred to as battalion gun.
The Type 92 was developed to replace the Year-11 Type 70mm mortar and Year-11 Type flat-trajectory infantry gun with a single weapon capable of both direct and indirect fire. Both lacked sufficient firepower and range, and infantry divisions did not like the fact that they had to carry two different types of weapons with different ammunition into combat. As a result, the army technical bureau developed a design which could be used either at low angle direct fire to take out fortified positions, machine gun nests and light armor, but also could be used at high angle indirect support fire. The caliber of the new weapon was increased to 70 mm to address the issue of inadequate firepower. The new design was available to front line divisions by 1932.
Though much heavier than the other two guns, it was still extremely light for its caliber and could be rapidly manhandled from one position to another. In addition, it could be disassembled and animal-packed, or even man-packed if necessary. Its short range was not seen as a detriment, for it was to be used right up with the forward troops. Allied intelligence spoke of its unreliability and unpopularity, but its users do not seem to have shared these opinions. Each infantry battalion was authorized a platoon of two Type 92 in its infantry-gun company; sometimes two platoons were allotted, especially in independent infantry battalions. As originally organized, a Special Naval Landing Force generally had one or two Type 92 platoons; however, by 1943 they were often replaced by coast-defense/AA artillery.
Somewhat unusual in appearance, the Type 92 battalion gun had a short gun barrel with a split trail carriage. The barrel could be configured from a horizontal to near vertical position with a hand-crank. It had an interrupted thread type, drop breechblock mechanism. Lightweight and maneuverable, it was designed to be pulled by a single horse, although in practice teams of three horses were usually assigned. The wheels were originally wooden, but were changed to steel after troops complained that the noise from the squeaky wooden wheels was a threat.
The Type 92 battalion gun was first used in combat during the Manchurian Incident, and was subsequently in heavy use throughout the invasion of Manchuria, the Battle of Nomonhan and subsequent Second Sino-Japanese War. It later accompanied units assigned to the Pacific front and was used with considerable effectiveness against Allied forces throughout the South Seas Mandate and in Southeast Asia.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/26/2020 7:26:08 PM   
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quote:

ORIGINAL: GiveWarAchance

Thanks asl3d for the detailed reply and advice.
I will go for some Barrikady action and I have no lofty expectations of ever winning a battle but just want to trade some fire in the beloved ruins of Stalingrad.
You sure branched out over a lot of campaigns. Even partisans! Sweet.

I like Grossdeutschland and read about that regiment/division in two books. One was "On a Knife's Edge: Ukraine 42-43" by Prit Buttar and a David Glantz book about Russia's failed invasion of Romania in 1944. This Gross...etc division was in deep in both operations and saved the front from collapse many times. Oh ya and I read about them at Kursk too.

Hey if you ever want another idea for more battles, you can try the Warsaw Uprising. It was a major urban battle very difficult for both sides but also fun and interesting. I read about it the Osprey Campaigns book about it and there is a Stackpole book about one Polish fighter in the battle. Now that I mention it, I see your partizani battles include Warsaw. Is that the Uprising itself or earlier partisan activity?

Maybe I can write some AARs in December. I have to move next week so very messed up my life is, but I can do some AARs after settling in if you don't mind seeing AARs about me losing badly but don't worry I will take full responsibility for my inevitable failures. I did do well in the other LnL titles but I think your Barrikady scenarios are much more difficult than the LnL material. I remember getting whipped really badly before.

Thank you for your huge contributions to this game. There should be thousands of people hanging out here using your material. I wonder if Lock n Load would like to re-release this game with all your material included in it?



Grossdeutschland: At the beginning of all Grossdeutschland scenarios, the credits of the books consulted appear. If you look at these credits, there are several books written by David Glantz that I have been inspired to do the scenarios, especially in the battles during the retreat to Romania and in Romania itself. The same is true of Kursk.

Warsaw: exact. There are several scenarios that reproduce the Warsaw uprising of 1944. There is also one scenario during 1943, which reproduces a famous ambush carried out by the Polish Partisans to free their leaders detained by the German security forces.

AAR: What a great idea. I am looking forward to reading them. I still remember the great AAR you wrote a few months ago about the Barrikady factory. It was shining. And don't worry about defeats. Everything is compensated with your chronicles full of imagination and a magnificent sense of humor.

By the way, I wish you have a happy move next week.

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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/27/2020 6:21:08 PM   
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Type 94 ATG 37L

The Type 94 37-mm AT gun was introduced in 1936. The design originated as an improvement to the Type 11 37 mm infantry gun, which was also used as a primitive anti-tank weapon. Approximately 3,400 units were produced. The Type 94's number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2594 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1934 in the Gregorian calendar. This gun was used for infantry support and AT defense. It was small and light, and could be dismantled for man or animal-pack transport, but was not designed to be towed by a vehicle.
As with many Japanese designs, it had a very low profile and was intended to be operated from a squatting or prone position. The gun had a gun shield to protect the gunner and open carriage-style legs which could be spread to improve the stability. The breech had a semi-automatic cartridge case ejection system to improve reloading time. When the shell was loaded, the rear of the cartridge case tripped a catch closing the breechblock. The recoil action of firing opened the breech and extracted the cartridge case. Is an infantry close support weapon firing both high explosive and armor piercing high explosive ammunition. It has a semiautomatic, horizontal, sliding type breechblock. When the shell is loaded, the rear of the cartridge case trips a catch that closes the breechblock. Recoil action of firing opens the breech and extracts the cartridge case. Sighting is by a straight telescopic sight. The carriage was equipped with either wooden spoked or perforated steel wheels, and the whole assembly could be broken down into four pack loads each weighing less than 100 kilograms to permit transport in four horse loads. Sighting was by a straight telescopic sight. The gun could fire either high-explosive or armor-piercing rounds. With the standard AP shell, it could penetrate 43 mm of armor at 460 meters. The Army Technical Bureau continued to experiment with ways to increase muzzle velocity through 1941.
In most infantry divisions, a company of 4-6 Type 94 was allotted to each infantry regiment, and another platoon was sometimes present in the divisional recon unit. In Independent Mixed Brigade and Independent Mixed Regiment, the infantry-gun company authorized in each independent infantry battalion sometimes contained a platoon of Type 94. There were also a number of independent rapid-fire gun companies (with eight guns) and battalions (with twelve guns) equipped with the Type 94. Two guns formed a platoon. Each weapon was manned by a squad of 11 personnel, and was kept in contact with the regimental headquarters (typically up to 300 meters away) by field telephone or messenger runners. The Type 94 37mm AT gun was considered obsolete against more advanced Allied tanks, such as the M4 Sherman. However, it remained in service on most fronts in World War II for lack of a better replacement.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/28/2020 7:14:14 PM   
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Type 96 Single AA 25LL

These guns were the standard light AA armament of Imperial Japanese Navy vessels. As the war went on, large numbers, still on their shipboard mountings and manned by naval personnel, were used on land to protect airfields, harbours and beaches. For beach defense they were often emplaced in bunkers positioned to bring fire on any approaching landing craft. A company of Type 96 generally comprised 4-6 mountings, with two per platoon. A locally-built variant of the French Hotchkiss 25mm anti-aircraft gun, it was designed as a dual-purpose weapon for use against armored vehicles and aircraft, but was primarily used as an anti-aircraft gun in fixed mounts with one to three guns.
In 1935 the Imperial Japanese Navy decided to replace the earlier 40 mm Vickers "pom-pom" guns with a 25 mm Hotchkiss design. A party of Japanese officers and engineers traveled to France to evaluate the design in 1935, and an order was placed for a number of guns and mounts for evaluation. Firing tests of these guns were conducted at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1935. The first few weapons were built in France under the designation “Type 94” and “Type 95”, with the mass production model produced at the Yokosuka Arsenal being designated “Type 96”. The double-mount type was the first to enter service, with triple mounts following in 1941 and finally single mounts later in 1943. The Japanese made a number of minor changes to the original Hotchkiss design and production process, changing some components from forgings to castings to simplify production, and replacing the simple conical flash suppressor with a Rheinmetall-type design. A submarine-mountable version of the gun which made extensive use of stainless steel was also produced.
The Type 96 25mm Gun is a simple air-cooled gas operated design. The barrel is a forging screwed into the breech mechanism. Additional support is provided to the breech end of the gun barrel by the finned cooling jacket. The barrel is changeable, requiring two men and special tools; the operation took a trained crew approximately five minutes. By adjusting the gas valve setting it was possible to vary the rate of fire between 200 and 260 rounds per minute, with 220 rounds per minute being the standard setting.
The gun mounts were normally provided with one of three gun sights: A Le Prieur mechanical lead computing sight; an open ring sight; An etched glass optical ring sight. Land mountings and all single mountings all used the single open-ring sight. The Type 95 sight was used on ship-based multiple mounts, in the case where the mount has a powered drive linked to a fire director it was used as a backup.
The Type 95 sight was originally designed with a maximum target speed of 600 kilometers per hour; however, experience showed that aircraft often exceeded this speed. To compensate for the problem, a ring was added to the sighting telescope to provide an additional offset for speeds up to 900 kilometers per hour. The gun was normally used without a gun shield, although some multiple mounts on Yamato-class battleships were fitted with Ducol (High tensile steel) shields. Many ship-based mounts also had splinter shields.




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