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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/6/2020 6:06:08 PM   
asl3d


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6th Marine Defense Battalion

On Wilkes Island, over one hundred Japanese had landed in two large barges right under the 3" AA gun battery. Firing by the light of .50-caliber tracers, the 3" AA guns were able to place several rounds into the Japanese ranks and barges. As the Japanese scrambled out of the craft, they ran into a well-placed MG nest and received several minutes of flanking fire before taking cover in the brush as they at last overwhelmed the AA gun position in a hand-to-hand fight. But there they were trapped and fired upon from all sides. For the next eight hours, the 60 defending Marines hunted down and killed every Japanese soldier that had landed on Wilkes.
The surrender of Wake was an accomplished fact at 1400 hours when the Governor of the island ordered the Marines to lay down their weapons to prevent needless killing of non-combatants on the island. Wilkes was surrendered later that evening. By their own admission, the Japanese had lost over 5700 men, 11 ships and 29 planes in taking the tiny island group. American loses were one dozen planes and 96 dead (which included 46 Marines, 47 civilians and three sailors). The Japanese may have won the battle but they paid an extremely high price for a small island that would not see any more combat during the war. The 6th Marine Defense Battalion, whose gallant story was spread throughout the free world as a symbol of resistance to the Japanese aggression, had established a tradition for stubborn heroism for the Marine Defense Battalions.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/7/2020 6:38:54 PM   
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Marine Defense Battalions upgraded

The 3rd Marine Defense Battalion landed alongside the 1st Marine Division at Guadalcanal in August 1942. While providing counter-tire against Japanese ships that would come down the Slot at night, they also stiffened the ground defense during the hard-fought Japanese October offensive.
During the New Georgia campaign in the central Solomons by the Army, the 1st Marine Division was in rest camps recovering from its losses at Guadalcanal and being equipped with the new M1 semi-automatic rifle. The 2nd Marine Division was being prepared for action in the Gilberts; and the 3rd Marine Division was still forming back in the States. But as the SW Pacific Commander was in no position to wait, the campaign was started with only limited Marine assistance. This took the form of several Marine Defense Battalions which had been upgraded with the addition of a light tank platoon (consisting of eight tanks), the exchange of the 5" coastal artillery for 155mm guns, and 20mm and 40mm AA weapons replacing the older guns for the AA group.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/8/2020 7:06:36 PM   
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New Georgia island and Central Solomons

Often Marine Defense Battalions supply and HQ personnel would be called upon to fight as infantry, usually being formed into companies of 100 men each. And the gun crews, when not being called on to supply fire missions, would eagerly join any local action as riflemen. From August through October of 1943, the 4th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th Defense Battalions fought shoulder-to-shoulder with U.S. Army units in places such as Vangunu, Rendova (9th Marine Defense Battalion), Kiriwina (9th Marine Defense Battalion), Vella Lavella (4th Marine Defense Battalion) and Arundel (9th, 10th and 11th Marine Defense Battalion)—all within the New Georgia island chain. Since the Army did not have many armored units of its own at this time in the Pacific, much of the armor support for the Central Solomons campaign would be provided by the Marine tankers attached to these Marine Defense Battalions.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/9/2020 6:51:19 PM   
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Marine Paratroops

In May 1940, after learning of the successful use of German parachute troops in the airborne assault on Crete. the United States General Staff ordered the creation of American airborne forces. The U.S. Army would eventually raise five airborne divisions. The Marines, being a rather small force, were authorized the creation of a paratroop battalion (commonly called the "ParaMarines"). The battalion would contain one full battalion of infantry, which was to be supported by one platoon of pack howitzers. All equipment had to be of such a nature that it could be transported by band-drawn vehicles if necessary. All later ParaMarine battalions used the same T/O&E as the 1st Marine Parachute Battalion described below.
A ParaMarine battalion had a manpower complement of 583 men. The battalion included a Headquarters company of 106 men organized in a Battalion HQ section, a Company HQ section, and a Demolitions platoon. There were three Parachute Rifle companies assigned to each Parachute battalion. Each company had its own Company HQ section and three Parachute Rifle platoons. Each platoon included a platoon HQ, a 60mm mortar squad, and three rifle squads. Somehow, during the initial creation and outfitting of the ParaMarines, the pack artillery platoon was dismissed. This artillery unit was never formed or used by any of the ParaMarine battalions throughout the war.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/10/2020 7:32:52 PM   
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Tulagi and Gavutu/Tanambogo

During February 1941, Company A of what would become the 2nd Parachute Battalion was formed at San Diego (California) and was finally recognized officially on 1 October 1941. Meanwhile, Company A, ist Parachute Battalion, had been unofficially formed at Quantico, Virginia, on 28 May 1941 and received its official recognition in August 1941. During June 1942, the under-strength 1st ParaMarine Battalion was shipped to New Zealand, where it was joined to the 1st Marine Division for the invasion of Guadalcanal.
On 7 August, the 1st Paras (along with the 1st Raiders and the 2/5th Marines) were landed on Tulagi and Gavutu/Tanambogo. These islands are part of the Florida chain in the Solomon Islands of the South Pacific, just 20 miles across the sound from Guadalcanal. Due to a shortage of landing craft, the Raiders and the 2/5 Marines landed on Tulagi Island at 08:00 hours, but the ParaMarines had to wait until noon to begin their assault on Gavutu. Since the Japanese defenders on Gavutu had plenty of warning, they were able to put their defenses in order after the bombardment and would give the 1st ParaMarines the dubious honor of making the first opposed American amphibious assault landing in the Pacific War.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/11/2020 6:48:15 PM   
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Milk run

The landing of 1st ParaMarines on Gavutu, a supposed milk run against a few rear-area troops, was made in three waves of one company each. Company A, comprising the first wave, landed without taking fire, but this was the eye of the Japanese hurricane. Four minutes later, as Company B approached the shore, the Japanese defenders (members of a SNLF unit, along with some construction troops) opened up with all that they had. By the time of Company C's arrival two minutes later, the earlier-landed Marines were crawling forward across sandy beaches trying reach whatever cover they could while taking heavy fire. In the remaining hours of that day, the ParaMarines were able to claim approximately 75% of the island from its Japanese defenders. Most of the hot work involved finding and sealing the numerous caves that had been constructed in the rocky hill of Gavutu. Several mistakes were made that day. As the ParaMarines captured a Japanese position on the hill's summit, they were inadvertently attacked by a U.S. Navy fighter-bomber, losing several men killed and wounded. Gavutu was finally cleared of Japanese by the end of the second day, but at a heavy cost to the 1st ParaMarines (who lost 83 of their 377 men).




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/12/2020 6:20:05 PM   
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1st ParaMarine Regiment

On 31 August 1942, the 1st Paras and the 1st Raiders were ordered to cross over Ironbottom Sound to provide assistance to the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal itself. Along with the 1st Raiders, the 1st ParaMarines successfully defended the southern borders of Henderson Field during the "Battle of Edson's Ridge" on the night of September 13-14. This elite formation, which had landed with 377 officers and men on 7 August, was depleted to 156 officers and men by the end of the campaign, having served as infantry throughout. On 18 September 1942, the 1st Parachute Battalion was the first Marine unit (with 55% casualties) to be withdrawn from Guadalcanal.
The 3rd Parachute Battalion was formed in September 1942 at San Diego, California. A 4th ParaMarine Battalion was activated on 2 April 1943 but was disbanded before finishing its jump training. After its effort at Guadalcanal, the 1st ParaMarines was shipped to New Caledonia where it was joined by the 2nd and 3rd ParaMarines battalions. In late April. 1943, the 1st Marine Parachute Regiment was officially formed at Tontouta Island. The 1st ParaMarine Regiment included a H&S company, a Weapons company, and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Parachute battalions. After lengthily training, the regiment was moved back to Guadalcanal in September 1943.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/13/2020 7:00:31 PM   
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Choiseul Raid

On 1 October 1943, the 2nd ParaMarine Battalion landed on Vella Lavella in the central Solomons. Here they were to prepare for their next combat mission as part of General MacArthur's South West Pacific Forces. As part of a deception plan to cover the Allies actual invasion, the 2nd Parachute Battalion (Reinforced) was sent to raid the Japanese base on Choiseul Island. This raiding force included a communications platoon, elements of the regimental weapons company with eight machine-guns, six 60mm mortars and a section from an experimental "rocket" (bazooka) platoon. Their objective was to confuse the Japanese High Command and to hide the true intentions of other U.S. forces in the area.
The famous "Choiseul Raid" began on the night of October 27-28, 1943, and lasted until November 3rd. During this action, the 2nd ParaMarines was split up into company-size raiding units. As Choiseul Island was being used as a way station for the Japanese barge traffic in the Solomons islands, these anchorages became natural targets for the ParaMarines. After several raids against their ports and outposts, the Japanese commander of Choiseul Island ordered a large force of Japanese into the jungle to hunt down the raiders. With ammo and supplies beginning to run low, Lt. Colonel Krulak decided to withdraw his battalion from the island.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/15/2020 10:11:58 PM   
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John F. Kennedy

During the Choiseul Raid a ParaMarine patrol had been trapped by a Japanese counter-landing behind them. Setting up a perimeter along the shore, the ParaMarines were waiting to be picked up by landing craft (LC) when the Japanese attacked. The LC, during their approach to shore, did not realize that they were sailing into a trap until the first LC was disabled by intense Japanese fire. Still the LC came on in an attempt to pull the exposed Marines from the beach. Just as it appeared that both Marines and sailors would be wiped out, two PT boats under the overall command of one John F. Kennedy came roaring in with all guns blazing. By providing covering fire from the sea, Kennedy's PT boats gave the Marines and sailors in their LC the opportunity to escape.
On 23 November 1943, the 1st Parachute Battalion (along with the 2nd Raiders) was assigned to Corps Reserve for the 1st Marine Amphibious Corps during the invasion of Bougainville in the Northern Solomons. The 1st ParaMarine Regiment remained on Vella Lavella in reserve until 3 December 1943, when it was ordered to Bougainville to assist in the continuing drive from the beachhead established by the 3rd Marine Division. With the 2nd Para Battalion still recovering from the Choiseul Raid and the 1st Para Battalion at Koiari, the 1st ParaMarine Regiment was composed of only the HQ, the Weapons company and the 3rd ParaMarine Battalion. Restructuring his units, the commanding officer of the regiment was able to create a "Provisional" ParaMarine battalion which would help fill a gap in the line.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/16/2020 6:04:08 PM   
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Hellzapoppin Ridge

After a beachhead was established on Bougainville, the 1st Parachute Battalion (with Company M, 3rd Raider Battalion) was ordered to make a dawn seaborne raid on Koiari, south of Cape Torokina, on November 29. At the very start of the raid, disaster struck; unknown to the Marines, Koiari was a major Japanese supply and staging base. Fire on the run-in was heavy. After landing, the Marines were bottled in a small beachhead by an overwhelming number of Japanese. By evening, the decimated force had to be evacuated under protection of heavy naval gunfire.
"Hellzapoppin Ridge" was a 650-foot spur running east from Hill 1000 towards the Torokina River. On this spur, a patrol from the "Provisional ParaMarines" discovered extensive Japanese fortifications that had been apparently abandoned. The ParaMarines moved forward on 8th December in an attempt to occupy these positions, but were surprised by Japanese soldiers of the 23rd Infantry who had returned during the night. Again on the neat day, the ParaMarines tried to occupy the strategic spur with additional troops, but were again repulsed by the Japanese (who had also received reinforcements during the night). For the next couple of days, the ParaMarines gradually increased the size of their attacking forces, only to find that the Japanese increased the size of their defending units. Under a massive Japanese counterattack, the ParaMarines had to call for reinforcements from the 3rd Marine Division. Two rifle companies, one each from the 9th and 21st Marines, were rushed to the area to fill gaps as the ParaMarine lines were contracted.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/17/2020 6:00:15 PM   
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5th Marine Division

On 10 December, additional units of the 21st Marines began moving into the ParaMarines positions along the edge of Hellzapoppin Ridge. Just as the U.S. Army was finding in Europe, light infantry units—even Marine ones—were not equipped for sustained combat as line infantry. The only artillery support available to the ParaMarines were 60mm and 81mrn mortars, which lacked the punch necessary to break open Japanese fortifications. This was to be the last combat action of the Marine parachute battalions in World War II.
The 1st Parachute Battalion remained on Bougainville until 11 January 1944, when it was embarked for San Diego for reassignment. Prior to this, in December 1943, the Commandant of the Marines had ordered the disbandment of the 1st Marine Parachute Regiment. The men of the regiment went on to become the core of the new 5th Marine Division. While there were several reasons for this decision, two were very influential. First, the Marines never had the air transport capacity available for major independent parachute operations. Secondly, small island warfare is simply not suitable for airborne assaults. It is regrettable that the Marines paratroopers, after all their training, never had the chance to make a combat drop during World War II and prove themselves. (It should be noted that a large proportion of the Medals of Honor and Navy Crosses given to the 5th Marine Division at Iwo Jima in 1945 were earned by former ParaMarines.)




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/18/2020 6:16:55 PM   
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Marine Scout-Sniper Detachments

The Marine Scout-Sniper units came into being in August 1941 after the 1st Marine Division occupied Guadalcanal. These were an unofficial conversion of an existing unit into a specialized formation with only two missions: scouting and outmaneuvering the enemy in jungle terrain. Their creation is, in itself, a story of how the Marines used available resources to the fullest in the face of a fanatic and experienced enemy to satisfy the needs of the moment.
Both the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions were true combined-arms divisions at the beginning of WWII. Infantry, artillery, engineers and armor were all organic components of each Marine division. The armor component was composed mostly of light tanks in 1942, divided into three tank companies attached to a small headquarters unit. Also listed as a component of each tank battalion was a scout company equipped with fourteen M3A1, the scout cars divided into three platoons and a company headquarters. The HQ section was equipped with two scout cars, while each of the three platoons was divided into two two-car sections.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/19/2020 6:16:33 PM   
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Whaling Group

The primary mission of these companies was reconnaissance and locating terrain suitable for armored operations.
During the staging and loading of the 1st Marine Division in New Zealand, it was discovered that there would not be enough room in the initial seaborne lift for all the division's vehicles and heavy equipment. As a consequence, the scout cars of the 1st Scout Company were among that equipment left behind for trans-shipment at a later date. The Marine scouts would have to do all of their work on foot. Arriving at Guadalcanal, and learning first-hand what a true jungle was, Colonel William J. Whaling (USMC) took it upon himself to retrain the Marines of his grounded 1st Scout Company in order to improve their patrolling capability. This training was the most realistic that could be imagined since it took place in the jungles of Guadalcanal and while active operations were still being conducted by the 1st Marine Division against the Japanese. The reformed company was known as the 1st Scout-Sniper Detachment, or more commonly called the "Whaling Group" (after its commanding officer).




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/20/2020 6:30:20 PM   
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Matanikau River

By October 1942, these Marine scouts were fully retrained in jungle operations and were attached to the 7th Marines during the Matanikau offensive. This operation lasted three days and involved the encirclement of Japanese units that were located along the Matanikau River west of Henderson Field. While elements of the 5th Marines and 1st Raiders pinned down the Japanese along the river banks, the Whaling Group and the 7th Marines crossed the river further south undetected by the Japanese. After crossing, the Scout-Snipers were to wheel right and advance northward along the first ridge line west of the river. In three days of intense fighting, the Scout-Snipers, Raiders, 5th Marines and 7th Marines almost totally destroyed a battalion of the Japanese 4th Infantry. On 9 October, all Marine units west of the river were recalled into the main perimeter in order to prepare for the next Japanese counter-offensive. Even though no new ground was occupied by the Marines, the attack caused a serious delay to the Japanese timetable and allowed the embattled Americans to keep the Japanese off-balance and at arm's length. Over 700 Japanese soldiers were killed in exchange for Marine losses of 65 KIA and 125 wounded.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/21/2020 6:19:46 PM   
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Kokumbona

The aggressive jungle patrol tactics of the Scout-Snipers paid off when they discovered one of the Japanese units that was assigned to attack the Marines from the south along the now famous "Bloody Ridge" moving to its start-line. Because of this timely information, every Marine on Guadalcanal was ready and in position when the Japanese October offensive began during the pre-dawn hours of October 25th.
During November, the 3/7th Marines was attached to the Whaling Group in another attack across the Matanikau River. By this time, most of the units of the Japanese 17th Army had been badly mauled, while the Marines themselves had finally received reinforcements and supplies. This time the Marines meant to cross to the west bank of the river and stay there. At dawn on the 1st, the Whaling Group crossed the river at its previous site, just as the 5th Marines attacked along the coast. Supported by naval gunfire, the 5th Marines trapped some 350 Japanese at Point Cruz, and the Whaling Group was able to maintain its rapid advance westward against light resistance until it reached the last river (unnamed) before the village of Kokumbona, about two miles west of the Matanikau River.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/22/2020 6:28:40 PM   
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Success of the Scout-Sniper concept

The relief of the Whaling Group by the U.S. Army's 164th Infantry on 4 November allowed the Scout-Snipers, the 3/7th Marines and 5th Marines to withdraw into the Henderson Field perimeter for some much-needed rest. The arrival of the 2nd Marine Division on Guadalcanal finally eased the pressure. On 9 December, Vandegrift ordered that the 1st Marine Division, along with Whaling's Scout-Snipers, be withdrawn; they departed for Australia, almost four months to the day of their arrival.
The success of the Scout-Sniper concept of Colonel Whaling was proven in the heat of battle to be well worth the effort. Even before the 2nd Marine Division arrived at Guadalcanal, its own Scout company had undergone the training devised and championed by Whaling. In 1942, the manpower of a Scout Company was 175 officers and men, but was reduced to 13 officers and men under the E.-Series T/O&E established in 1943. With the reorganization of the Marine Divisions in 1944, the Scout Company was disbanded entirely, but was re-created as a divisional-level Recon Company in both the F (127 men) and G (113 men) SerieS T/O&Es of 1944 and 1945. The M3A1 Scout Car; which saw combat only with the 2nd Marine Division, were phased out in 1943 and replaced with radio-carrying jeeps and one-ton trucks.
Scout-Sniper detachments went to Tarawara with the 2nd Marine Division and to Bougainville with the 3rd Marine Division. The recon companies of all the divisions proved their worth during every campaign of the Central Pacific drive, and provided reconnaissance as well as fighting power as called for by divisional headquarters.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/23/2020 6:33:07 PM   
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Marine Raiders

The United States military establishment had closely watched the combat actions and effectiveness of the British throughout 1940 and 1941. Especially noteworthy was the success of the British commando units in their ability to carry the war to the Germans and force them to guard even the most isolated of objectives. One of the American observers assigned to study British methods was Marine Lt. Colonel Merritt A. Edson. Much impressed by commando training and operations, Edson brought back with him the seed of the Raider program. Meanwhile, on the other side of the world in China, Major Evans F. Carlson had spent months traveling with the Chinese Route armies and was very impressed by their stamina, endurance and ability to travel quickly across the rugged land.
Late in 1941, both men arrived back into the United States. Drawing upon their combined knowledge and observations, these two officers were given the task of creating commando-type units for the Marine Corps. On the 4 February 1942, the first two Marine raider battalions were ordered to form. Their training was to be a unique combination of methods found in England and China. From the English came the techniques of silent movement, night combat and hand-to-hand combat. Fire discipline was stressed and practiced, as well as how to live off of the land. The Raiders became experts in the art of camouflage.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/24/2020 6:46:14 PM   
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Gung Ho

From the Chinese experiences of Major Carlson came the toughest, most brutal kind of strength and endurance training. Marching long distances under a full pack-load, both officers and men came to know and trust each other while building their stamina and endurance to the highest levels.
Two very special items became part of the Marine Corps history during this training. The first was the Raider stiletto knife, similar to the famous British commando knife. (With only a limited number made, these are prized collectors' items today.) Like their British counterparts, the Raiders were trained in all types of weaponry, including enough cross-training so that any weapon, American or enemy, could be operated by any Raider.
The second to enter Corps tradition was an idea. Carlson brought back with him from China the phrase "Gung Ho". This phrase, which roughly translates from Chinese as "Working Together", became the motto of the Raiders. But more importantly, it became a synthesis of the emphasis of the Marines. The concept of Gung Ho is still a part of Marine training from boot camp through retirement.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/25/2020 6:22:51 PM   
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1st Raider Battalion

The first Raider battalion was formed under the command of Colonel Edson and was designated the 1st "Separate" Battalion. The 1st Separate Battalion began its training at Quantico, Virginia, for assignment to the Atlantic Fleet. The 2nd Separate Battalion was formed under the command of newly promoted Colonel Carlson at Camp Elliott, California. They began training on the West Coast for eventual posting to the Pacific theater.
The 1st Separate Battalion was renamed the 1st Raider Battalion and reassigned to the 1st Marine Division on February 16th. The 1942 T/O&E for the battalion showed assigned manpower of 901 men. The battalion had a H&S company, which included the battalion HQ staff, a communications platoon, and quartermaster and motor transport platoons. The Weapons Company was composed of a company HQ and four platoons: one demolitions, one mortar, and two MG (machine-gun). Under D-175, each Raider battalion was to have four rifle companies, each outfitted with a HQ section, a Weapons platoon, and three rifle platoons. Each weapons platoon had a security squad, a MG squad (two MG), and a mortar squad equipped with two 60mm mortars. The rifle platoons of each company was made up of three squads.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/26/2020 6:33:39 PM   
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2nd Raider Battalion

The 2nd Separate Battalion was renamed the 2nd Raider Battalion on 19 February 1942. The 2nd Raiders had 804 men, organized along the same lines as the 1st Battalion. Unlike the 1st Raiders, however, the 2nd did not have a separate Weapons company; but instead had six rifle companies. Each rifle company had a HQ section and a Weapons platoon identical to the 1st Raiders companies, but only had two rifle platoons of three squads each. The squad organization of the 2nd Raider was completely different from any other Marine unit then in existence. Major Carlson, believing that the squad should carry the maximum firepower possible, outfitted each squad with five SMG, four M1 semi-auto rifles and one BAR. In jungle fighting this meant that as the enemy got closer, the Marine firepower would also be increasing to a lethal level.
The completion of the Japanese conquest of the Netherlands East Indies and British Malaya meant that the Japanese warlords were once again turning their heads towards American territory. Determining that one of the next targets would be Midway, Companies C and D of the 2nd Raiders were assigned to the 6th Marine Defense Battalion at Midway Island and arrived there near the end of May 1942. As attached units, the Raiders took part in the anti-aircraft defense of Midway Island on 6 June 1942. Meanwhile, the remainder of the 2nd Raiders began their deployment to the Gilbert Islands in the South Pacific in order to provide a diversion to the upcoming Guadalcanal operations.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/27/2020 7:03:09 PM   
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Regimental Landing Group

The Marine Raiders were the first American forces to receive the honor of opening a ground offensive against the Japanese. On 7 August 1942, the 1st Raiders-along with the 1st Parachute Battalion and the 2/5 Marines (2nd Battalion of the 5th Marine Regiment)-was made part of a Regimental Landing Group (RLG) for the invasion of the Florida Islands during the Guadalcanal landings. While the 1st Marine Division's landing on Guadalcanal went unopposed, the Raiders were in combat within hours of their landing on Tulagi. After clearing Tulagi in a dramatic two-day campaign, the Raiders finished the mop up and were given some time to refit and re-organize.
During the middle of August, the 1st Raider and the 1st Parachute Battalions were both transferred to Guadalcanal to reinforce the Marines there, who were seeing some hard combat. On the night of September 13-14, the Raiders took part in the battle at Edson's Ridge (also known as "Bloody Ridge"), so-named for their own CO. Due to excessive losses, the 1st Raiders were withdrawn from Guadalcanal in mid-October for rest and refit at New Caledonia.
The 2nd Raiders, meanwhile, had been reassigned to the Pacific Fleet. Colonel Carlson, with companies A and B (each less one rifle platoon), was ordered to make a raid on Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Island group. On 17 August 1942, the 2nd Raiders landed at night and began their "Search and Destroy" mission.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/28/2020 6:43:47 PM   
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Aola Bay

By the evening of the 18th, the 2nd Raiders had destroyed two small ships, two aircraft, petroleum stores, radio facilities and between 45 and 90 Japanese soldiers at a cost of the lives of 30 Raiders (included nine that were captured and executed). It is interesting to note that one of the aircraft (a seaplane) was destroyed by the Raiders using a British anti-tank rifle. This was the only recorded instance of the Marine Raiders using a weapon from another country's inventory.
By November 4th, the 2nd Raider Battalion was back together and had landed at Aola Bay (about 30 kilometers east of Henderson Field on Guadalcanal). They then conducted a 37-day, 150-mile patrol behind Japanese lines and engaged in several combat actions that resulted in more than 500 Japanese casualties. At Reko, the 2nd Raiders were hit by a Japanese ambush. Three days later, the 2nd Raider Battalion fought its first set-piece action against a battalion of Japanese infantry at Asamana, and then spent the next four days searching for stragglers.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/29/2020 6:44:37 PM   
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3rd Raider Battalion

With Henderson Field coming under enemy artillery fire from the vicinity of Mount Austen (south of the field), the 2nd Raiders were ordered to approach the mountain from the south and destroy the artillery and their observers. The 30th of November saw the entire battalion, using ropes to scale the southern cliffs of Mount Austen, attack and defeat one of the unprepared Japanese artillery batteries. Along with the 75mm guns destroyed, the entire Japanese supply dump for a 200-man unit was captured and burned. The 2nd Raiders finally crossed back into the lines of the 1st Marine Division on 4 December 1942. During this entire action behind enemy lines, only six Raiders died. The 2nd Raiders were withdrawn from the Guadalcanal to Espiritu Santo for rest and refit in late December 1942.
The 3rd Raider Battalion was formed at American Samoa in the South Pacific on 20 September 1942. After only four months of local training, the 3rd Raiders made an almost bloodless landing in the Russell Islands in February 1943.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/30/2020 6:58:20 PM   
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4th Raider Battalion

By October 1942 the 4th Raider Battalion was created and in training at Camp Pendleton in the United States under the command of Colonel James Roosevelt. After training, however, this Raider battalion did not see independent combat action but was immediately assigned to the newly created 1st Provisional Raider Regiment. The 1st "Provisional" Raider Regiment was formed on 15 March 1943. The regiment consisted of a Headquarters & Service company, and included the 1st and 4th Raider battalions and two Army battalions, all under the command of Marine Colonel Liversedge. At the same time, the typical Raider ten-man squad was re-structured into three fire teams each consisting of three men equipped with one BAR, one M1 carbine and one MI rifle. This flexible organization gave each Raider squad the capability to fight at all ranges with equal firepower.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 10/31/2020 6:29:17 PM   
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1st Raider Regiment

By June 1943, the 1st Raider Regiment was assigned to General MacArthur for the New Georgia campaign known as "Toenails". On 1 July 1943, Companies 0, P and half of the HQ company of the 4th Raiders saw combat at Vim Harbor, New Georgia. Companies N, Q and the remaining half of the HQ Company of the 4th had landed at Wickham Anchorage (Oloana Bay, Vangunu Island) on June 30th, 1943. At the same time, the 1st Raider Battalion participated in a five-day action at Enogai Inlet on New Georgia. For the battle of Bairoko (Rice Anchorage) on New Georgia, the 1st and 4th Raider battalions were back together again, even though the 4th Raiders were depleted from the earlier battles. (Following the battles of Vim Harbor and Oloana Bay the 4th Raiders were missing over 200 men from their active roster.) After suffering extremely heavy casualties in the battle for Bairoko, the 1st Raider Regiment was shipped out to Guadalcanal on 28-29 August 1943.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/1/2020 5:36:48 PM   
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Bougainville

September 1943 found the 2nd Raiders joined with the 3rd Raiders to form the 2nd "Provisional" Raider Regiment. The squad organization had been firmly established by 170-306 (19 October '43) and was composed of ten Marines equipped with two BARs, two SMGs, five M1 Rifles and one M1903 bolt-action rifle (which was assigned to the squad's sniper). For their existence, all Raider squads were organized in this manner. Attached to the 3rd Marine Division, the 2nd Raider Regiment took part in the assault landing at Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville. During the assault, the 2nd Raiders landed on Purauta Island in order to clear the islet of a Japanese reinforced rifle company and any heavy guns which could interfere with the main landings. The 3rd Raiders then led the way in the battle for the beachhead by pushing the few Japanese defenders more than 1500 yards inland.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/2/2020 4:53:02 PM   
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4th Marine Regiment

For the next two months, Marine Raiders fought alongside the regular Marine battalions of the 3rd Marine Division. Several notable battles were to take their toll of Raider lives in the hot, dense jungles of the Northern Solomons. Beginning on the night of 8 November and continuing until 25 November, the 2nd Raiders fought two desperate actions in the battles of Piva Trail and Piva Forks. The rest of December saw the Raiders operating in close support of the 3rd Marines. The Raiders were relieved by U.S. Army troops in January 1944, and withdrawn to Guadalcanal. Arriving at Guadalcanal, the Marine Raider regiments were disbanded on 26 January 1944. Since all Marines were trained in amphibious operations and jungle warfare by this time, it was believed that the Raiders' special talents could now be duplicated by all Marine regiments.
On 1 February 1944, all former Raiders were brought together on Guadalcanal to reactivate the 4th Marine Regiment. The new 4th Regiment was to replace the "Old 4th" that had been lost at Corregidor. The "Old 4th" had fought throughout the Philippines campaign from December 1941 to the final surrender of American forces in May 1942. The Commandant of the Marine Corps had pledged that a new 4th Marine Regiment would not be reactivated until it could be filled with Marines that had distinguished themselves in combat. The men of the Marine Raiders had proved many times over during the early months of the Pacific War their heroism, and they justly deserved this honor.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/3/2020 5:42:38 PM   
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6th Marine Division

During March 1944 the 4th Marines and the 22nd Marines, both veteran regiments, joined together to form the 1st "Provisional" Marine Brigade. They were in the assault waves alongside the 3rd Marine Division at Guam on 21 July 1944. In September, the 6th Marine Division was formed around the core of the 1st Provisional Brigade and began its training for the invasion of Okinawa. This took place on 1 April 1945 and ended 82 days later at a cost to the 6th Marine Division of 8227 killed and wounded.
At the end of the war, the 6th Marine Division was made part of the Japan Occupation Forces.
At the time of their creation, the Marine Raiders were the elite of the Marine Corps. All Marines were volunteers, and the Raiders were made up from volunteers from the ranks of the Marines. They were trained to move silently and quickly, and to kill with any weapon that they might find at hand. During their short existence, Marine Raiders won eight Congressional Medal of Honors, ninety Navy or Distinguished Service Crosses, and numerous Silver Stars, Bronze Stars and hundreds of Purple Hearts. Truly, these veterans had earned the right to form the core of the new 4th Marine Regiment which went on to serve with distinction in combat at Guam and Okinawa and as occupation troops in Japan.




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/4/2020 6:04:04 PM   
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Marines

In World War II, the Marines performed a central role in the Pacific War, along with the U.S. Army. The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam, Tinian, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. Some 600,000 Americans served in the U.S. Marine Corps in World War II. The Battle of Iwo Jima, which began on 19 February 1945, was arguably the most famous Marine engagement of the war. The Japanese had learned from their defeats in the Marianas Campaign and prepared many fortified positions on the island including pillboxes and network of tunnels. The Japanese put up fierce resistance, but American forces reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on 23 February. The mission was accomplished with high losses of 26,000 American casualties and 22,000 Japanese.
By the end of the war, the Corps expanded from two brigades to six divisions, five air wings, and supporting troops, totaling about 485,000 Marines. In addition, 20 defense battalions and a parachute battalion were raised.[59] Nearly 87,000 Marines were casualties during World War II (including nearly 20,000 killed), and 82 were awarded the Medal of Honor. Despite Secretary of the Navy, James Forrestal's prediction that the Marine flag raising at Iwo Jima meant "a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years", the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war due to a suddenly shrunken budget. Army generals pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, and with the assistance of the so-called "Revolt of the Admirals", the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in the National Security Act of 1947. Shortly afterward, in 1952 the Douglas–Mansfield Act afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines and established the structure of three active divisions and air wings that remain today




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 11/5/2020 6:13:47 PM   
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H&Lmod vs ASL




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