From: Mordor Illlinois
It would be in a "base" budget , except that the USA hasn't had one since 2008. Every year congress (both houses) have hammered out a budget. Ever year the Chief executive has refused to sign it. We have a continuing resolution passed to fill the place of a budget . A continuing resolution is a "temporary till we get a budget" device , never intended to be long term, or a method of running the government. It's a bare bones, very limited device. It simply can't do the job. Congress can (and is supposed to) create and pass a budget , but until it's signed by the Chief executive , or congress musters a 2/3rd majority , no budget.
Nope. Not even close.
The president does a budget first. It's a guideline of what he thinks he needs to run the government, procure, and do new things he thinks would be neat. It's been DOA in Congress for many years. It's not in the Constitution; it's purely statutory.
Congress is supposed to do a budget. Also not in the Constitution per se. From that budget, after hearings, 13 appropriations bills are written that are the legal authorization to the Executive branch to spend money. Appropriations ARE in the Constitution. (Way and Means, raising the money to appropriate, is also on the other side of the leger, with the House required to initiate some of that.) Congress hasn't been able to write a budget for a long time. Didn't this year either, after Ryan made it a centerpiece of his "regular- order" mandate. I don't recall the last time there were 13 appropriations bills passed as required by law. The early 90s? Longer? Have to look it up, but it depresses, so I won't.
Without appropriations bills, for years Congress has just done continuing resolutions and omnibus appropriations bills, which the president has had to sign or shut down the government. Sort of gun-to-your-head time. A CR continues the previous year's approprioati0ons, usually with a flat escalator percentage to everything. An omnibus, which gets them out of the CR, is a massive, stonkeringly huge bill stuffed full of pork that funds the government, or nearly all of it (sometimes a couple of appropriations bills are passed, just never all 13), at one fell swoop. Nobody reads an omnibus bill before they vote on it.
So the flow is from the Executive to Congress and then back to the president for signing. But Article One makes funding the government Congress's job #1. If the president spends money not appropriated (outside certain labeled pots for contingencies) he's in violation of the law and Constitution, and could be impeached.
Sorry Moose , I didn't realize you were a constitutional scholar and I was trying 1) simplify and 2) not get political. The president DOES submit a "proposal for a budget". NEVER , ever has congress said "yeah , that looks good, let's pass it and go play golf". It's seen as a "wish list" , and the two houses , the two+ parties and every body's "special friend" get together and hammer out a "camel". That's a horse that was designed by committee. No budget has ever been , or will be , satisfactory to all parties. But budgets have always been passed , until the last 7 years. CR's are as I said TEMPORARY stop gaps. Or at least they are supposed to be. And as far as money being spent improperly, and presidents being impeached , all I can say is "yeah right". Apparently you and I have spent the last 50 or so years in different countries. Of course you are absolutely right IN THERORY. Glad that you were paying attention to your Civics teacher (for those of you under 50, civics was a class that used to be mandated in most high schools that actually had the totally weird idea that in order to be good citizens people should know something about how their country worked. Things like their duties , as well as their rights as citizens.)