Matrix Games Forums

Forums  Register  Login  Photo Gallery  Member List  Search  Calendars  FAQ 

My Profile  Inbox  Address Book  My Subscription  My Forums  Log Out

RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War

 
View related threads: (in this forum | in all forums)

Logged in as: Guest
Users viewing this topic: none
  Printable Version
All Forums >> [General] >> General Discussion >> RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War Page: <<   < prev  1 2 3 4 [5]
Login
Message << Older Topic   Newer Topic >>
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/2/2018 2:50:05 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
2 August 1918

At his headquarters, Ludendorff had reluctantly accepted the need for his forces to go on the defensive, for the time being. Nonetheless, he requested his staff to prepare plans for further offensives. Surely this latest Allied push would soon exhaust itself, as all previous movements on the Western front had, and then it would be time for counter-strokes. The idea that this offensive might be sustained all the way through autumn seems not to have occurred to anyone in the German High Command yet.


The French and British units of General Mangin's Tenth Army had gathered enough strength for another push. They attacked, and gained nearly 8 kilometers (5 miles). This allowed the French to re-take the town of Soissons. This is one of the most ancient townships in France, and revered for the martyrdom of the saints Crispin and Crispinian in the 3rd century. It was, of course, considerably the worse for being bombarded at this point. But for many Frenchmen, the sacred soil of their homeland was being redeemed.




Attachment (1)

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 121
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/4/2018 4:26:52 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
4 August 1918

General Ludendorff' probably realized that the reverses of the past two weeks meant something was needed to calm the Kaiser and the German populace, He therefore issued an official statement:

Foch's plan was undoubtedly to cut off the entire arc of our front south of the Aisne by a breakthrough on the flank.  But with the proved leadership of our Seventh and Ninth Armies that was quite impossible.

We figured with an attack on July 18th and were prepared for it. The enemy experienced very heavy losses, and the Americans and African auxiliary troops, which we do not underestimate, suffered severely.

By the afternoon of the 19th we already were fully masters of the situation and shall remain so. We left the abandoned ground to the enemy according to our regular plan.

"Gain of ground" and "Marne" are only catchwords without importance for the issue of the war.
We are now, as before, confident.


Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne,

It was true that the Germans were slowing the Allied offense north of the Marne. But the Allies had other attacks being prepared.


At Baku in the Caucasus, the British and Commonwealth troops to reinforce the “Dunsterforce” arrived. The reinforcements consisted of a company of the 1st/4th Hampshire and a company of the 1st/2nd Gurkhas, two mountain guns of the 21st Battery, and 500 Ford vans to carry the men, equipment, and supplies. They had won the race for position against the Islamic Army of the Caucasus, but they were too few. Much depended on whether other forces in the area such as Armenians and Russians could join them.

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 122
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/5/2018 3:42:59 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
5 August 1918

Four Zeppelins attempted to bomb targets in the Midlands and the north of England. The airships reached the British coast before dark and were sighted by the Leman Tail lightship at 2010, although defending aircraft were not alerted until 2050. But it was enough: despite thick clouds two aircraft intercepted the raid, targeting the recently commissioned L 70. This Zeppelin happened to be carrying Peter Strasser, Führer der Luftschiffe (commander of airships) of the German Imperial Navy. It was shot down in flames with no survivors. Majors Egbert Cadbury and Robert Leckie, flying an Airco (AKA De Havilland) DH.4, were credited with the victory.

The remaining airships dropped their bombs blind, relying on radio bearings for navigational information, and none fell on land. Not surprisingly, the Germans now decided that the cost of Zeppelin raids on Britain was too high, and no more would be attempted.




Attachment (1)

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 123
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/6/2018 2:45:31 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
6 August 1918

Local German counter-attacks in the Soissons area brought the French advance to a halt. The bulge in the Allied lines since Operation Blücher–Yorck had now been substantially rolled back, and the Germans now held a line running along the Aisne and Vesle Rivers. This shortened their front by 45 km (28 mi), giving them a strong defensive position.
This is considered to be the end of the Second Battle of the Marne, and though the Germans had lost no significant ground as yet to the Allies, it was decidedly an Allied victory. All four of the Allied powers had contributed and paid a price. The French had lost 95,165 casualties, the United Kingdom, 16,552 casualties, the United States, 12,000 casualties, and Italy: 9,000 casualties, for a total of roughly 132,700 men. However, Germany had lost 139,000 dead or wounded plus over 29,000 men captured.

Ludendorff’s last offensive had achieved less than any of his previous attempts, and in fact, had ended in an Allied offensive. For the victory, Ferdinand Foch was created a Marshal of France.


Now that the French had scored a success, it was the turn of the British. The German offensive in April, Operation Georgette, had thrown an embarrassing scare into the British high command. And though it had not captured any really valuable objectives, the important railway hub at Amiens was being hampered by shelling from a 280 mm (11-inch) Krupp railway gun. General Sir Douglas Haig had selected this area for a counter-offensive, and the supplies and equipment necessary were already being moved into place. Haig considered surprise to be crucial, so the British artillery shelling in the area was actually reduced for the time being, and some troops were withdrawn from the lines, making sure that the Germans could see them going.




Attachment (1)

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 124
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/7/2018 3:17:06 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
7 August 1918

The Atlantic convoys gave more safety, but crossing the ocean in the face of the German U-boats was still a dangerous business. On this date, the French armored cruiser Dupetit Thouars was escorting a convoy of two dozen ships inbound from New York. Off Brest, at 20:51, one of her officers spotted an incoming torpedo, but it was too late to evade. She was hit on the port side underneath the forward bridge, and a few seconds later another scored under the aft bridge.

Damage reports indicated that Dupetit-Thouars had been fatally wounded, but she was not listing badly as yet, and would take time to flood. The ship steamed off the convoy route and sent out a distress call. The engines were stopped, and the order to abandon ship was given. The damage reports had seriously underestimated the situation: the cruiser rolled over and went beneath the waves while the last life-raft was being launched, drowning ten men.

To add insult to injury, the submarine U-62, which had fired the torpedoes, now surfaced and asked the name and tonnage of her victim from the floating survivors.




Attachment (1)

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 125
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/8/2018 3:29:59 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
8 August 1918

In the Amiens sector, the Allies had managed to achieve surprise they sought. This was remarkable when it is realized that 10 infantry divisions along with 1,386 field guns and howitzers, 684 heavy guns, and 580 tanks had been moved into position. More, French units had been informed of the plan and moved up to support the right wing. (Although the British insisted that the French move out half an hour later than the British attack.)

Instead of a long and thorough preliminary bombardment, the Allied guns opened up at 4:30 am, only a few minutes before the advance began. There was heavy morning fog, which masked the troop movements and should have prevented the artillery from being effective, but the British had prepared a detailed plan for their batteries. Using sound-ranging and aerial maps provided days before, they placed their shells just where they wanted them, and then advanced the barrage just ahead of their troops.



The Germans were caught entirely off guard. Their counter-fire from their own artillery did not begin for five minutes or more, and then it hit locations that the Allied troops had already advanced beyond. In just three hours, the Allies were 3.7 km (2.3 mi) from their start, and still moving forward. A group of German officers, including divisional staff, were captured before they finished breakfast. By 11:00 am, the Allies had gained 4.8 km (3.0 mi), and were reaching the rear of the German defenses. Several German units simply collapsed instead of the orderly retreat that had been typical in times past, and the Allies took large numbers of prisoners.



By the end of the day, the Allied forces had averaged an advance of 11 km (6.8 mi), with some Canadian units gaining 13 km. The Germans had lost 14,000 killed and wounded, with 16,000 more taken prisoner. Ludendorff was shocked -- German soldiers were not supposed to surrender except in small isolated instances. He would describe it as "the black day of the German Army".

The crowning capture of the day, however, was mechanical rather than human. One group of Australians had manged to advance so quickly that they came upon the Krupp railway gun that had been shelling Amiens for months. It had been partially prepared to move, being coupled to a locomotive along with two cars of ammunition and several more cars meant to carry the crew. The rear of the train had caught fire, but the Australians quickly determined that the locomotive was in working order and decided to move the gun back towards the Allied lines. They detached the burning cars at the rear, shunting them to a siding, and raised steam. While this was going on, a bullet hit one of the locomotive’s steam pipes, but the undaunted Aussies wrapped the line with tracing-tape, and the train was started. The gun was moved back behind the new advanced lines, but it could not be moved much farther because the rails had been hit by shellfire at that point.

Eventually the gun would be moved to Paris for display, and then shipped to Australia as a war trophy. After WWII there was much less interest in the gun for a time, and the carriage of the gun was scrapped during the 1960’s. However, the gun itself is now on display at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.




Attachment (3)

< Message edited by Capt. Harlock -- 8/8/2018 3:31:48 AM >


_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 126
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/9/2018 4:05:16 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
9 August 1918

In the Amiens sector, the Allies continued to push forward. The advance was not as great as the day before, since many of the tanks had broken down, and the field guns could not be moved forward quickly enough to support the new infantry positions. A German position on Chipilly Spur delivered flanking fire which brought part of the Australian advance to a halt for a time. But late in the day a group of Aussies managed to get across the river and captured Chipilly village, forcing the Germans to evacuate.

Near Montdidier, to the south of the British offensive, the French had also advanced. They did not have the tank support the British had enjoyed, so they took proportionally more casualties, but they widened the base of the offensive. What little chance the Germans had of cutting off the British salient was gone.

As he had a habit of doing, Winston Churchill went to visit the scene:

[General Sir Henry] Rawlinson’s Headquarters were at Flixicourt, near Amiens. I was much delayed in reaching them by enormous columns of German prisoners which endlessly streamed along the dusty roads. No one who has been a prisoner of war himself* can be indifferent to the lot of the soldier whom the fortunes of war condemn to this plight. The woe-begone expression of the Officers contrasted sharply with the almost cheerful countenances of the rank and file. All had passed through a severe experience, the crashing bombardment, the irresistible on-rush of the tanks spurting machine gun bullets from every unexpected quarter, the catastrophe of surrender, the long march from the battlefield . . .

The battle was still in full blast and I asked how best to see it. There is a road well known to the Royal Air Force which runs straight as a die for 50 kilometres due East from Amiens to Vermand. ‘It is being shelled, but there is no congestion, you can go ahead along it as far as you care.’ So off we went along this famous road, through deserted, battered, ghostly Amiens; through Villers-Bretonneux, a heap of smouldering wreckage, threading our way through the intervals of an endless convoy which moved slowly forward from one shell-hammered point to another. The battlefield had all its tales to tell. The German dead lay everywhere, but scattered in twos and threes and half-dozens over a very wide area. Rigid in their machine-gun nests, white flaccid corpses, lay those faithful legionaries of the Kaiser who had tried to stem the rout of ‘six battle-worthy German divisions.’ A British war balloon overhead burst into a sheet of fire, from which tiny black figures fell in parachutes. Cavalry cantered as gaily over the reconquered territory as if they were themselves the cause of victory. By a small wood seven or eight Tanks with scattered German dead around them lay where a concealed battery had pierced them, twisted and scorched by the fierce petrol fires in which they had perished. ‘Crews nearly all burned to death,’ said the Officer of the burying party. ‘Those still alive are the worst off.’

–- Winston Churchill, The World Crisis, Vol. 3


* Churchill was referring to his capture during the Boer War.

< Message edited by Capt. Harlock -- 8/9/2018 4:16:49 AM >


_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 127
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/11/2018 4:28:51 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
11 August 1918

In the Amiens sector, the British advance came to a temporary halt. The Germans had fallen back to a fortified line established back at the beginning of 1915, and they had brought up a good deal of artillery support. The ground the British now had to take was much more difficult for WWI tanks to traverse. In fact the situation was much like the first Battle of Cambrai, the year before, the first major success using tanks on the battlefield. The advance had been pushed too far, and the German counter-attack had wiped out many of the gains after most of the tanks had broken down.

Therefore, General Haig decided to wait until his own heavy guns and ammunition could be put in place. This was against Marshal Foch’s directive: he wanted the British assault to continue, to distract the maximum number of German troops from the southern part of the front. For the time being, however, Haig had the final say.


Zeppelin L 53 had been a thorn in the side of the British for some time. She had made 4 attacks on England, but now was doing more effective service flying reconnaissance missions over the North Sea. The British commander in the area grew annoyed at having his ships spotted, and took measures. On this date, naval aviation history was made as a Sopwith Camel piloted by one Lieutenant Culley took off from a deck constructed on a lighter (a flat-bottomed barge) towed by the destroyer HMS Redoubt. After an hour’s flight, Culley intercepted the L 53, flying underneath it and then practically standing the Camel on its tail and opening fire. The 195-meter (640 ft) long Zeppelin went down in flames. It is likely no one knew it at the time, but she would be the last German airship lost in action.


The Japanese rice riots were now out of control. The violence had spread to the cities, and the police were largely being overwhelmed. There were lootings and fire-bombings of police stations and government offices. On this date, there was a grimly effective arson attack in the city of Kobe.




Attachment (1)

< Message edited by Capt. Harlock -- 8/11/2018 6:03:29 PM >


_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 128
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/12/2018 4:21:56 PM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
12 August 1918

Sir Douglas Haig received a visit from “Black Jack” Pershing on this date, however, it was not a pleasant one. Pershing was there to request the return of 5 American divisions then serving under British command. Haig was opposed to weakening his forces; he had every intention of pushing back the Germans after a brief respite. But Allied High Command had accepted the creation of the American First Army and was planning an attack to reduce St Mihiel Salient, which obviously required American troops. Marshal Foch managed a compromise, and persuaded Pershing to take only 3 divisions, allowing the 27th and 30th to remain with the British forces.


A more pleasant visit was received by Australian General John Monash at the Château de Bertangles. For his victory at Hamel, King George V made Monash a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, the first time in two centuries that a British sovereign had knighted an officer in the field rather than at a royal palace.




Attachment (1)

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 129
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/13/2018 2:26:34 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
13 August 1918

The Czecho-Slovaks declared war on Germany. This might have displaced Honduras as the last country to enter WWI, but the Czecho-Slovaks had not yet declared themselves an independent nation. The announcement was made in the name of the Czech and Slovakian peoples. This was good enough for the British Government, however; on this same date they recognized Czechoslovakia as a nation. Of course, its exact borders would have to wait until the peace conference.

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 130
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/15/2018 3:21:22 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
15 August 1918

At Sarcus, France, Ferdinand Foch was again reminded that his authority over the entire Western front was still not absolute. On this date, in a conference with Sir Douglas Haig, he repeated his demand that the British continue the offensive in the Amiens sector. If Foch had hoped that his compromise in getting Haig to keep two American divisions would win him some concession in turn, he was disappointed. Haig was courteous but firm in his denial. He spoke of his “sole responsibility to his government and fellow-citizens for the handling of the British forces.”

But Foch was not the man to allow Haig a complete victory. In turn, he removed the First French Army from Haig’s command and turned it over to Marshal Petain.



In fact, Haig had his plans already underway. He had chosen the Albert sector for his next thrust, and ordered the Third Army under Sir Julian Byng to prepare a fresh offensive. Troops and supplies were already being sent to the scene.



After somewhere between 320 to 367 shells fired, the long-range bombardment of Paris came to an end. Apparently the Germans were not willing to risk the capture of the Paris Gun after the Amiens gun was seized. They dismounted the gun and moved it east. Perhaps this was because the Germans did not wish anyone else to have the technology, or perhaps it was because they suspected those involved might well be tried for war crimes. Whatever the reason, they would do a thorough job of destroying it: neither gun barrels nor plans were ever found. A spare mounting and photographs were all the Allies would ever have.




Attachment (2)

< Message edited by Capt. Harlock -- 8/15/2018 3:22:03 AM >


_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 131
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/17/2018 3:53:52 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
17 August 1918

Now it was again the turn of the French to launch an attack. On this date, the Second Battle of Noyon began, with the French Tenth Army under Charles “the butcher” Mangin moving up. Success would not be as rapid as it had been in July at the Marne, but progress was made.

Mangin was notoriously insensitive to casualties; a quote of his was "Quoi qu'on fasse, on perd beaucoup de monde". (“Whatever one does, one loses many people.”) This had caused his removal from command after the disastrous Nivelle offensive in the Spring of 1917, which had come close to breaking the French army. But his aggressive temperament was now what Foch wanted. The Germans could not safely retreat forever: there were crucial railroad lines they could not afford to lose.

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 132
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/17/2018 5:02:52 AM   
wodin


Posts: 9481
Joined: 4/20/2003
From: England
Status: offline
Must own WW1 books below

Ralph Whiteheads "Other Side of the Wire " Volumes 1 to 3 (Vol 4 and last book in series due next year). WOW..the research this man has done. You relive this German Corps experience in the trenches down to individual men. Right through the War.

Jack Sheldons "German Army on\at......" series. Every book a winner. Must own set!

J Leonhards "Pandoras Box" Has to be the best book about the War from start to finish out there. If you can only own one book on WW1, it's this one.

J Dunn "War the Infantry Knew" One of the best memiors

R Hamilton "War diary of Master of Belhaven" Another must read memoir

A Rifleman "Four Years on the Western Front" and another must read memoir

_____________________________


(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 133
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/19/2018 3:14:16 PM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
19th August 1918

In the north of France, the British did make slow progress. On this date, the town of Merville was retaken. Or at least, what was left of the town -- for all practical purposes, it had been entirely destroyed. Here was the difference of modern warfare. In times past, armies had been able to forage off the land they advanced through. But now, wherever the soldiers marched, they had to bring nearly all of what they needed with them.




Attachment (1)

_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to wodin)
Post #: 134
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/21/2018 3:25:36 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
21 August 1918

The Battle of Albert, or Second Battle of Bapaume, began with General Julian Byng launching the advance of his Third Army. Opening the assault were the New Zealand Division and 37th and 42nd Divisions. The “Kiwis” had experienced heavy fighting during the German Spring Offensives, but they had been wisely withdrawn from the front lines for a time and allowed to recover. They were now nearly at full strength again, something not many divisions in the British Empire could say at this point. And the Germans had learned to fear them; they were as fierce on the attack as any troops on the Allied side. The rumor had spread in the German ranks that they ate their captives, which amused the New Zealanders greatly when they learned of it.


(The writing on the corrugated iron reads: "THE CANNIBALS PARADISE SUPPLY DEN BEWARE")


The British had only 100 tanks to support them this time. For the first day, however, it proved to be enough. The Germans, not slow to learn from their own defeats, had established a defense in depth, with their forward lines only lightly held. The New Zealanders advanced roughly 1,000 meters, and then were “leap-frogged” by the other two British divisions. By the end of the day Byng’s forces had gained about 3.2 km (2.0 mi), but they had not reached the true German defensive line.



Attachment (2)

< Message edited by Capt. Harlock -- 8/21/2018 3:30:14 AM >


_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 135
RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War - 8/21/2018 3:29:40 AM   
Capt. Harlock


Posts: 5114
Joined: 9/15/2001
From: Los Angeles
Status: offline
{deleted}


< Message edited by Capt. Harlock -- 8/21/2018 3:30:49 AM >


_____________________________

Civil war? What does that mean? Is there any foreign war? Isn't every war fought between men, between brothers?

--Victor Hugo

(in reply to Capt. Harlock)
Post #: 136
Page:   <<   < prev  1 2 3 4 [5]
All Forums >> [General] >> General Discussion >> RE: Centennial of the End of the Great War Page: <<   < prev  1 2 3 4 [5]
Jump to:





New Messages No New Messages
Hot Topic w/ New Messages Hot Topic w/o New Messages
Locked w/ New Messages Locked w/o New Messages
 Post New Thread
 Reply to Message
 Post New Poll
 Submit Vote
 Delete My Own Post
 Delete My Own Thread
 Rate Posts


Forum Software © ASPPlayground.NET Advanced Edition 2.4.5 ANSI

0.133