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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/15/2018 9:51:48 PM   
asl3d


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The KV-2 was designed as a "bunker-buster", the need for which was discovered during the war against Finland in 1939. During this war, the high command issued that the Red Army had an urgent need for a heavy tank equipped with a more powerful armament to destroy the enemy fortifications (bunkers...). Four KV-1 were diverted to be tested with the heavy howitzer of 152 mm. They were the engineers of the KTZ which was charged to realize this conversion. After only two weeks, the project was finalized on paper. Initially it was the howitzer of 152 mm model 1909/1930 which was selected but the latter was quickly replaced by M-10 model 1938/1940, more modern. Of course, to accommodate this imposing weapon, a new turret (MT-1) was to be created. While it was an effective weapon versus static emplacements, its lumbering bulk was the complete opposite of what was needed during the mobile defensive battles of 1941, and it was quickly phased out of production. One prototype saw action in Finland in February 1940, around Summa. The KV-2's massive turret was difficult to traverse—especially if the tank was not on level ground.
At the beginning of 1941, the project was renamed KV-2. The imposing turret of the KV-2 was assembled on the hull of a KV tank experimental with double turrets. The first tests on this machine had been carried out on February 10, 1940. The tests on defense works were excellent and the KV-2 was thus accepted for the production. A total od 334 specimens of the KV-2 were produced in 1940-1941 in LKZ (Leningrad). Two models were created. The KV-1A (model 1940) had a too heavy turret which could be moved only on flat ground. The production of this model was abandoned end 1941. The KV-2B had a larger mantlet with a rounded shield. It weighed 4 tons more than model A and some were equipped with flame thrower. The KV-2B was carried out starting from the hull of the KV-1A. During the production, an additional machine-gun was installed.
The howitzer of 152 mm M-10 put at fire only high-explosive rounds of 52 kg (with reduced propellant charge) with a muzzle velocity of 436 m/s. The other ammunition of 152 mm were prohibited by the manual like the piercing or anti-concrete rounds. The KV-2 transported 36 rounds of 152 mm and 3087 rounds of 7.62 mm for its machine-guns DT (front hull, back of the turret). The crew of the KV-2 was composed of 6 men: the commander of the tank, the chief of shooting, the loader, the gunner, the driver and the radio-machine gunner. The four first with the howitzer were installed in the imposing (and very high) turret. To reach the trap doors on the roof , levels were laid out on the sides of the turret. This turret was not really a success, indeed, any traverse was impossible on soft and rough ground because of the weight and its height made KV-2 an easy target.
The KV-2 weighed 52 tons and was 7 m long. It had a 3.30 m height and a width of 3.25 m. It was propelled by a diesel engine V-12 V-2K developing 600 hp to 2000 rpm. It transported 600 L of diesel, which allowed him an autonomy on road of 250 km. Because of its weight, the KV-2 could hardly exceed the 26 km/h on road, which made a very slow vehicle of it. For the remainder, the design of the hull, respected that of the KV-1. The suspension always included 6 independent double-road wheels assembled on torsion bars, 3 double-return rollers, a front double-idler and a back double-sprocket-wheel. The tracks had a width of 650 mm.
On the level of the shielding of the hull, not change compared to the KV-1. For the turret made up of perfectly vertical walls, its thickness was of 75 mm. The mantlet had thickness a 110 mm and the roof a 40 mm thickness.
The KV-2 inherited the defects of design of the KV-1, in particular on the level of the transmission and the chassis. Let us add, a too heavy and not very handy turret , a too high silhouette making of him an easy target and one understands quickly that this model wasn't a great success. However, it created because of its imposing mass, a true agitation within the German tank crewmen at the time of its appearance on the battle fields in 1941. It should be said that in more of its impressive dimensions, this monster was safe from all the German anti-tank weapons of the time and only the anti-aircraft gun of 88 mm could bore its shielding.
The Germans of Panzer-Regiment 11, 6th Panzerdivision (Panzer-Gruppe 4), were the first to meet the KV-2 (2nd Russian armored division), June 25, 1941. They knew many difficulties vis-a-vis to these monsters however slow and badly designed. In fact the majority of the lost KV-2 were it because of engine and mechanic trouble or fuel shortage. In October 1941, the production of the KV-2 was abandoned.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/16/2018 6:07:53 PM   
asl3d


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The KV-1 was also chosen to be used as platform for the new ATO-41 flame-thrower. The gun mantlet accommodated the flamethrower tube, a coaxial DT machine-gun and, replacing the former ZiS-5 gun, a 45 mm QF model 1932 in disguise, housed inside a 76 mm tube. The gun was standard issue on the BT series and the T-26, and had good penetration power against 20-25 mm of armor. 45 units were converted using KV-1B hulls (model 1941), and later on, 25 more based on the upgraded KV-1S. Two prototypes of the next version (KV-1M) and a few experimental units with the flame-thrower was relocated in the hull were also built and tested in combat.
The flame throwers were generally used against heavy entrenchments because of their great psychological effects. One thus decided to mount on the KV-1 a such equipment. Work on this conversion called KV-8 began in November 1941 in Chelyabinsk (ChKZ). Before light tanks as T-26 were used as bases for such conversion, but they were protected too little. Indeed the flame-thrower tanks were top priority for the German anti-tank guns. Unfortunately on the KV-1, it was not possible to install the gun of 76.2 mm and the ATO-41 flame-thrower together in the turret and the gun of 76.2 mm was removed to the profit of the gun of 45 mm M1932 less cumbersome. So that this change is not too visible for the enemy a factitious tube was installed on the tube of the 45 mm to simulate the 76.2 mm. The KV-8 transported 92 rounds of 45 mm and 960L of a flammable mixture allowing 107 projections. The armament was supplemented by a machine-gun of 7.62 mm DT assembled in front of the hull and by another machine-gun DT assembled to the back of the turret. Certain models were equipped with an anti-aircraft machine-gun. The total of transported ammunition of 7.62mm were of 3400 rounds.
Lance-flame ATO-41 assembled coaxially, had a rate of shooting of 3 projections every 10 seconds. Each projection consumed 10L of flammable liquid. The production of the KV-7 began in 1942. Compared to the OT-34 (version lance-flame of T-34), the KV-8 embarked more flammable liquid. The two tanks were versed in independent flame thrower battalions. Each battalion was equipped with 2 companies of KV-8 (2x10) and 1 company of OT-34. When the production of the KV-1 was cancelled, KV-1s was used to realize the conversion and the new model was baptized KV-8s. KV-8s transported 114 rounds of 45 mm, 600L of flammable liquid (60 projections). Still let us note that during the production the ATO-41 was replaced by the ATO-42.
Vis-a-vis with the increase in the calibers and performances of the German anti-tank weapons, the KV-1 was replaced on the assembly lines at the beginning of 1943 by the KV-85 but continued its service in the Red Army until the battle of Berlin.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/17/2018 4:36:52 PM   
asl3d


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Designed as a countermeasure to the latest German AFVs, the SU-85 was essentially an SU-122 up-gunned by mounting a derivative of the 85mm AA gun. Used in tank destroyer battalions of 16 vehicles each (21 from 1944), it first saw combat during the forcing of the Dnepr River. With the advent of the T-34/85, the gun of the SU-85 became redundant and it was eventually superseded in production by the SU-100. A total of 2,050 were built. The SU-85 were affected on this basis to every mechanized and armored corps.
When the Tiger arrived on the battle fields of the eastern front in January 1943, it caused a big fear among the Russian High Command because its armor was too thick for any Soviet tank in service to this era. The more common guns, the 76.2 mm F-34 (T-34/76) and the 76.2 mm ZIS-5 (KV-1) could not hope to pierce the armor of a Tiger than to suicidal distances. The howitzer M-30 of 122 mm mounted on the SU-122 could equally pierce the armor of a Tiger but with a very weak fire rate and with a curved trajectory, this that did SU-122 a too easy target for the Tiger. The alone really effective weapons were the anti-aircraft guns of 85 mm and of 122 mm A-19. May 5 1943, the GKO gave the order to the design office of F.F. Petrov to adapt the canon of 85 mm models 1939 to have brought up on the SU-122.
The SU-85 standard was based on the SU-122, endow with a frontal armor of 45 mm and was armed with the 85 mm D-5S gun of Petrov. This was the more common and used version. The production of the SU-85 was realized by Uralmash until the arrival of a more powerful model, the SU-100. Altogether 2329 SU-85 were produced by this factory to from August 1943 to July 1944.
The transmission, the engine and the suspension was unchanged in comparison with the SU-122 basic itself on the T-34, this that facilitated big the formation of the crews and maintenance. Besides the rear compartment (engine-transmission) was the same as the one of the T-34. The performances to the level mobility of the SU-85 were rather similar to the one of the T-34.
The superstructure was at the origin was endowed with a simple hatch for the commander that next was replaced by a commander's cupola, equally mounted on the T-34/76 model 1943. For his vision, the crew could used the prismatic instruments of vision present on the left side and the back. Other instruments of this type were installed by after allowing a circular vision more correct. The SU-85 was at the front as the SU-122 equipped with an armored driver's window.
The SU-85 was used for the 1st times at the time of the crossing of the Dniepr in September 1943. The SU-85 was quickly a tank destroyer very popular within the Red army because of its powerful anti-tank gun able to penetrate frontal armor of the tanks Tigers and Panthers to long distances.
The SU-85 was very effective as defensive weapon, being able to destroy targets to very long distances, but were equally very useful as support tank at the time of the armored assaults as for example during the Soviet summer offensive of 1944.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/18/2018 6:53:29 PM   
asl3d


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The SU-100 was essentially an up-gunned SU-85, using an adapted 100mm naval gun. Only from late 1944 to mid 1945, a total of 1,675 SU-100 were built . The production of the SU-100 started from December 1944 and this one continued to Uralmash to March 1946. Uralmash realized a total of 3037 copies of this powerful tank destroyer.
It was used in Tank Destroyer Battalions of 21 vehicles each, and in Guards Heavy SPA Brigades with 65 SU-100s and 3 SU-76s. From December 1944, some regiments and brigades of the medium self-propelled artillery were re-armed with SU-100. Every regiment was endowed with 4 batteries composed each of 5 SU-100 and 1 SU-76 (or T-34) of command. A brigade possessed 65 SU-100. January 8 1945, the SU-100 known its baptism of the fire in Hungary. It was used in mass to oppose the German counter-offensive of the lake Balaton in March 1945 in Hungary. The SU-100 had an excellent firepower coupled to a very good mobility.
In order to endow the Soviet armored forces of a tank destroyers more powerful than the SU-85, the Russian engineers developed around a powerful anti-tank canon of 100 mm similar to the B-34 naval, a new killer of tank. The plans of the new model were sent to the Ministry of the industry of the armored vehicles (NKTP) and to the Department of the self-propelled artillery in December 1943. December 28 1943, the NKTP ordered to Uralmash to mount the gun of 100 mm on the new vehicle. Nevertheless it was obvious that it was impossible to mount the 100 mm S-34 because of the width of the gun, limiting too strongly the lateral movements of this one, and rendering impossible the installation of the driver's window on the frontal plate of the superstructure. Many and costly modifications were necessary to install this gun but the TsAKB (Central study office of the artillery) wanted absolutely this gun.
Uralmash asked to the design office of Petrov (Factory n°9) to conceive a new gun of 100 mm, and this that was done towards the half of 1944. The new gun based on the B-34 naval was named D-10. The version for tank was baptized D-10T and the version for self-propelled gun was baptized D-10S. The D-10 had the advantage to be lighter than the S-34 and especially to be able to be installed on existing hulls without a lot of modifications. March 3 1944, the first prototype equipped of the 100 mm D-10S was tested on the Uralmash grounds (150 km race and 30 shots). It next was sent to governmental tests close to Gorokhovets. Between the 9 and March 7 1944, the prototype there was tested. During these tests, it realized 1040 shots and rolled on 864 km. The new tank destroyer finally was named SU-100 and recommended for the mass production under reserves of some modifications. April 14 1944, Uralmash received the order to begin the production.
The mass production of the SU-100 was delayed many times because of the problems linked to the production of the BR-412B amour piercing ammo, very complex to realize. The final result was often poor quality and the effectiveness of the munitions some was gravely impaired. This big problem was solved in November December 1944. To this era the production of the SU-85M was stopped and replaced by the one of the SU-100.
The SU-100 was similar to the SU-85 based on the T-34. The hull was the one of the SU-85 but frontal armor was increased to 75 mm, and this that overloaded the two first pairs of road wheels of the suspension. The diameter of the springs of these road wheels were increased and passed of 30 mm to 34 mm but the first road wheels remained overloaded. An new commander's cupola was installed on the roof as well as an observation instrument Mk-IV and a pair new fans. The disposal was classical, a fight compartment to the front, and a compartment for engine-transmission group to the back. The latter welcomed equally the friction-clutch, the gearbox (5-1) and two side friction-clutches, two fuel tanks and a pair of air-filters.
The gun of 100 mm D-10S had a provision of 18 armor piercing projectiles (BR-412B) and of 15 high explosive with fragmentation projectiles (OF-412). The BR-412B had an initial velocity of 895 m/s and could pierce 100 mm of armor plating to 1500 m. This tank hunter could penetrate frontal armor of any German AFV from 2000 m. The D-10S was equipped of two sight, a periscopic sight and a panoramic sight. The fight compartment welcomed also tank controls, the munitions, the radio and the front fuel tanks.





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