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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/15/2018 9:51:48 PM   
asl3d


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The KV-2 was designed as a "bunker-buster", the need for which was discovered during the war against Finland in 1939. During this war, the high command issued that the Red Army had an urgent need for a heavy tank equipped with a more powerful armament to destroy the enemy fortifications (bunkers...). Four KV-1 were diverted to be tested with the heavy howitzer of 152 mm. They were the engineers of the KTZ which was charged to realize this conversion. After only two weeks, the project was finalized on paper. Initially it was the howitzer of 152 mm model 1909/1930 which was selected but the latter was quickly replaced by M-10 model 1938/1940, more modern. Of course, to accommodate this imposing weapon, a new turret (MT-1) was to be created. While it was an effective weapon versus static emplacements, its lumbering bulk was the complete opposite of what was needed during the mobile defensive battles of 1941, and it was quickly phased out of production. One prototype saw action in Finland in February 1940, around Summa. The KV-2's massive turret was difficult to traverse—especially if the tank was not on level ground.
At the beginning of 1941, the project was renamed KV-2. The imposing turret of the KV-2 was assembled on the hull of a KV tank experimental with double turrets. The first tests on this machine had been carried out on February 10, 1940. The tests on defense works were excellent and the KV-2 was thus accepted for the production. A total od 334 specimens of the KV-2 were produced in 1940-1941 in LKZ (Leningrad). Two models were created. The KV-1A (model 1940) had a too heavy turret which could be moved only on flat ground. The production of this model was abandoned end 1941. The KV-2B had a larger mantlet with a rounded shield. It weighed 4 tons more than model A and some were equipped with flame thrower. The KV-2B was carried out starting from the hull of the KV-1A. During the production, an additional machine-gun was installed.
The howitzer of 152 mm M-10 put at fire only high-explosive rounds of 52 kg (with reduced propellant charge) with a muzzle velocity of 436 m/s. The other ammunition of 152 mm were prohibited by the manual like the piercing or anti-concrete rounds. The KV-2 transported 36 rounds of 152 mm and 3087 rounds of 7.62 mm for its machine-guns DT (front hull, back of the turret). The crew of the KV-2 was composed of 6 men: the commander of the tank, the chief of shooting, the loader, the gunner, the driver and the radio-machine gunner. The four first with the howitzer were installed in the imposing (and very high) turret. To reach the trap doors on the roof , levels were laid out on the sides of the turret. This turret was not really a success, indeed, any traverse was impossible on soft and rough ground because of the weight and its height made KV-2 an easy target.
The KV-2 weighed 52 tons and was 7 m long. It had a 3.30 m height and a width of 3.25 m. It was propelled by a diesel engine V-12 V-2K developing 600 hp to 2000 rpm. It transported 600 L of diesel, which allowed him an autonomy on road of 250 km. Because of its weight, the KV-2 could hardly exceed the 26 km/h on road, which made a very slow vehicle of it. For the remainder, the design of the hull, respected that of the KV-1. The suspension always included 6 independent double-road wheels assembled on torsion bars, 3 double-return rollers, a front double-idler and a back double-sprocket-wheel. The tracks had a width of 650 mm.
On the level of the shielding of the hull, not change compared to the KV-1. For the turret made up of perfectly vertical walls, its thickness was of 75 mm. The mantlet had thickness a 110 mm and the roof a 40 mm thickness.
The KV-2 inherited the defects of design of the KV-1, in particular on the level of the transmission and the chassis. Let us add, a too heavy and not very handy turret , a too high silhouette making of him an easy target and one understands quickly that this model wasn't a great success. However, it created because of its imposing mass, a true agitation within the German tank crewmen at the time of its appearance on the battle fields in 1941. It should be said that in more of its impressive dimensions, this monster was safe from all the German anti-tank weapons of the time and only the anti-aircraft gun of 88 mm could bore its shielding.
The Germans of Panzer-Regiment 11, 6th Panzerdivision (Panzer-Gruppe 4), were the first to meet the KV-2 (2nd Russian armored division), June 25, 1941. They knew many difficulties vis-a-vis to these monsters however slow and badly designed. In fact the majority of the lost KV-2 were it because of engine and mechanic trouble or fuel shortage. In October 1941, the production of the KV-2 was abandoned.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/16/2018 6:07:53 PM   
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The KV-1 was also chosen to be used as platform for the new ATO-41 flame-thrower. The gun mantlet accommodated the flamethrower tube, a coaxial DT machine-gun and, replacing the former ZiS-5 gun, a 45 mm QF model 1932 in disguise, housed inside a 76 mm tube. The gun was standard issue on the BT series and the T-26, and had good penetration power against 20-25 mm of armor. 45 units were converted using KV-1B hulls (model 1941), and later on, 25 more based on the upgraded KV-1S. Two prototypes of the next version (KV-1M) and a few experimental units with the flame-thrower was relocated in the hull were also built and tested in combat.
The flame throwers were generally used against heavy entrenchments because of their great psychological effects. One thus decided to mount on the KV-1 a such equipment. Work on this conversion called KV-8 began in November 1941 in Chelyabinsk (ChKZ). Before light tanks as T-26 were used as bases for such conversion, but they were protected too little. Indeed the flame-thrower tanks were top priority for the German anti-tank guns. Unfortunately on the KV-1, it was not possible to install the gun of 76.2 mm and the ATO-41 flame-thrower together in the turret and the gun of 76.2 mm was removed to the profit of the gun of 45 mm M1932 less cumbersome. So that this change is not too visible for the enemy a factitious tube was installed on the tube of the 45 mm to simulate the 76.2 mm. The KV-8 transported 92 rounds of 45 mm and 960L of a flammable mixture allowing 107 projections. The armament was supplemented by a machine-gun of 7.62 mm DT assembled in front of the hull and by another machine-gun DT assembled to the back of the turret. Certain models were equipped with an anti-aircraft machine-gun. The total of transported ammunition of 7.62mm were of 3400 rounds.
Lance-flame ATO-41 assembled coaxially, had a rate of shooting of 3 projections every 10 seconds. Each projection consumed 10L of flammable liquid. The production of the KV-7 began in 1942. Compared to the OT-34 (version lance-flame of T-34), the KV-8 embarked more flammable liquid. The two tanks were versed in independent flame thrower battalions. Each battalion was equipped with 2 companies of KV-8 (2x10) and 1 company of OT-34. When the production of the KV-1 was cancelled, KV-1s was used to realize the conversion and the new model was baptized KV-8s. KV-8s transported 114 rounds of 45 mm, 600L of flammable liquid (60 projections). Still let us note that during the production the ATO-41 was replaced by the ATO-42.
Vis-a-vis with the increase in the calibers and performances of the German anti-tank weapons, the KV-1 was replaced on the assembly lines at the beginning of 1943 by the KV-85 but continued its service in the Red Army until the battle of Berlin.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/17/2018 4:36:52 PM   
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Designed as a countermeasure to the latest German AFVs, the SU-85 was essentially an SU-122 up-gunned by mounting a derivative of the 85mm AA gun. Used in tank destroyer battalions of 16 vehicles each (21 from 1944), it first saw combat during the forcing of the Dnepr River. With the advent of the T-34/85, the gun of the SU-85 became redundant and it was eventually superseded in production by the SU-100. A total of 2,050 were built. The SU-85 were affected on this basis to every mechanized and armored corps.
When the Tiger arrived on the battle fields of the eastern front in January 1943, it caused a big fear among the Russian High Command because its armor was too thick for any Soviet tank in service to this era. The more common guns, the 76.2 mm F-34 (T-34/76) and the 76.2 mm ZIS-5 (KV-1) could not hope to pierce the armor of a Tiger than to suicidal distances. The howitzer M-30 of 122 mm mounted on the SU-122 could equally pierce the armor of a Tiger but with a very weak fire rate and with a curved trajectory, this that did SU-122 a too easy target for the Tiger. The alone really effective weapons were the anti-aircraft guns of 85 mm and of 122 mm A-19. May 5 1943, the GKO gave the order to the design office of F.F. Petrov to adapt the canon of 85 mm models 1939 to have brought up on the SU-122.
The SU-85 standard was based on the SU-122, endow with a frontal armor of 45 mm and was armed with the 85 mm D-5S gun of Petrov. This was the more common and used version. The production of the SU-85 was realized by Uralmash until the arrival of a more powerful model, the SU-100. Altogether 2329 SU-85 were produced by this factory to from August 1943 to July 1944.
The transmission, the engine and the suspension was unchanged in comparison with the SU-122 basic itself on the T-34, this that facilitated big the formation of the crews and maintenance. Besides the rear compartment (engine-transmission) was the same as the one of the T-34. The performances to the level mobility of the SU-85 were rather similar to the one of the T-34.
The superstructure was at the origin was endowed with a simple hatch for the commander that next was replaced by a commander's cupola, equally mounted on the T-34/76 model 1943. For his vision, the crew could used the prismatic instruments of vision present on the left side and the back. Other instruments of this type were installed by after allowing a circular vision more correct. The SU-85 was at the front as the SU-122 equipped with an armored driver's window.
The SU-85 was used for the 1st times at the time of the crossing of the Dniepr in September 1943. The SU-85 was quickly a tank destroyer very popular within the Red army because of its powerful anti-tank gun able to penetrate frontal armor of the tanks Tigers and Panthers to long distances.
The SU-85 was very effective as defensive weapon, being able to destroy targets to very long distances, but were equally very useful as support tank at the time of the armored assaults as for example during the Soviet summer offensive of 1944.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/18/2018 6:53:29 PM   
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The SU-100 was essentially an up-gunned SU-85, using an adapted 100mm naval gun. Only from late 1944 to mid 1945, a total of 1,675 SU-100 were built . The production of the SU-100 started from December 1944 and this one continued to Uralmash to March 1946. Uralmash realized a total of 3037 copies of this powerful tank destroyer.
It was used in Tank Destroyer Battalions of 21 vehicles each, and in Guards Heavy SPA Brigades with 65 SU-100s and 3 SU-76s. From December 1944, some regiments and brigades of the medium self-propelled artillery were re-armed with SU-100. Every regiment was endowed with 4 batteries composed each of 5 SU-100 and 1 SU-76 (or T-34) of command. A brigade possessed 65 SU-100. January 8 1945, the SU-100 known its baptism of the fire in Hungary. It was used in mass to oppose the German counter-offensive of the lake Balaton in March 1945 in Hungary. The SU-100 had an excellent firepower coupled to a very good mobility.
In order to endow the Soviet armored forces of a tank destroyers more powerful than the SU-85, the Russian engineers developed around a powerful anti-tank canon of 100 mm similar to the B-34 naval, a new killer of tank. The plans of the new model were sent to the Ministry of the industry of the armored vehicles (NKTP) and to the Department of the self-propelled artillery in December 1943. December 28 1943, the NKTP ordered to Uralmash to mount the gun of 100 mm on the new vehicle. Nevertheless it was obvious that it was impossible to mount the 100 mm S-34 because of the width of the gun, limiting too strongly the lateral movements of this one, and rendering impossible the installation of the driver's window on the frontal plate of the superstructure. Many and costly modifications were necessary to install this gun but the TsAKB (Central study office of the artillery) wanted absolutely this gun.
Uralmash asked to the design office of Petrov (Factory n°9) to conceive a new gun of 100 mm, and this that was done towards the half of 1944. The new gun based on the B-34 naval was named D-10. The version for tank was baptized D-10T and the version for self-propelled gun was baptized D-10S. The D-10 had the advantage to be lighter than the S-34 and especially to be able to be installed on existing hulls without a lot of modifications. March 3 1944, the first prototype equipped of the 100 mm D-10S was tested on the Uralmash grounds (150 km race and 30 shots). It next was sent to governmental tests close to Gorokhovets. Between the 9 and March 7 1944, the prototype there was tested. During these tests, it realized 1040 shots and rolled on 864 km. The new tank destroyer finally was named SU-100 and recommended for the mass production under reserves of some modifications. April 14 1944, Uralmash received the order to begin the production.
The mass production of the SU-100 was delayed many times because of the problems linked to the production of the BR-412B amour piercing ammo, very complex to realize. The final result was often poor quality and the effectiveness of the munitions some was gravely impaired. This big problem was solved in November December 1944. To this era the production of the SU-85M was stopped and replaced by the one of the SU-100.
The SU-100 was similar to the SU-85 based on the T-34. The hull was the one of the SU-85 but frontal armor was increased to 75 mm, and this that overloaded the two first pairs of road wheels of the suspension. The diameter of the springs of these road wheels were increased and passed of 30 mm to 34 mm but the first road wheels remained overloaded. An new commander's cupola was installed on the roof as well as an observation instrument Mk-IV and a pair new fans. The disposal was classical, a fight compartment to the front, and a compartment for engine-transmission group to the back. The latter welcomed equally the friction-clutch, the gearbox (5-1) and two side friction-clutches, two fuel tanks and a pair of air-filters.
The gun of 100 mm D-10S had a provision of 18 armor piercing projectiles (BR-412B) and of 15 high explosive with fragmentation projectiles (OF-412). The BR-412B had an initial velocity of 895 m/s and could pierce 100 mm of armor plating to 1500 m. This tank hunter could penetrate frontal armor of any German AFV from 2000 m. The D-10S was equipped of two sight, a periscopic sight and a panoramic sight. The fight compartment welcomed also tank controls, the munitions, the radio and the front fuel tanks.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/19/2018 6:41:43 PM   
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The ZIS-5 was a truck 4x2 that was produced between 1933 and 1958 to about 83,000 copies. It was propelled by a 6 cylinders engine developing 73 hp to 2300 rpm (76 hp to 2400 rpm for the modernized version of the years 50) and was endowed with a gearbox with 4 reports. The ZIS-5 measured in length 6.060 m, in width 2.235 m, in height 2.160 m and weighed 3100 kg (maximum weight for trailer was 3500 kg). The ZIS-5 embarked 60L of gasoline (consumption 34L / 100 km).
In 1931 Moscow Avtomobilnoe Moskovskoe Obshchestvo (AMO Moscow Automotive Enterprise) truck plant was re-equipped and expanded with the help of the American A.J. Brandt Co., and began to produce a new truck with designation of AMO-2. AMO-2 was intended as a replacement of the previous AMO-F15, the first Soviet truck ever built (it was a copy of the Italian Fiat F-15). Soon AMO-2 was improved, and new models AMO-3 and AMO-4 appeared. In 1933 AMO was rebuilt again and renamed into Factory No. 2 Zavod Imeni Stalina (or Plant of Stalin's Name, abbreviated in ZIS or ZiS) and in Summer first prototypes of the new ZIS-5 appeared.
Serial production of the new truck started on October 1, 1933. The truck was an instant success and, which together with GAZ-AA, became the main Soviet truck of 1930-50's. It also evolved into the workhorse of the Soviet armed forces: at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa the Red Army could line up 104,200 of those trucks. Facing the German invasion, in the autumn of 1941 the production line at Moscow plant was stopped and ZIS was moved to Ulyanovsk (on the Volga) and to Miass (in the Chelyabinsk region of the Urals). Production at Ulyanovsk UASZIS lasted from February 1942 to 1944, while UralZIS at Ulyanovsk it began in July 1944; UralZIS fitted the truck radiators with own label and produced it until 1955, well after the end of the war. In the meantime Moscow ZIS plant had restarted production of these trucks in April 1942, and continued until 1948, when the new ZIS-50 (ZIS-5 with new engine) appeared.
At the end of 1941 war shortages of raw materials forced to change the construction of ZIS-5. All changes were focused on simplifying its construction: the round, stamped wings were replaced with flat, bended ones, cabs and foot boards were now made from wood, brakes were removed from front wheels, rear body had the tailgate swinging only. Sometimes also the right headlight was removed, while bumpers were omitted from these versions. The simplified model, designated ZIS-5V, was produced since May 1942 in Ulyanovsk, and later also in Moscow and Miass. Overall production scored about 1 million units (all plants), with ZIS alone producing 532,311 samples.
During the war the ZIS-5 was used on all fronts, where it was greatly appreciated for its remarkably simple and reliable construction. Apart from cargo duties, the ZIS-5 was used as a light artillery tractor and for troops transportation (25 soldiers could seat in five benches placed in the rear body). ZIS-5 served also as base for many special trucks, like refuellers, field workshops, ambulances, porter guns or AA platforms.
After the GAZ-AA, the ZIS-5 was the 2nd most used Red Army truck of 1933-1943 period. The intensive growth of Lend Lease trucks shipping in 1943-1944 did not affect the first line use of the "Tryohtonka" (as soldiers called the ZIS-5 for its 3-ton payload), while GAZ-AA got somewhat phased out to secondary roles.
The ZIS-5 showed remarkable service on the "Road of Life", the only supply line to the besieged city of Leningrad, opened on the frozen surface of the Ladoga Lake in the winter months during 1941–1944. This truck have a nickname Zakhar.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/20/2018 5:23:10 PM   
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The ZIS-42 half-track army tractor was built from 1942 to 1944. It shares the cab and front end with the ZIS-5. During war years such amenities as windshield wipers, bumpers and right head light were omitted, and plentiful Russian wood replaced hard to get steel that was needed for tanks and artillery. Despite being a half-track, the ZIS-42 remained a cargo truck and was never armored as the American and German half-tracks. The ZIs-42 was built in response to the Red Army’s demand for a truck that wouldn’t get bogged down in the Russian snow drifts of winter and the muddy roads of spring.
The ZIS-42 was the conversion of the truck ZIS-5 produced to 5931 copies (ZIS-42 and ZIS-42M) between 1942 and 1944. The ZIS-42M was the result of modernization of the ZIS-42. The ZIS-42 was propelled by a 6 cylinders engine developing 73 hp to 2300 rpm while the ZIS-42M was propelled by a 6 cylinders engine developing 85 cv to 2600 rpm. The ZIS-42 weighed 5250 kg and measured in length 6.095 m, in width 2.360 m and in height 2.950 m. The ZIS-42 could attain a speed of 45 km/h. The ZIS-42 had a gasoline consumption of 55 L/100 km while the ZIS-42M had a consumption of 60 L/100 km. Especially used as carrier or tractor or certain nevertheless were converted in mobile platform for anti-aircraft guns or machine guns.
The ZIS-42 was not as good as it was expected. It had problems through snowfields and swamps. That is why there wasn’t any more attempts to combine wheels and tracks after the ZIS-42. That is why there wasn't any more attempts to combine wheels and tracks after ZIS-42 and GAZ-60 in Soviet Union and seems in Germany (Opel-Blitz Maultier) too. It was produced in 1942 –1943, and had a more powerful ZIS-16 engine and a number of small improvements (for example: a protective style grill in front of the radiator and headlight). Due to the fact that the ZIS-42M version consumed 55 to 60 liters of fuel per 100 km traveled on roads, the trucks were equipped with a 300 liter capacity fuel tank. From 1942 until 1944 production of ZIS-42 and ZIS-42M trucks amounted to 5,931 pieces. Perhaps the last ZIS-42 was still serving for one of factories in 1961 in Kameshkovo district of Vladimir region.
ZIS stands for “Factory named after Stalin.” After de Stalinization, they changed the name to “Factory named after Lenin,” which some might recognize as the ZIL factory. In the autumn of 1941 the production line in Moscow was stopped due to the threat of the advancing Nazis and ZIS was moved east to Ulianovsk and to Ural, to Miass, Chelyabinsk region. This last plant started production in 1944 and became the UralZIS or UralAZ plant that up to this day is in the business of making trucks, the circa 1963 URAL 4320 being their main staple.
The Ulianovsk plant became UASZIS or UAZ and produced trucks from February 1942 until its closure in 1955. The Moscow plant was reopened in April 1942 remained open until 1948. Every one of these plants used their own trademark labels on the radiators. Political correctness does not only afflict the Western democracies but is found in totalitarian regimes too. In 1956 ZIL replaced the ZIS name. Stalin was dead and the Kremlin felt that the teachings of Comrade Lenin had been neglected during Stalin’s years, so the truck plant was renamed ZIL for Zavod imeni Lihacheva (Lihachev's or Lenin’s Plant).





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/21/2018 7:53:03 PM   
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In the early 1930s, the Yaroslavl state motor vehicle plant (»YaG« or »YaGAZ«) produced the first domestic heavy trucks of the Soviet Union. While the vehicles up to YaG-3 were equipped with Autocar licensed AMO engines, the engineers switched to the domestic ZiS-5 engine from Model YaG-4 on. Even the American Herkules YXC power plant was used in small amounts.
It was widely used in the prewar Red Army who had some 1600 samples in their inventory when the Great Patriotic war began. A total 8,075 YaG-6 trucks were produced. Also 50 YaG-6 trucks were built with Hercules-YXC-B engine which had 93,5 hp power output at 2200 rpm.
The YaG-6 was a Russian 4x2 heavy truck produced between 1936 and 1942 at the Yaroslavl plant (YaG means Yaroslavskiy Gruzovik). It does not show up frequently in wartime pictures, probably overwhelmed by the thousands of Gaz and Zis lighter trucks operating along the front and in the rearguard. All in all, it was a sturdy and slow workhorse of the Red Army. Maximum speed was 40 km/h, while maximum payload was 5000 kilograms. It also served as a base for other versions, such as the bus and the gasoline tanker.
YaG-6 was most numerous pre-war truck of Yaroslavl plant, although even YaG-6 was quite rare.
Main data:
Engine: ZiS-5 73hp/2300rpm, 6-cyl 4-stroke, 5555cc (dry weight - 434kg)
Length: 6500mm, width: 2500mm, height: 2550mm
Platform inner dimensions: length - 3780mm, width - 2330mm, board height - 600mm
Turning radius: 9000mm on front wheel track
Carburetor: MKZ-6, updraft vertical, with economizer and controllable accelerating pump
Clutch: dry twin plate
Gearbox: ZiS-5 4 speeds
Front suspension: 2 longitudinal semielliptical springs
Rear suspension: 2 longitudinal semielliptical springs with additional springs
Mechanical only-rear-wheels shoe brakes with vacuum booster
Weight: 4930kg
Maximal speed: 40 km/h
Tires: 40x8 inches
Fuel tank capacity: 177 L
Fuel consumption: 40 L/100km
Cooling system capacity: 23 L





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/22/2018 4:50:05 PM   
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The GAZ–MM is a truck with a maximum usable weight of 1.5 tons and was produced at the end of the 1930s and at the first part of the 1940s by GAZ in the Soviet Union. It is a simplified version of Ford Model AA’s Soviet license version. At the beginning of World War II more than 150,000 were in use with the Red Army. In fact, the GAZ–MM was just a designation of a strengthened 50 HP engine, introduced in 1938, while in factory documents these trucks were still designated as GAZ AA. This name is especially used to describe a simplified wartime model, produced from a beginning of 1942. In some series there were no doors, front brakes, front bumpers, front stamped fenders were replaced with plain welded ones, and only one headlight remained. From mid-1942 the trucks had wooden doors, with sliding parts of windows.
Around the late 1920s, the Soviet Union was undergoing a mechanization revolution and realized that no purpose-built motor vehicles were available for them to help move cargo and materiel back and forth from point one to point two. The result was the GAZ-AAA truck, which was a truck based off the Ford Model AAA 6x4 truck. These trucks entered production in 1932, and were used in multiple roles in the civilian world and in the military.
In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on 1 January 1932, and the factory and marque was titled Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, but also displayed the "Ford" sign. GAZ's first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A, and a light truck, the Ford Model AA (NAZ-AA). NAZ-A production commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over 100,000 examples were built. In 1933, the factory's name changed to Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky; similarly, models were renamed GAZ-A and GAZ-AA. From 1935 to 1956, the official name was augmented with imeni Molotova (literally, named after Molotov).
In the summer of 1941, Soviet industry was disrupted by the rapid advance of the German army. This was as much due to moving the various industrial plants out of reach as it was to them being overrun. One of the main shortages caused by this was a lack of stamped steel to use on the then current production of the Ford Model AA truck. This truck, dating from the mid 1920s, had been upgraded by GAZ from the GAZ-AA to the current production GAZ-MM (basically more horsepower). Anyway, this lack of stamped steel components resulted in many portions of the truck being made of wood, and this included the cab and fenders. It also saw the use of canvas in several applications for the roof and back of the cab. Some trucks were built without doors, something that made operation in winter something to be avoided.
In the military, the GAZ trucks were used as tractors for gun systems, fuel tankers, radio system, and even armored cars. By 1931, an anti-aircraft version was created as well, in order to give the Soviet Union a mobile anti-aircraft system to work with. The design had four Maxim Model 1910/30 machine guns installed on a mount on the truck. This configuration was called the 4M GAZ-AAA and served as a low-altitude air defense system after being adopted in 1931.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/23/2018 5:56:30 PM   
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The American Jeep and the German Kübelwagen were without any doubt, the light vehicles (command car, reconnaissance car, personnel carrier,...) the most famous of 2nd World War. In 1943, the Russians started to develop a 4x4 cross-country vehicle more adapted to the Russian grounds on the basis of the jeep Willys MB American (that was delivered to 51500 copies to the USSR according to the Lend-Lease law), the GAZ-67.
Even in the thirties, the industry automobile hardly was not developed in Russia, and this country strongly depended on importations from Great Britain, United States, Germany, Italy... In 1931-1932, with the assistance of the Americans, the Soviet installed to Gorki a vast automobile factory, the GAZ (Gorkovski Avtomobilny Zavod). This factory started therefore to produce trucks GAZ-A and GAZ-AA (copied on the American Ford-A and Ford-AA) and also commander cars GAZ-M1 with the technical support of Ford. The first model of 4x4 produced by GAZ was the GAS-61 that inspired strongly the GAZ-64 (strongly inspired by the American Bantam). In 1943, the engineers of GAZ realized equally the GAS-67 big influenced by the Bantam BRC. Two models were realized the GAZ-67A and the GAZ-67B.
The two models very similar had nevertheless some differences. The tread of the GAZ-67A was of 1225 mm while the one of the GAZ-67B was of 1445 mm. The form of the radiator grille was equally different on the two models. The GAZ-67B had a fuel tank installed under the seat in addition of the one installed under the dashboard. The two jeeps were propelled by a 4 cylinders engine, cooled by water, developing 54 hp obtaining a speed maximum of 90 km/h. The performances of these vehicles were almost as high as that of the Willys MB. The GAZ-67B measured in length 3.350 m, in width: 1.685 m, in height (with hood) 1.700 m and weighed 1320 kg. It had a range on road of 500 km. It could embark 2 to 4 persons. The GAZ-64 was produced to 684 copies between August 1941 and at the end of 1942. The GAZ-67A was produced from September 1943 and to 1944. The GAZ-67B was produced from 1944 and to fall 1953. The two GAZ-67 versions were produced to 92843 copies but only 4851 in 1943-1945. One is far of the 51500 jeeps Willys MB delivered by the Americans during the war.
It was used as command car by the staff officers, as tractor for the anti-tank gun of 45 mm or as light vehicle of reconnaissance (with a machine gun). The GAZ-67B was employed in big quantities by the Soviet forces.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/24/2018 5:25:48 PM   
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1939 and 1940 were spent in massive reorganizations of the troops into mechanized and tank corps. The Cavalry formation was influenced by the Spanish Civil War and the Battle of France and their disbandment forced by the inability to properly supply and manage large formations. The role of cavalry was unexpectedly boosted by the setbacks suffered by mechanized forces in 1939 in Poland and in 1939–1940 in Finland.
A standard Soviet 1941 rifle division of 14,483 men relied on horse logistics and had a supply train of 3,039 horses, half of the complement of the 1941 German infantry division. Various reorganizations made Soviet units smaller and leaner; the last divisional standard (December 1944), beefed up against the 1943 minimum, provided for only 1,196 horses for a regular division and 1,155 horses for a Guards division. By this time few divisions ever had more than half of their standard human complement, and their logistic capacities were downgraded accordingly.
In real life cavalry and infantry units were stripped of their tanks and trucks, being purely horse and foot troops with reduced mobility and firepower. Even the stripped-down divisions were too large to be effectively handled by their inexperienced commanders and were easily disorganized and destroyed by the Germans (for example, 60 to 80 percent of the 6th Cavalry Corps were destroyed on June 22 as they struggled to assemble in formation).
By the end of 1941 organizational problems were solved by further reducing units into "light cavalry" divisions with a strength of roughly half of a "normal" cavalry division (3,447 men in three regiments). Losses of tanks and trucks in the summer of 1941 made these eighty divisions, combined into Cavalry Corps, "about the only mobile units left intact to the Soviets." These were used to attack en masse at critical points, ideally in cooperation with tanks but rarely with foot infantry.[90] In defense, cavalry was useful in checking enemy advances at an early stage, attacking German flanks and quickly evading enemy reaction.
Cavalry actions of 1941 were poorly led and executed, with high casualties; the tactics improved when cavalry divisions were reinforced with mechanized infantry units and anti-aircraft artillery. Combat losses and a severe winter reduced horse stocks to a point where 41 cavalry divisions were disbanded for the lack of horses. Horse stocks did not and could not recover and the remaining cavalry divisions, even when refit, never had a full complement of horses.
The concept of integrating cavalry, infantry and tank divisions (the future Tank Army) emerged as the Cavalry mechanized group (CMG) in the fall of 1942. The 1942 CMG functioned like a true Tank Army, but its infantry rode on horses, not trucks. These divisions acquired their own light tanks and increased to 5,700 men each. Their horse elements, although vulnerable to enemy fire, were indispensable in being able to keep pace with a tank breakthrough before the enemy could restore their defenses. Normally on the night before the offensive they concentrated in a jump-off area 12–15 kilometers from the front line, and charged past it together with the tanks as soon as the first wave had breached the enemy lines.
In 1943 the cavalry was relegated to auxiliary offensive tasks requiring all-terrain mobility – usually involving encirclement and mopping up of an enemy already shattered and split by tank forces. During the Voronezh Front operations in the Upper Don area under Golikov, Soviet cavalry struck out very successfully for Valuiki and under the pale winter sun on 19 January the horsemen in black capes and flying hoods charged down the hapless Italians, killing and wounding more than a thousand before the brief resistance by the fleeing, hungry and frostbitten men of the 5th Italian Infantry Division ended.
The 1944 Cavalry Corps, in turn, had up to 103 tanks and tank destroyers in addition to three Cavalry Divisions (4,700 men with 76-mm field guns and no armor). By the end of the war with Germany, Soviet cavalry returned to its pre-war nominal strength of seven cavalry corps, or one cavalry corps per each tank army. The CMGs of the period (one Tank Corps and one Cavalry Corps) were regularly weapons of choice in operations where terrain prohibited the use of fully deployed Tank Armies.
The last CMG action in the war took place in August 1945 during the invasion of Manchuria. General Issa Pliyev's CMG, marching to Peking across the Gobi Desert, was actually manned by Mongolian cavalrymen – four Mongolian cavalry divisions in addition to one Soviet cavalry division, plus five mechanized brigades with heavy tanks. They were opposed by the horsemen of Inner Mongolia who fell back without fighting.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/25/2018 6:24:09 PM   
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Heroes and Leaders: Soviet Availability Vehicles Part 2




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/26/2018 7:25:56 PM   
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Full H&L german leaders catalog





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/27/2018 5:16:40 PM   
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The flexibility of organization and willingness to form special groups, which is characteristic of the German army, is illustrated by the small parties known as Stosstruppen (assault detachments) formed to attack enemy positions. This term has often been loosely used, even by the Germans themselves, to denote any assaulting troops. The essential characteristics of an assault detachment was that it´s specially formed for a particular object; it was composed of picked men, normally volunteers; it was specially equipped for its tasks; and was specially trained, and, if possible, rehearsed for the operation.
German combat engineers have been in the front lines of every major German engagement of the World War II. They was form a very definite part of the German combat team, which was also includes the armoured forces, air forces, infantry, and artillery. The major duty of these engineers was to keep the German Army moving. They assaulted fortifications or other obstacles; they spanned streams with everything from log rafts to large temporary bridges; they go regularly into combat, and under the most difficult conditions, to clear the way for the echelons that follow. The success of the Germans through surprise, deception, and speed has been due in no small measure to the front-line work of the combat engineers. The combat engineers was trained basically as infantry soldiers, since most of them advanced with the infantry and other combat troops and engage regularly in battle.
In line with a training principle used throughout the German Army, 90 percent of the instruction given to the army's combat engineers deals with attack problems and 10 percent with defence problems. Stress is placed on engineer reconnaissance and on making use of all means available in the combat area to help the German forces continue their advance. Army engineering equipment was used only when local means are not available.
The main functions of German combat engineers were the storm-troop combat, with special equipment for rush assaults, the obstruction service, which prepares obstacles of all kinds (these men are trained to handle explosives and mines, as well as to use electric saws and boring equipment); the combat at rivers, which involves the use of rafts and small assault boats, both in the attack and in the defence (these men learn how to cross water under all conditions, in rain, heavy wind, and snow, and especially at night); the construction of military bridges--also, establishing emergency ferry services, which provide transportation for men and materiel in motorboats and rowboats with outboard motors, or on improvised rafts propelled by these boats; emergency bridge construction, which calls for the preparation of many types of bridges, using material found locally; construction of field fortifications, which includes the building of defence installations of all kinds, large and small, with special training in the technique of preparing unusually deep foundations.
A combat engineer in the German army operated both as a fighter and as a highly qualified technical expert. It was said that if a German combat engineer was eliminated, it was also eliminated a man who is as useful to the Axis as any single person on the battlefield. Someone who is an infantryman--plus. Those men taking part are armed partly with rifles, partly with pistols or submachine guns. Ammunition is carried in the jacket pocket, not in pouches. All are armed with hand grenades, which may be carried in a special haversack. Spades and pickaxes are carried by some, and at least one Very pistol; panels are sometimes carried for air-ground communication. The troops wear field-service uniform with steel helmet and gasmask, and carry iron rations and canteen.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/28/2018 5:20:03 PM   
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Assault Pioneers do not replace Combat Sappers. The latter have a much greater range of skills, capabilities and resources. Instead, Assault Pioneers are intended to provide the infantry battalion with its own integral ("organic") light engineering support in the same sense as the Mortar Platoon provides the same battalion with its own 'organic' indirect fire support. This organic support permits the infantry battalion to conduct operations effectively without relying on the external support of Combat Sappers who are normally subject to a demanding list of priority tasks across the battlefield. Assault Pioneers often work separately in small detachments providing specialist skills, tools and advice to the infantry companies and platoons with those sub-units providing the bulk of the labour.
The term 'Combat Sappers' reflects the tradition (arising in the First and Second World Wars) of employing these soldiers in the first wave of assaults on fortified enemy positions, using their skills and equipment to support the attacking force in crossing and breaching the enemy's defences. While Combat Sappers normally function in a specialist role, they are infantry soldiers first and are fully capable of engaging in combat as needed.
The German assault detachments used a varied arsenal of weapons and equipment, such as wire-cutting party (Hindernissprengtrupp, Sperrensprengruppe) of three or four engineers, with wire-cutters and bangalore torpedoes; pillbox attacking team (Schartensprengtrupp, Stosstrupp, etc.) of four or eight men (tis normally includes four engineers with two flamethrowers: pole and other charges may also be carried; the infantrymen are armed with hand grenades, or even with one or two light machine guns); smoke teams (Nebeltrupp) of two or three men armed with smoke candles and smoke grenades, or even with a mortar for firing smoke; infantry support or covering teams (Deckungstrupp) of varying size (it may be only 2 or 4 men with 1 or 2 light machine guns, or as many as 17 with light machine guns, heavy machine guns, 3-inch mortar, AT rifles, or even an AT gun).
An assault detachment may total anywhere from 14 to 40 men, and sometimes as many as 4 detachments may be sent out together. Detachments was organized under battalion or company arrangements, according to the size of the task. Engineers was provided from the regimental Pioneer platoon or from the divisional engineer battalion; always from the latter, when flame-throwers was used. Close-support weapons was allotted as necessary.
In action, the first task is a thorough reconnaissance. The assault is planned in great detail, and the assault party depends for success on coordination of the various arms supporting it. Once the attack commences, unified command is impossible. It is therefore necessary that the assault should be so organized as to run itself.
The course of a typical attack on concrete fortifications is as follows: The attack is preceded by a short artillery concentration on the objectives. Then the artillery puts down smoke, under cover of which infantry and their supporting weapons get into position at short ranges. These supporting weapons will include AT guns and possibly field guns, placed under command of the infantry; as well as heavy machine guns, mortars, and infantry guns. When the smoke clears, all weapons open fire on the loopholes allotted to them; and under cover of this fire the infantry and engineers move to the assault. The assault on casemates or pillboxes can be made in several ways; all depend on the principle that if you are near enough to a casemate or pillbox, you can get inside the angle of fire of its guns and be safe. Casemates however will usually be placed so that they are covered by machine-gun fire from their neighbors; and therefore they can only be attacked in this way either if supporting fire keeps the embrasures of neighboring casemates shut, or if more smoke is put down to isolate the particular fortification to be assaulted. The actual attack on casemates may be made either with explosives or with flame-throwers.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/29/2018 6:45:29 PM   
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Panzergrenadier is a German term for motorised or mechanized infantry – that is, infantry transported in combat vehicles specialized for such tasks – as introduced during World War II.
The term Panzergrenadier was not adopted until 1942. Infantry in panzer divisions from 1937 onwards were known as Schützen Regiments; they wore the same rose pink piping on their uniforms as the tank crews (with an "S" cypher that distinguished the Schützen from the tank and anti-tank units that also wore that colour). Soldiers in special Motorized Infantry units wore the standard white piping of the Infantry. In 1942, when Infantry Regiments were renamed as Grenadier Regiments by Hitler as a historical homage to Frederick the Great's Army, the Schützen regiments (and the soldiers in them) began to be redesigned as Panzergrenadier regiments, as did Motorized Infantry units and soldiers. Their Waffenfarbe was also changed from either white (in the case of Motorized Infantry) or rose pink to a meadow-green shade previously worn by motorcycle troops. Some units did not change over their designations and/or Waffenfarbe accoutrements until 1943, and many veteran Schützen ignored regulations and kept their rose-pink until the end of the war.
The term Panzergrenadier had been introduced in 1942, and was applied equally to the infantry component of Panzer divisions as well as the new divisions known as Panzergrenadier Divisions. Most of the Heer's PzGren. divisions evolved via upgrades from ordinary infantry divisions, first to Motorized Infantry divisions and then to PzGren. divisions, retaining their numerical designation within the series for infantry divisions throughout the process. This included the 3rd, 10th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 20th, 25th, and 29th divisions. Others, such as the Großdeutschland Division, were built up over the course of the war by repeatedly augmenting the size of an elite regiment or battalion. The Waffen-SS also created several PzGren. divisions by the same methods, or by creating new divisions from scratch later in the war. A number of PzGren. divisions in both the Heer and Waffen-SS were upgraded to Panzer divisions as the war progressed.
The Panzergrenadier divisions were organized as combined arms formations, usually with six battalions of truck-mounted infantry organized into either two or three regiments, a battalion of tanks, and an ordinary division's complement of artillery, reconnaissance units, combat engineers, anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery, and so forth. All these support elements would also be mechanized in a PzGren. division, though most of the artillery, anti-tank, and anti-aircraft elements were equipped with weapons towed by trucks rather than the relatively rare armoured and self-propelled models. In practice the PzGren. divisions were often equipped with heavy assault guns rather than tanks, due to a chronic shortage of tanks throughout the German armed forces. A few elite units, on the other hand, might have the tanks plus a battalion of heavy assault guns for their anti-tank element, and armoured carriers for some of their infantry battalions as well.
On paper a Panzergrenadier division had one tank battalion less than a Panzer division, but two more infantry battalions, and thus was almost as strong as a Panzer division, especially on the defensive. Of 226 panzergrenadier battalions in the whole of the German Army, Luftwaffe and Waffen SS in September 1943, only 26 were equipped with armoured half tracks, or just over 11 percent. The rest were equipped with trucks.
The use of armoured half-tracks was rare in the German Army, and even the elite Großdeutschland Division, with two panzergrenadier regiments, only mustered a few companies' worth of the vehicles, generally SdKfz 251 troop carriers. The vast majority of Schützen/Panzergrenadier soldiers were mounted in trucks. Additionally, vehicles in the early war period suffered from poor off-road performance.
In 1944 a couple of Panzer Divisions based in France had more than the standard one battalion mounted in SdKfz 251 troop carriers. The Panzer Lehr Division's infantry and engineers were entirely mounted in SdKfz 251 troop carriers, while the 1st Battalion in both Panzergrenadier regiments in 2. Panzer Division and 21. Panzer Division were half-equipped with armoured halftracks (SdKfz 251 troop carriers for 2. Panzer, U304(f) light armoured personnel carriers for 21. Panzer).





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 4/30/2018 4:30:52 PM   
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Schütze in German means "rifleman" or "shooter", or in older terms originally connoted "archer" before the advent of the rifle. As a rank of the Armed Forces of Germany in First World War until 1918, Schütze was used for the lowest enlisted ranks in machine gun units and some elite troops like Saxon Schützen-Regiment 108 exclusively. Usually translated as "private", from 1920 on it names the lowest enlisted rank of the Reichswehr infantry. The equivalent of Schütze in the other branches of the German military was Jäger, Kanonier, Pionier, Kraftfahrer or Grenadier in the army; Flieger in the Luftwaffe, Matrose in the Reichsmarine and Kriegsmarine, respectively.
The formation within the first few armored divisions formed that had the infantry element was the Schützen -Brigade, which generally had a Schützen Regiment and a Kradschützen Battalion. Later on, the motorcycle infantry were seen as division troop elements and the brigade received an additional Schützen Regiment. The motorized riflemen were transported on four and six-wheeled vehicles that were capable of carrying half a squad of infantry. The motorcycle infantry had motorcycles with sidecars. In addition to the three armored divisions, three light divisions (leichte Divisionen) were formed, as well as four motorized infantry divisions (Infanterie-Divisionen [mot]). While the respective infantry components of those divisions bore differing designations, they all shared the hallmarks of motorized infantry.
Initially, the demand of the armored forces that the infantry be able to accompany the tanks into battle while mounted could not be met. Normally, only one of the two regiments in the Panzer Division had an armored infantry battalion. Some regiments had only one or two companies, and a few had no armored infantry at all. On 26.07.42, all Infantry Regiments (Schützenregiment (motorisiert)) of the Panzer Divisions were redesigned as Panzer Infantry Regiments (Panzergrenadierregiment). To differentiate between motorized and armored units, the suffix in brackets "(mot)" and "(gp)" were added, respectively.
Cross-country maneuverability was seen as a great advantage. Half-tracked vehicles seemed to be the answer, since they offered practically the same mobility as fully tracked vehicles while generally being easier and cheaper to manufacture, especially since there were already prototypes available that were used as prime movers for motorized artillery and antitank guns. The two prime movers weighed one and three tons. The three-ton version fanned the basis for a medium armored personnel carrier—what would become the Sd.Kfz, 251' family of vehicles—and the one-ton prime mover became the Sd.Kft. 250, a light armored personnel carrier. Both were given a light armored superstructure that was open at the top but which provided limited armored protection against shrapnel and small-arms fires from the sides. Production never kept up with demand, and the vehicles were generally limited to one battalion of the mechanized infantry regiments, aid, the light SPW's also being used for the reconnaissance battalion as well.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/1/2018 4:39:45 PM   
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The Fallschirmjäger were the paratrooper branch of the German Luftwaffe before and during World War II. They were the first German paratroopers to be committed in large-scale airborne operations and came to be known as the "green devils" by the Allied forces they fought against. The Fallschirmjäger were very effective when used in commando style raids. The Fallschirmjäger were famous for their willingness to give every effort unwaveringly even in the grimmest of situations. The Fallschirmjäger were seldom used as parachutists. Instead, they were prized for their combat abilities and frequently acted in a "fire brigade" role as roving elite infantrymen. Throughout World War II the Fallschirmjäger commander was Kurt Student.
The first opposed airborne attacks occurred during the Norwegian Campaign, first during the initial invasion when Fallschirmjäger captured the defended air base of Sola, near Stavanger. The Fallschirmjäger also had their first defeat in Norway, when a company was dropped on the village and railroad junction of Dombås on 14 April 1940 and was destroyed by the Norwegian Army in a five-day battle.
On 10 May 1940, the Fallschirmjäger performed a successful raid on the most powerful fortification in the world known as Eben Emael. Eben Emael consisted of multiple gun emplacements and was manned by 1,200 Belgian troops. There are few better representations by elite troops and everything was cutting edge from tactics to method of deployment. The Fallschirmjäger attacked the artillery casements and pillboxes with flame throwers, demolition charges, and hollow charge grenades. The mission was accomplished by Sturmgruppe Granit (Assault Group Granite), which consisted of only 85 soldiers. Despite being at both a numerical and firepower disadvantage it took the Fallschirmjäger only hours to take control of the fort. The training and courage of the Fallschirmjäger became evident.
The German invasion of Crete, in May 1941, stands as possibly the defining moment for the Fallschirmjäger during World War Two. The German airborne forces would perform its last strategic parachute and glider performance of the war. The Fallschirmjäger captured a critical bridge that crossed the canal in the Isthmus of Corinth so German forces could pursue Allied forces further in the Greek mainland. The operation did not go smoothly due to heavy enemy ground fire. Demolition charges were also accidentally detonated, due to carelessness, leading to damage to the bridge and heavy casualties. One group of paratroopers were accidentally dropped into the sea where they all drowned. The Fallschirmjäger did manage to capture British anti aircraft positions which forced the surrender of the local town. 12,000 Commonwealth and Greek troops were also captured. The Fallschirmjäger suffered 63 killed and 174 wounded. The Fallschirmjäger would suffer further heavy losses during the Battle of Crete especially during Operation Merkur which would be the end of large scale airborne and glider operations for the Fallschirmjäger. The Germans used 22,000 airborne soldiers but in only nine days 3,250 of them were killed or missing with another 3,400 wounded.
The 1st Parachute Division was formed pre-war in 1938. The division existed as a fighting unit until the German surrender in Italy of 2 May 1945, one week before the End of World War II in Europe. The 2nd Parachute Division was formed in early 1943 and fought in Ukraine in late 1943. In 1944 the division fought in western France. In one engagement, the 6th Regiment fought against paratroopers of the United States 101st Airborne Division in the Battle of Carentan and around Saint Lo. The majority of the division was then cut off and surrounded in Brest during the German retreat from France, resulting in the Battle for Brest, that lasted until September 1944.
The 3rd and 4th Fallschirmjäger divisions were formed in late 1943. The 4th also contained Italian paratroopers from the 184th Airborne Division Nembo. The 3rd fought during the Normandy Campaign; it was destroyed in the Falaise Pocket in August 1944. It was then reformed and took part the Battle of Arnhem, surrendering to US troops in April 1945. The 4th fought exclusively on the Italian front including the Battle of Anzio, Rome and on the Gothic Line. It surrendered to Allied forces in April 1945.
The 5th, 6th and 7th Fallschirmjäger were formed in 1944 in France and fought on the western front as regular infantry. The 5th was destroyed in the Ruhr Pocket in April 1945, the 6th and 7th surrendered at the war's end in May. These units were among the last to be raised that were at least partially trained as or composed of paratroopers in the German Army during the Second World War, as by late 1944 there were no available personnel left to train potential recruits.
The 8th, 9th and 10th were Fallschirmjäger by name only, as they were rush formed in 1945 from a disparate collection of Luftwaffe units, including ground crews. Under-trained and mostly ill-prepared for combat, they fought on the rapidly collapsing Eastern Front, including within Germany. The 8th fought in the Netherlands before being destroyed in the Ruhr Pocket. The 9th fought in the Battle of the Seelow Heights and in the Battle of Berlin before being destroyed in April 1945, the 10th surrendered to Soviet forces in May 1945.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/2/2018 6:13:49 PM   
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German Availability Infantry Catalog




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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/3/2018 6:57:34 PM   
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The 10 cm Nebelwerfer 35 (10 cm NbW 35) was a heavy mortar used by Germany during World War II. Much like the American M2 4.2 inch mortar it was intended to deliver chemical munitions, such as gas and smoke shells. Unlike the American weapon it appears to have had an ordinary high-explosive shell from the beginning. It was of conventional design, and was virtually a scaled-up 8 cm GrW 34. It broke down into the standard three loads for transport. The tube weighed 31.7 kg, the baseplate 36.3 kg and the bipod 32.2 kg. Each could be man-packed for some distance, but small handcarts were issued for longer distances. Each mortar squad consisted of a squad leader, three gunners and three ammunition bearers.
It was initially deployed in (Nebelwerfer "smoke or fog-thrower") battalions belonging to the Chemical Corps of the Heer; exactly how the American initially fielded their own 4.2 inch mortar in chemical mortar battalions. From 1941 they were replaced by the 10 cm Nebelwerfer 40 and the 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 multiple rocket launcher.
This mortar was de-signed to equip the Nebeltruppen, whose primary task was to lay smoke screens. When the Nebeltruppen were re-equipped with Nebelwerfer rocket launchers the NbW 35 were relegated to use as conventional mortars. Relatively few were built.
Initially they were deployed in Nebelwerfer battalions numbered 1 to 9, plus the Nebel-Lehr Abteilung (Demonstration Battalion) and saw service in the Battle of France and Russia during Operation Barbarossa.
Specialist units using these mortars were also formed, such as Gebirgs-Werfer-Abteilung (Mountain Mortar Battalion) 10 which was formed in Finland in early 1942 by expanding Nebelwerfer-Batterie 222., This had itself been converted from 8th Battery of Artillery Regiment 222 of the 181st Infantry Division during the invasion of Norway.
Following their replacement in the chemical corps, further uses were found for the mortars, including issue to Fallschirmjager units as Heavy Mortars.
The lower muzzle velocity of a mortar meant that its shell walls could be thinner than those of artillery shells and it could carry a larger payload than artillery shells of the same weight. This made it an attractive delivery system for poison gases. The U.S. Army's Chemical Warfare Service developed their 4.2 inch chemical mortar for precisely that reason and the Nebeltruppen shared that reasoning. Its first weapon was also a mortar, the 10 cm Nebelwerfer 35, which was designed in 1934.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/4/2018 6:00:54 PM   
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The 12 cm Granatwerfer 42 (literally, "grenade thrower Model 42"; official designation: 12 cm GrW 42) was a mortar used by Germany during World War II. In 1941 the Germans captured large numbers of the excellent Soviet 120 mm mortar and were so impressed by them that they produced an almost exact copy for their own use.
Developed in 1942, the 12 cm GrW 42 was an attempt to give German infantry units a close support weapon with greater performance than the mortars used in general service at the time. This weapon was very similar to the mortar used by Soviet forces on the Eastern Front which in turn was an improved version of the French 120 mm Brandt Mle 1935 mortar. The 120 mm Brandt m35 was used in limited quantities during the Battle of France and exported to the USSR and other nations before the country's capitulation in 1940. The Soviet PM 38 120 mm mortar, were captured in large quantities during the war in the East and pressed into service by the Germans and other Axis nations before the introduction of similar nationally produced 12 cm mortar designs. In German use, the captured Soviet mortar was given the designation 12 cm Granatwerfer 378 (r). The Germans copied the 120 mm from the Russians, and made around 8500 of them themselves. The Germans used captured ammunition and also produce 5.4 million 120 mm mortar rounds themselves.
The GrW 42 was basically the usual three part construction made up of a circular base plate like the previous Soviet design, the tube itself and the supporting bipod. Because of the greater weight of the weapon (280 kilograms) a two-wheeled axle was utilized, enabling the mortar to be towed into action. The axle could then be quickly removed before firing. It has the advantage of being highly mobile, however, since it is equipped with a two-wheeled, quickly attached axle, and the bipod is carried clamped to the mortar ready for action. The weapon can be quickly towed or manhandled into a new firing position. The heavy shell and long range of this weapon provide a type of fire support comparable with that from the 105-mm field howitzer. This weapon could use both Soviet and German ammunition. A powerful and a very popular weapon with German front-line units, and in some cases, this weapon replaced standard infantry field guns.
The maximum range of the GrW 42, firing a 15.6 kg projectile, was approximately 6,050 m with an elevation of between 45 and 85 degrees. It has a maximum traverse of 16 degrees.
Initially issued to mortar battalions with infantry units receiving theirs later. A platoon of four GrW 42 was often found in the 4th (machinegun/Heavy Weapons) company of the infantry/Panzergrenadier battalion. A (motorized) heavy mortar battalion was issued thirty-six Granatwerfer 42's, divided between three companies. The 120 mm mortar was used at the regimental level in place of infantry guns. It was been especially common in SS units in the late war, probably because they were more likely to be at full TOE in all weapons.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/5/2018 5:17:40 PM   
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The SdKfz (abbreviation for the German word Sonderkraftfahrzeug that means special motor vehicle). The leichter Schützenpanzerwagen (schwerer Granatwerfer) SdKfz 250/7 is a carrier for the mortar of 81 mm (42 ammunition) intended to replace the 3 tons in this role. The vehicle was a shortened version of the SdKfz 251 Hanomag and came in many variants fulfilling many different roles like cable carriers, ammunition carriers and radio carrier. The mortar of 81 mm could draw from the back station but as often as possible, it was fired since the ground.
This version was equipped the sections into the leichter Panzer Aufklärungs Kompanien (reconnaissance). Two SdKfz 250/7 were included in the 4th (Heavy Weapons) platoon of each Pz. Aufklaerungs company; two 251/2 were included in the 4th (Heavy Weapons) platoon of each armored infantry company. A version was equipped with racks for 77 ammunition of 81 mm and often used like command vehicle for the heavy sections of the battalion of Panzergrenadiere. The (Munitionsfahrzeug) 8 cm GrW Wagen (Granatewerferwagen) was a supply vehicle carrying 66 more rounds and two MG 34 with 2010 rounds for close support. They were generally given to platoon commanders with additional radio equipment.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/6/2018 7:44:54 PM   
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From the early stages of World War II the German army began to equip their Panzergrenadiers with armored half-tracks that would support their panzers in action. They developed the excellent Sd.Kfz 251 series, made by Hanomag, and steadily produced them in their thousands, with over twenty versions seeing service in most theatres of the war.
One of the most useful variants was the 8 cm Granatwerfer – a version of the Hanomag carrying the standard infantry mortar. The mortar could be moved round the battlefield quickly and in reasonable safety, its armor shrugging off most infantry weapons and shrapnel. The mortar was most commonly removed from the half-track to engage the enemy, however in extremis it could fire from the safely of the vehicle.
The Sd.Kfz.251/2 Schützenpanzerwagen (Granatwerfer), was the standard motorized mortar version, used by the infantry. It carried a GrW34 81 mm mortar. The recoil bottom plate could be removed for offloaded use. A full load of 66 rounds of 81 mm mortar rounds were carried, with more shells available from supply trucks or towed trailers.
Two 250/7 were included in the 4th (Heavy Weapons) platoon of each Pz. Aufklaerungs company; two 251/2 were included in the 4th (Heavy Weapons) platoon of each armored infantry company.
The mittlere Schützenpanzerwagen (Granatwerfer) (Sd. Kfz. 251/2) was used for the transportation of an 8 cm Granatwerfer 34 (8 cm mortar 34) and its crew. Serial production od this variant started in 1941. The mortar could be fired from the vehicle or dismounted
The seating surface of the rear right benched was replaced by a rack for mortar grenade boxes. The seating surface of the left rear bench of the vehicle was removed. The rack on the right side was covered by a lid of a wooden crate.
A strong design feature of the Sd.Kfz.251 was the large track area, with the characteristic "slack track" design with no return rollers for the upper run of track. The SdKfz 251 also had the Schachtellaufwerk system of overlapping and interleaved main road wheels common to virtually all German halftracks of the period. This lowered the ground pressure and provided better traction, at the cost of much greater complexity in maintenance. The 251 also had tank steering, whereby the normal steering wheel moved the front wheels, but after more turning of the steering wheel, the tracks are braked to cause turning, like on a tank. However, the interleaved and overlapping main road wheels shared a major problem with the Tiger I and Panther tanks that also used such road wheel configurations - in muddy or winter weather conditions, such as those during a mud season (rasputitsa) or the winter conditions, accumulated mud and snow could freeze solid between the road wheels, immobilizing the vehicle.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/7/2018 7:44:48 PM   
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The 2.8 cm schwere Panzerbüchse 41 (sPzB 41) or "Panzerbüchse 41" was a German anti-tank weapon working on the squeeze bore principle. Officially classified as a heavy anti-tank rifle (German: schwere Panzerbüchse), it would be better described, and is widely referred to, as a light anti-tank gun.
Although the sPzB 41 was classified as a heavy anti-tank rifle, its construction was much more typical of an anti-tank gun. Like the latter, it had a recoil mechanism, carriage and shield. The only significant feature the weapon had in common with anti-tank rifles was a lack of elevation and traverse mechanisms—the light barrel could be easily manipulated manually.
The light AT gun using a barrel whose bore was tapered to-ward the muzzle. The round had a 2.8cm caliber in the breech but, due to malleable skirts around the projectile (which were squeezed back by the tapered bore), the emerging projectile had only a 2cm caliber. The advantage of this design was that as the base area of the projectile decreased, the propellant exerted a proportionally increased pressure on it, thereby greatly increasing its muzzle velocity. The drawbacks were rapid bore wear and the need for large amounts of scarce tungsten. The projectile required a tungsten carbide core since, with a muzzle velocity of some 1,400 m/s, a normal steel AP round would simply shatter upon impact. In 1942 however, the general shortage of tungsten necessitated a ban on its use in AT rounds, and as the ammunition supply dwindled the taper-bore guns fell into disuse. The sPzB 41 was built in only limited numbers, and also was encountered in North Africa. There was also an airborne version that was issued later in 1941.
The design was based on a tapering barrel, with the caliber reducing from 28 mm at the chamber end to only 20 mm at the muzzle. The projectile carried two external flanges; as it proceeded toward the muzzle, the flanges were squeezed down, decreasing the diameter with the result that pressure did not drop off as quickly and the projectile was propelled to a higher velocity. The barrel construction resulted in a very high muzzle velocity. The bore was fitted with a muzzle brake. The horizontal sliding breech block was "quarter-automatic": it closed automatically once a shell was loaded. The gun was equipped with an open sight for distances up to 500m; a telescopic sight, (ZF 1х11 from the 3.7 cm Pak 36 anti-tank gun), could also be fitted.
The recoil system consisted of a hydraulic recoil buffer and spring-driven recuperate. The carriage was of the split trail type, with suspension. Wheels with rubber tires could be removed, making the gun significantly lower and therefore easier to conceal; the process took 30–40 seconds. The guns' construction allowed toeless dismantling to five pieces, the heaviest of which weighed 62 kg.
The cone-bore principle was first patented in 1903 by a German designer, Karl Puff. In the 1920s and 1930s, another German engineer, Gerlich, conducted experiments with coned-bore barrels that resulted in an experimental 7 mm anti-tank rifle with a muzzle velocity of (1,400 m/s.
Based on these works, Mauser-Werke AG developed a 28/20 mm anti-tank weapon initially designated Gerät 231 or MK.8202 in 1939–1940. In June–July 1940, an experimental batch of 94 pieces was given to the army for trials. They resulted in some modifications and in 1941 mass production of what became 2.8 cm schwere Panzerbüchse 41 started. The last gun was built in 1943; the main reason for the discontinuance was the lack of tungsten for projectiles.
The sPzB 41 was used by some motorized divisions and by some Jäger (light infantry), Gebirgsjäger (mountain) and Fallschirmjäger (paratrooper) units. Some guns were supplied to anti-tank and sapper units. The weapon was employed on the Eastern Front from the beginning of hostilities (the Wehrmacht possessed 183 pieces on 1 June), until the end of the war and also saw combat in the North African Campaign and on the Western Front in 1944–45.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/8/2018 6:38:44 PM   
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The 4.2 cm Pak 41 was a light anti-tank gun issued to German airborne units in World War II. This gun was externally similar to the 3.7 cm Pak 36, using a modified version of the latter's carriage, but used the squeeze bore principle (in German called Gerlich after Hermann Gerlich, who developed the principle in the 1920s, reportedly for a hunting rifle) to boost its velocity, and hence armor-piercing ability. The bore had a diameter of 42 mm at the chamber, but tapered down to 28 mm at the muzzle. The second German AT gun to incorporate the Gerlich (taper-bore) principle used the same carriage as the PaK 35/36. Its nominal caliber was 4.03cm but its emergent caliber was 2.94cm.
It is the second of the German tapered-bore antitank guns. The monobloc barrel is long, with marked external as well as internal taper. There is no muzzle brake. The breechblock is of the horizontal sliding wedge type opening to the left. There is no provision for automatic opening; it is manually opened by means of the operating handle situated on top of the breech ring. The firing mechanism is a combination percussion inertia type.
The recoil mechanism of the hydro-spring constant type is similar in construction to the 3.7 cm Pak. It is housed in the cradle. The recoil cylinder moves with the barrel; the piston rod, secured to the front of the cradle, remains stationary. The buffer rod is centrally fixed to the rear of the recoil cylinder and slides in the hollow piston rod. The elevation and traverse mechanisms are both fitted to the left side of the upper carriage.
The lePaK 41 was issued in late 1941 to infantry and parachute troops, seeing action in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, and Russia before its ammunition production was halted. Production was terminated in May 1942 after the delivery of 136 guns. By November 1944, 41 remained in service.
The piece is mounted on the 3.7 Pak carriage fitted with sheet-metal, pneumatic-tired wheels, with tubular trails approximately 7 feet, 3 inches long. A light, steeply sloping, spaced armor shield is also provided. A curved arm, riveted to the left side of the upper carriage, houses at its upper end the sight bracket grunion from which the telescope carrier is hung.
The lePaK 41 used Gerlich type ammunition, both H.E. and A.P. This is a lightweight projectile consisting of a small tungsten carbide core embodied in a lightweight metal jacket. The jacket is so constructed that it is swaged to a smaller diameter as it moves through the tapered bore. This design permits a high muzzle velocity, but can be used for short ranges only as the velocity falls off rapidly. Penetration is accomplished by the core only, and because of its relatively small size very little damage is effected by it.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/9/2018 5:43:46 PM   
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The 5 cm Pak 38 (L/60) (5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 38 (L/60)) was a German anti-tank gun of 50 mm caliber. It was developed in 1938 by Rheinmetall-Borsig AG as a successor to the 3.7 cm Pak 36, and was in turn followed by the 7.5 cm Pak 40.
Fortunately for the Germans, the eventual need for an AT gun more potent than the PaK 35/36 had been foreseen, and resulted in the PaK 38. After the Spanish Civil War, the German authorities started to think that a new anti-tank gun would be needed, even though the 3.7 cm Pak 36 had proven to be very successful. They asked Rheinmetall-Borsig to produce a new and more capable AT-gun. They first designed the Pak 37 in 1935, but the German authorities did not approve it because of its low capabilities. Rheinmetall-Borsig were forced to create a new gun under the designation Pak 38, which fitted a new and longer L/60 barrel and was approved for mass production in 1939.
Unfortunately for them, however, the armor on many of the tanks this new gun would have to face was thicker than had been anticipated. Thus the PaK 38 could deal satisfactorily with the Matilda, T-34, or KV only when using scarce APCR rounds. In every other way, though, it was an excellent gun, being relatively small and easy to manhandle, and incorporated several innovative design features. It was initially issued primarily to anti-tank battalions, but as the heavier 7.5-7.62cm AT guns became available they displaced the PaK 38s—which in turn were allotted to the regimental AT companies (superseding the obsolete PaK 35/36). When production of APCR was halted in 1942, a temporary exemption was granted for the PaK 38 in order to prolong its usefulness. In 1943 the number of towed AT guns per platoon was lowered from four to three. Although it was replaced by more powerful weapons, it remained a useful weapon and remained in service with the Wehrmacht until the end of the war.
The PaK 38 fielded a maximum range of nearly 3,000 yards. Some 9,500 PaK 38 systems were ultimately produced before the end of the war and a great quantity were still in use up to the end. The Pak 38 carriage was also used for the 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 and the 7.5 cm Pak 50(f) guns.
The Pak 38 was first used by the German forces during the Second World War in April 1941. When the Germans faced Soviet tanks in 1941 during Operation Barbarossa, the Pak 38 was one of the few early guns capable of penetrating the 45 mm sloped armor of the T-34's hull at close range. The gun was also equipped with Panzergranate 40 APCR shots with a hard tungsten core, in an attempt to penetrate the armor of the heavier KV-1 tank.
Caliber was of 50x419mm R and the weapon exhibited a length of 10 feet, 5.5 inches with a 7 feet, 9.7 inch barrel. The barrel sported a baffled muzzle bra. to help dispel recoil while the towing carriage served double duty by providing the "legs" to stabilize the weapon when set to fire. The weapon system as a whole weighed 2,341Ibs when linked up for travel and displaced 1,0001bs when set down in place. Traverse was limited to 65-degress with an elevation 11 -8 degrees to +27 degrees. Depending 81 188 ammunition used, muzzle velocity could be rated at as high as 3,870 feet per second for AP (armor piercing) rounds and as low as 1,805 feet for HE (high-explosive) rounds. The weapon operated from a semi-automatic action while the feed system was manually operated by the crew, allowing for rates-of-fire around 13 rounds per minute.
The crew of five clustered around the rear of the weapon system, protected only by the forward-facing sloped, curving armor plate. The plate was set as two individual components fitted roughly 1 inch apart and were 0.15 inches in thickness. This supplied the crew with forward facing protection but further safety would have to come from the nearby environment in the form of earthen structures, tree coverage, man-made fortifications such as sandbag walls and the like. Steel rubber-tired wheels allowed the PaK 38 to be towed by vehicles at speed. Once in place, the weapon was set in position with its tubular, light alloy split-trail carriage. When opened, the legs locked the torsion bar suspension of the carriage in place for firing. The weight of the PaK 38 ensured that it could be towed into action by a tractor, halftrack or utility truck and that the crew could work together in relocating the artillery piece to a new nearby position. The PaK 38 presented enemies with a rather small, low-profile frontal target thanks to its well thought-out design.
The PaK 38 was also developed into a vehicle main gun armament for use in tanks and many of these eventually ended up as shoreline fortifications along the "Atlantic Wall". In yet another battlefield use, the PaK 38 was fitted atop the rear of tracked Panzerjager carriages to produce a make-shift self-propelled gun (SPG) system to support of infantry actions.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/10/2018 5:55:25 PM   
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The Pak 97/38 (7.5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 97/38) was a German anti-tank gun used by the Wehrmacht in World War II. The gun was a combination of the barrel from the French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 fitted with a Swiss Solothurn muzzle brake and mounted on the carriage of the German 5 cm Pak 38 and could fire captured French and Polish ammunition. Some 700 were built and rushed to the Eastern front, but as soon as better guns became available the PaK 97/38 was relegated to second-line use. Some were encountered in Normandy, being used as light artillery. Captured French and Polish ammunition was mostly used with the PaK 97/38, but a HEAT round was also specially designed and issued for it. The Pak 97/38 reached the battlefield in the summer of 1942. Despite moderate effectiveness and a violent recoil, it remained in service until the end of the war. On 1 March 1945 the Wehrmacht possessed 145 Pak 97/38 and FK 231(f) guns, although only 14 were employed by frontline units.
Together with light weight, good mobility and sufficient anti-armor performance with a HEAT shell (enough to penetrate T-34 in most situations; the side armor of the KV could also be pierced), it made the gun a decent anti-tank weapon. It had shortcomings, particularly its low muzzle velocity. Although this did not affect the armor-piercing characteristics of its HEAT ammunition, it meant insufficient performance when firing regular AP shells and - because of difficulties in hitting small mobile targets - its low effective range of about 500 m even with HEAT. The gun also had a quite violent recoil, especially with AP shells.
During the invasion of Poland and invasion of France the Wehrmacht captured thousands of 75 mm Model 1897 guns, built by the French arms manufacturer Schneider. These guns were adopted by the Germans as the FK 97(p)(7,5) and the 7.5 cm FK 231(f) and used in their original field artillery role.
Soon after the German invasion of the USSR in 1941, Wehrmacht units encountered new Soviet tanks, the medium T-34 and the heavy KV. The thick sloped armor of these vehicles gave them invulnerability against German towed 3.7 cm Pak 36 anti-tank guns. The situation led to requests for more powerful weapons that would be able to destroy them at normal combat ranges. Since Germany already had a suitable design, the 7.5 cm Pak 40, this weapon entered production and the first pieces were delivered in November 1941.
In the original configuration, those guns were ill-suited for fighting tanks because of their relatively low muzzle velocity, limited traverse (only 6°), and lack of a suitable suspension (which resulted in a transport speed of just 10–12 km/h). It was decided to solve the traverse and mobility problems by mounting the 75 mm barrel on the modern split trail carriage of the 5 cm Pak 38 anti-tank gun. To soften the recoil, the barrel was fitted with a large muzzle brake. The gun was primarily intended to use HEAT shells as the armor penetration of this type of ammunition does not depend on velocity.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/11/2018 5:22:58 PM   
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The 7.5 cm Pak 40 (7,5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 40) was a German 75 millimeter anti-tank gun developed in 1939-1941 by Rheinmetall and used during the Second World War. With 23,303 examples produced, the Pak 40 formed the backbone of German anti-tank guns for the latter part of World War II, mostly in towed form, but also on a number of tank destroyers such as the Marder series. It was a modified version of the gun designed specifically for vehicle-mounting was the 7.5 cm KwK 40, which differed primarily in using more compact ammunition, thereby allowing more rounds to be carried inside the vehicles. The KwK 40 armed many of the German mid-war tank and destroyer designs, replacing the Pak 40 in the latter role.
The 7.5 cm PaK 40 was the next planned generation of AT guns after the PaK 38. In fact, the PaK 40 was really a scaled-up version of the PaK 38 and looked very similar to it. Design work on the PaK 40 began in 1939, but Operation Barbarossa and the discovery of the T-34 and KV found it still in the pre-production stage. Once its manufacture began however, it did not cease until 1945. In action the PaK 40 was an excellent AT gun—its only drawback being its weight, which made it difficult to manhandle. The PaK 40 eventually became the standard equipment of AT battalions; it was mounted on many TD and was also the basis of the long-barreled 7.5 cm gun used in the P.Kpfw IV and StuG III. Some were even issued as field guns although in this mode they were hindered by their limited elevation.
Development of the Pak 40 began after reports of new Soviet tank designs began to reach Berlin in 1939. The 5 cm Pak 38 was still in testing at this point, but it appeared it would not be powerful enough to deal with these newer designs. Contracts were placed with Krupp and Rheinmetall to develop what was essentially a 7.5 cm version of the Pak 38. However, while the Pak 38 made extensive use of light alloys to reduce overall gun weight, these were now earmarked for Luftwaffe. As a result, the Pak 40 used steel throughout its construction and was proportionally heavier than the 5 cm model. To simplify production, the Pak 38's curved gun shield was replaced by one using three flat plates.
The project was initially given low priority, but following the invasion of the USSR in 1941 and the appearance of heavily armored Soviet tanks such as the T-34 and KV-1, it was given an increased priority. The first pre-production guns were delivered in November 1941. In April 1942, the Wehrmacht had 44 guns in service; by 1943, the Pak 40 formed the bulk of German anti-tank artillery.
The longer cartridge case of the Pak 40 allowed a larger charge to be used and a higher velocity for the PzGr 39 armor-piercing capped ballistic cap round to be achieved. The muzzle velocity was about 790 m/s as opposed to 740 m/s for the KwK 40 L/43 and 750 m/s for the L/48. The only 75 mm fighting vehicle gun in general use by Germany that possessed a longer barrel than the Pak 40, the 7.5 cm KwK 42 on the Panther tank, could achieve a higher muzzle velocity of 935 m/s on what was essentially the same caliber and model of shell, with a differing propellant cartridge fixed to it for the KwK 42's use.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/12/2018 5:56:34 PM   
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In the 1941-42 period large numbers of the Soviet 76.2 mm obr.36 field gun were captured by the Germans and quickly put to use by them. A substantial number were adapted to use German-designed ammunition and firing techniques, and in this guise became an excellent (and low cost) addition to the German anti-tank armory. The modified versions were not available until 1942.
The FK36(r) and Pak 36(r) both had a split-trail carriage, with a transverse leaf spring axle suspension, and steel wheels, with foam rubber filled tires. The guns were equipped with a semi-automatic vertical breech block; the recoil mechanism consisted of a hydraulic recoil buffer and a hydropneumatic recuperator. There was no limber; therefore the gun could not be towed by a horse team.
Soon after the German invasion of the USSR in 1941, Wehrmacht units encountered new Soviet tanks: the medium T-34 and the heavy KV. The thick sloped armor of these vehicles gave them a good degree of protection against German anti-tank weapons. The situation eventually led to requests for more powerful guns that would be able to destroy them from long range. Germany already had a suitable design, the 7.5 cm Pak 40, entering production in late 1941, but the first pieces were not delivered until 1942. Until enough of these could be manufactured, expedient solutions were required.
The Soviet 76-mm gun model 1936 was developed with anti-tank abilities in mind, and gun had powerful ballistics. It was also originally intended to use a more powerful cartridge than the one eventually adopted. However, the design had some shortcomings in the anti-tank role: the shield was too high, the two man laying was inconvenient and the sighting system was more suitable for the F-22's original divisional field gun role.
Later upgrades were designated as the Pak36(r), and were rechambered for the more powerful German Pak40 cartridge - which was nearly twice as long as the Soviet one (715 mm vs 385.3 mm) and also wider (100 mm vs 90 mm), resulting in 2.4 times the propellant load; and had recoil mechanism adjustments to accommodate the new recoil characteristics.
The first guns were delivered in February 1942. By the end of 1942, the Germans had converted 358 pieces, with another 169 in 1943 and 33 in 1944. Additionally, 894 barrels were prepared for use in self-propelled guns
The FK36(r) and PaK 36(r) saw combat on the Eastern Front and in North Africa. The first employment of the FK36(r) was noted as early as March 1942 at Bir Hacheim in Libya; and, by May 1942, 117 are recorded as being in use by the Afrika Korps. The gun was well proven in combat, as demonstrated by Gunner Günter Halm (Knights Cross), who destroyed nine Valentine Tanks in a single action. The Pak 36(r) was used later in the North African campaign. As late as March 1945, the Wehrmacht still possessed 165 Pak 36(r) and Pak 39(r).





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/13/2018 4:29:35 PM   
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The Pak 43 (Panzerabwehrkanone 43 and Panzerjägerkanone 43) was a German 88 mm anti-tank gun developed by Krupp in competition with the Rheinmetall 8.8 cm Flak 41 anti-aircraft gun and used during World War II. This was the best AT gun to see service in WW2, and overall probably the finest AT gun ever designed. It was easy to conceal, very hard-hitting, able to fire while limbered, traversable through 360°, and accurate at extremely long range. The Pak 43 was the most powerful anti-tank gun of the Wehrmacht to see service in significant numbers, also serving in modified form as the 8.8 cm KwK 43 main gun on the Tiger II tank, to the open-top Nashorn, and fully enclosed, casemate-hulled Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers.
The improved 8.8 cm gun was fitted with a semi-automatic vertical breech mechanism that greatly reduced recoil. It could also be fired electrically while on its wheels. It had a very flat trajectory out to 914 m, making it easier for the gunner to hit targets at longer ranges as fewer corrections in elevation were needed. In addition to this, the gun's exceptional penetration performance made it able to frontally penetrate any Allied tank to see service during the war at long ranges, even the Soviet IS-2 tanks and IS chassis-based tank destroyers. The gun's maximum firing range exceeded 15 kilometers.
KwK 43 and Pak 43s were initially manufactured with monobloc barrels. However, the weapons' extremely high muzzle velocity and operating pressures caused accelerated barrel wear, resulting in a change to a two-piece barrel. This did not affect performance but made replacing a worn out barrel much faster and easier than before.
The higher operating pressures of the new gun in turn required a new armor-piercing shell to be designed. The result was the PzGr.39/43 APCBC-HE projectile, which, apart from the addition of much wider driving bands, was otherwise identical to the older 10.2-kilogram PzGr.39-1 APCBC-HE projectile used by the 8.8 cm KwK 36 and Pak 43 guns. The wider driving bands resulted in an increased weight to 10.4 kilograms for the PzGr.39/43. However, up until the full transition to the new PzGr.39/43 round was complete, the older PzGr.39-1 was used for the KwK & Pak 43, but only provided the gun had been used for no more than 500 rounds. Over this, the expected barrel wear combined with the narrow driving bands could lead to a loss of pressure. The new PzGr.39/43 could be fired without loss of pressure until the barrel was worn out, thus requiring no restriction.
This antitank weapon entered service in 1943 with notable improvements over the previous versions.





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RE: Heroes and Leaders mod - 5/14/2018 6:19:47 PM   
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The 12.8 cm Pak 44 L/55 (Panzerabwehrkanone) was a German heavy anti-tank gun used during World War II. It was designed as a result of experiences on the Eastern front in 1943. The German army had encountered the Russian 122 mm guns and had issued a requirement for a similar weapon. Development initially concentrated on a field gun known as the Kanone K 44. However, once heavier Russian armor, such as the IS-2, started to appear the design requirements were altered to include an anti-armor role. The Pak 44 had short to medium-range performance similar to the 8.8 cm Pak 43, but the 12.8 cm Pak 44 better maintained its anti-tank performance over long to extreme-long ranges (1800–2700+ meters) while also doubling as an effective field gun when firing HE.
The choice for 128 mm caliber anti-tank gun was made because of the availability of tooling due to the use of this caliber for naval weapons. The design contracts were awarded to Rheinmetall Borsig and Krupp. The first prototype guns were delivered for testing in late 1943. Rheinmetall began development of a variant of the 128 mm FlaK gun, whilst Krupp opted to design a new weapon from the ground up. After initial tests, the Rheinmetall design was dropped and development continued with the Krupp design. However, the service tests showed that a towed anti-tank gun weighing nearly 11 tons was impractical, so the towed design was terminated.
Several different proto-types of a 12.8 cm gun configured like the PaK 43 were built, but none ever reached production. In order to utilize the existing barrels, a small number (about 50) were mounted on captured French 155 mm and Soviet 152 mm carriages and issued as AT/field guns. The weapon that used the ex-French GPF-T carriage was known as the K 81/1, while the K 81/2 used the ex-Russian carriage. Both of these designs were rushed, and were too heavy, making them cumbersome to deploy. In 1943, a design programed using the Pak 44 as its starting point was started for a gun to mount on the Jagdtiger (Sd.Kfz. 186) and the Maus super-heavy tank. This weapon, of which approximately 100 were made, was known both as the Pak 44 and Pak 80 / Panzerjägerkanone Pjk 80. Performance was identical to the initial design.
The gun was fed with two-piece ammunition, the projectile and cartridge making up separate pieces. Because of this, the gun could be fired using three different sized propellant charges; a light, medium and heavy charge. The light and medium charges were normally used when the gun was fulfilling the role of an artillery piece, where they would launch the ~28 kg projectiles to a muzzle velocity of 845 m/s and 880 m/s respectively. Finally the heavy charge was used when the gun was fulfilling its intended role as an anti-tank gun, where it fired a 28.3 kg APCBC-HE projectile (PzGr.43) at a muzzle velocity of 950 m/s. With the heavy charge, and using the PzGr.43 projectile, the Pak 44 was capable of penetrating 212 millimeters of 30 degree sloped armor at 500 meters, 200 millimeters at 1,000 meters, and 178 millimeters at 2,000 meters range.
The 12.8 cm Pak 44 ended up becoming the standard main armament for the Jagdtiger heavy tank destroyer and a tank gun variant was the planned main armament for many future super-heavy tank designs in development during the last months of World War II, including the fully turreted PzKpfw VIII Maus and E-100, as the 12,8 cm KwK 44 L/55 main gun.





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