From: Zagreb, Croatia
With recent attack on Matrix and so many posts lost <SIGH> I felt the need to start contributing immediately...
As promised (before the attack on Matrix) here is "my" FAQ that I compiled from various posts here at the forum in past weeks/months/years. The only thing I regret is that I didn't save the names of authors (some of the stuff in FAQ is mine but most is written by others) - if some of you recognize your stuff please post here!)...
Uncommon Valor: Leo's FAQ
Normal Radius/Range = 0.25 Maximum Radius/Range
Extended Combat Radius/Range = 0.33 Maximum Radius/Range
Transport Radius/Range = 0.50 Maximum Radius/Range
Normal Radius/Range (Black Circle)
Extended Combat Radius/Range (Red Circle)
Normal Radius/Range (All attacks except Naval Attack)
Extended Radius/Range (Naval Search and Naval Attack)
Transport Radius/Range (Transport)
Maximum Radius/Range (Transfer)
Normal = full load of supplies, troops, bombs (black ring)
Extended = light load of supplies, troops, bombs (red ring)
Maximum = ferry type missions - one way trip (not shown)
PT and Barges are created from supply points by Transport TF
The Transport TF can create PT/Barges at any point using
only if those types of ships are available by that time (check the
Create entirely DD and APD TFs, perhaps with a CL, no more than that
necessary. Should be around five or six ships total. Pick the DDs with 4 or
more depth charges, then send them shuttling between the areas with subs.
Use the CS/AV ships and put them in a TF with DDs. Put all the float planes
on ASW and set them to 100% / 1000 feet. If you have the option, put a CV TF
or two on ASW. Use your Minelayers (MLs) to shuttle down from Truk and re-mine
the harbors that are in danger. Put enough mines there and his subs will
start hitting them.
Put other planes, Vals and your patrol planes particularly, on ASW 100%.
Anytime they spot what might be a US sub in shallow water (use F2 to see
shallow water hexes on the map), send a DD TF to it rather than waiting for
it to come to you. Set them to Patrol and React in the sub's hex until they
- Increase Air ASW coverage
- Form DD-based ASW TFs
- Use CS/AVs and CV TFs to create temporary high lethality areas for enemy
- Send DD ASW TFs out to kill subs when spotted
Naval and Aerial Combat Messages
In naval surface combat, the way to bring the maximum number of guns on the
ship to bear on the enemy is to be firing at him on either side of your ship
("broadside"). With more than one ship in your fleet, the best way to present
multiple broadsides to the enemy is to sail in a "line ahead" formation, where
each ship follows behind the previous (at a discreet distance). Now, if you
are sailing directly towards (or away from) your enemy, then you can only fire
the forward (aft) guns of the forwardmost (aftmost) ship in your line at the
If you manage to put your ships in the position where every ship in your "line
of battle" can fire its full broadside at your enemy's ships who can only fire
their forward (or aft) guns back at you, then you have successfully "crossed
the T". You can now concentrate fire on the first ship or two in his line and
cause them serious damage quickly, while not taking very much damage yourself.
Belt Armour Penetration. Combat vessels did not have the full thickness of
their armour covering every inch of the ship. This would add far too much
weight and slow the ships so as to make them useless. Therefore the armour
had to be added where it was most useful. Typically a ship would have the
deck armour (usually the thinnest) protected the ship against plunging fire
and aerial bombs. Normally located over the magazines and engineering spaces
(ammo supply and engines).
tower armour (pretty thick) protected the command centre of the ship
belt armour (varying thicknesses depending upon what behind it) protected the
sides of the ship and were thickest at the locations of the magazines and
engineering spaces (usually the central portion of hte ship).
Turret armour protected the actual guns and was thicker in the turret front
than the sides or top
"Bouncing" an enemy aircraft usually means that you were above him and saw
him first, allowing you to "appear out of nowhere fast" and get in the first
Follow these steps to set up a float plane tender base...
1. Pick a base or potential base that you control.
2. Send a transport or a couple of APDs there to drop off 500-1000 supplies.
3. Create a transport TF with an AV ship.
4. Set the home base for the AV TF to the spot you chose.
5. Tell the AV TF to go to that base. Set it to Patrol, Do Not React.
6. When it gets there, Dock the TF.
7. Click on the dot or the base symbol at the spot you chose with the AV TF
now docked. You should see the aviation support say something like 0+12 or
0+18. The +X number is the amount of aviation support that ship provides
to float planes only. Normal planes will not get support from it.
7. Pick a squadron of float planes, like the PBY Catalina. Transfer them to
the spot that has the docked AV TF. Operate them as normal and the AV will
keep them supplied and repaired as long as you followed the steps above.
Surface Combat can only occur:
If the ending hex (in movement phase) of friendly Surface Combat TF is the
same as destination hex of enemy Surface Combat TF.
If enemy Surface Combat TF is on bombardment mission against your base.
Then they will separately (one by one) engage every friendly TF that is
located in that base hex.
If enemy Surface Combat TF is on bombardment mission against your base and
your friendly Surface Combat TF is near-by with orders "React to Enemy" (this
is when they will try to protect the base).
If several friendly Surface Combat TF are neary-by the order of their arival
is determined by Commander leadership, Commander aggressiveness, Movement
distance, TF Speed and randomination (especially at night to reflect the
"stumbling into each other" effect of confusion).
The altitude that you set is the "cruise to target" altitude (and attack
altitude for level bombers when bombing). Once aircraft reach the target they
should drop down to 200 feet to drop torpedoes, drop to 1000 feet when dive
bombing or stay at assigned altitude to level bomb.
The 100 feet assigned altitude is for straffing and skip bombing.
Each damage point to port/airbase/supply is 10% of base's value.
The TF can work in port if you just issue the "undock" command. Very useful
for AWS and minesweeping.
Basic (Minimum) ship class experience values:
Civil (transport) = 25
Non Combat (Sea Plane Tenders) = 35
Semi Combat (Corvettes) = 45
Combat = 55
For values below 15 each day/night at sea increases experience by 1.
After that there is 20% chance that day experience is increased by 1 and 15%
chance that night experience is increased by 1 until basic (minimum) ship
class experience values are achieved.
IJN Float Boats/Planes
R Area Force was the collective name given to the many floatplane
uints the IJN, in case you didn't know
The purpose of this post is to begin a discussion of how best to
use these assets, and the impact of certain game aspects on their
1. Naval Search. Fairly obvious, and the default mission. How to
optimize this? I tend to do two things, combine the AV seaplane
tenders with fast transport force to deploy island seaplane bases
at minor locations, and as extended scouts for bases and TFs.
I have found that as extended searchers they often give me
forewarning of certain events that allows me to react better in
the next turn. For example, deploying a pair of them southeast of
Lunga helps me to detect bombardment TFs coming out of L'ville or
2. ASW. Put one on Shortland, one at Tulagi, and have them patrol
the Solomon's Island chain, and you will see decreased allied sub
activity. Placing them in Rabaul, Gasmata, Lae, Buna and in the
Louisaides, and you have cheap ASW perimeter that relases level
bombers for real war duty.
3. CAP. I have found the Rufes to be terribly ineffective in this
role, so forget it.
4. Naval Strike. That's right, Naval Strike. Against transports,
they are deadly and survivable. Just to damage a transport may be
enough to increase its vulnerability for another weapon. Against
barges and PT boats, they are a cheap counter as well.
Combine them with aggressive sub tactics (assuming historical Jap
sub doctrine is off), and you can be dangerous in a combined arms
way against unguarded or lightly guarded TFs.
Notes: Carriers like the Nisshin are treated as CVs for many
purposes, including forcing enemy reacts to CV TF. This can be a
scary thing with FOW in effect for the other side, and due to the
34 hex all or nothing transport interruption React to TF feature,
they can be quite a harrasment. These CS class ships are also
loaded with floatplanes and good spped and very long range, making
them useful as fleet forward scouts.
Floatplanes have a fairly hefty replacement rate, considering the
number of units. Obviously a plus.
I have not even begun to use cruiser and BB based floatplanes off
ship for anything but naval search. To be honest, I am afraid to
do so less the transfer/replacement bug crops up. I would hate to
offload two floatplanes only to have that unit balloon in size to
16 planes, thus removing my aerial search capability form CAs and
The above rotation allows over a 5 turn cycle...
1. Insures that all squadrons will fly 3 turns of the 5 (so that
all gaining experience).
2. No squadron flys more than 2 turns in a row.
3. No squadron is on the ground for more than 1 turn.
4. Always has 3 squadrons on-line; 1 squadron off-line (having
already been active for 2 turns in a row); and 1 "reserve"
squadron, where it is resting, but can be used because it was only
active for 1 turn prior (not for 2 turns prior like the other
5. Just repeat the block for the next 5 turns etc.
Trying to keep 4 of 5 squadrons in the air, is ALOT tougher on
fatigue than 3 of 5. The 3/5 rotation will max fatigue at around
25 (if a squadron has been active for 2 turns in a row), whereas
the 4/5 rotation will max fatigue at about 45, redering them
totally worthless (and the 1 turn off isn't enough for them to
recover anyways). The 3/5 rotation gives you roughly the same
number of ready pilots, because they're not as exausted as the 4/5
guys (and you -do- have the reserve squadron available if push
comes to shove). Keeping down fatigue to allows for more
consistant sorties and avoids operational losses.
Mines in UV
Mine depots are located at Truk (for Japanese) and at Brisbane and Noumea (for
Minefields are divided into "defensive" and "offensive".
The "defensive" minefields are those you lay in HEXes with friendly base
(airfield and/or port) or friendly "dot".
The "offensive" minefields are those you lay in all other HEXes.
Therefore you can have friendly "defensive"/"offensive" minefields and enemy
While the friendly "defensive" minefields are well mapped and maintained, the
friendly "offensive" minefields are not and there is a chance to hit them with
your own ships.
Friendly TFs will avoid friendly "offensive" minefields, when determining
Minefields can be laid in shallow water and in deep water HEXes.
Minefields placed in deep water decay at the rate of 50% per day. These either
sink, float away or the moorings break.
In base HEXes the minefields are predominantly laid in vicinity of harbor and
For all other HEXes the mines are spread out (spaced) through entire HEX area.
All task forces have small chance to stumble into "defensive" minefields in
enemy base HEXes.
A somewhat greater chance to hit the enemy "defensive"/"offensive" minefield
occurs if no enemy base is located in the HEX, but as these mines are more
spread out, the chances of an individual ship hitting a mine are lessened.
The "Transport" and "Fast transport" task forces with enemy base that contains
"defensive" minefield as a destination have a much greater chance to hit the
minefield, since they come closer to the shoreline and or port.
This means that MSW and DMS ships should be part of "Transport" and/or "Fast
Transport" invasion TF because this is the only way you can get them close
enough to shoreline to clear the bulk of enemy "defensive" mines placed there.
Also this means that the "defensive" minefields have small impact on enemy
"Bombardment" TFs and submarine TFs. This is because the "Bombardment" TF
would never come close enough to shoreline (they fire from distance) and the
submarines would wait outside harbor (and therefore also be to far away from
MSW and DMS ships in "Mine Warfare" TF can clear:
- Friendly "offensive" minefields
- Enemy "offensive" minefields
- Enemy "defensive" minefields
Additionally Destroyers (DD), Destroyer Escorts (DE), Patrol Gunboats (PG),
Patrol Craft (PC) and Destroyer Transports (APD) have been given very limited,
ad hoc, mine destruction abilities. Each can locate and destroy a few mines by
shooting them, if the crew makes the proper experience rolls and spot other
mines, as well. This awareness of the minefield will allow the task force
entering the minefield to be hit by fewer mines. This ability only applies in
cases where the task force of which they are apart in danger of hitting mines
and if that task force is traveling less than 7 hexes that turn.
Also, due to small minesweeping boats not detailed in the game, task forces at
friendly, larger ports now have less chance of hitting enemy mines than at
friendly, smaller ports.
More on Mines
Mines can be useful, if employed correctly. To counter the effectiveness of mines, I suggest the following:
1) Never use "Retirement Allowed" option, for bombardment or surface task forces, when moving to bases where mines are suspect. They will make a high speed night run. This dramatically increases the chances of hitting a minefield.
2) If you must enter a known minefield, try moving adjacent to the hex on one turn and then advancing into the field on the second turn. The ships will move at a slower rate and hit fewer mines.
3) If you suspect enemy sub activity in the mined area, send a submarine hunter-killer task force of many destroyer type ships to the adjacent hex, as described in item 2, and then advance into the hex. In they arrive in daytime, moving slowly, the destroyer types will most likely be able to "sweep" some of the mines. You might also place a similar force 2 hexes closer to the Japanese side of the map, so that if the submarine runs from the first group, he may run into the second.
4) A mine sweeper will remove 50% of the mines in each minefield it sweeps on the first sweep and then 50% of the remaining mines on each subsequent sweep. You might try creating a transport task force with a couple minesweepers and a dozen destroyers. This should do the trick, if they approach slowly. If you feel the enemy submarine is targeting the minesweeper, to the exclusion of the destroyers, you might also include a sort of Q-ship. This would be a nice, fat transport or cargo ship. The submarine would most likely target this type ship, first.
5) Lastly, if the mines and enemy submarines are close to your bases, you might increase air based anti-submarine forces. Move several bomber, patrol, dive bomber and torpedo bomber groups as close as you can get them, along with your carriers, and put everything on 100% ASW. This should chase off the submarine, if not destroy it.
Airbase "rule of thumb"
Size 0 = Float Planes
Size 1 = No Offensive Air Ops, Fighters, Float Planes
Size 2+ = Fighters, Dive Bombers, Torpedo Bombers, Float Planes
Size 4+ = Medium, Heavy Bombers
Submarines can only attack enemy TFs that stop in their HEX.
Bases and Victory Points (VPs)
The number in parenthesis is the "Base multiplier" of the
The total VP value of an installation is
(Base multiplier) * (2 * AF level + Port Level)
So let's take one of those little island like Russel with Base
multiplier = (5,10). That means if USN owns it, the Base
multiplier is 5, whereas if IJN owns it, the base multiplier is
10. (either that, or I got it backwards, I'm at the office doing
this off the top of my head).
So now you're IJN and have invaded Russel island with one of those
construction battalians with guns and capture the place.
The AF and Port at the island starts at 0,0 so...
(10) * (2*0 + 1*0) = 0. Bascially, you're the proud owner of a
big, worthless rock. It doesn't do you any good until you develope
You improve the AF by a point, so now you have
(10) * (2*1 + 1*0) = 20. You've now got 20pts on your way to world
The USN keeps bombing the crap out of you, so you improve the AF
another point, up to 2 so you can effectively put some fighters at
your base, so now you have and AF of 2 with
(10) * (2*2 + 1*0) = 40. The base is now contributing 40 pts to
No with a squadron of fighters overhead, you start to improve the
port, and increase it by a point...
(10) * (2*2 + 1*1) = 50. The port increase is only worth half as
much as the AF, but points are points, and now you see how this is
The wrinkle is...
USN has finally had enough of your rock improvements, and decides
to land the entire 1st Marine Div on your little island get away.
Your 200 guys do a spectacular Bazai charge and the battle is over
before it started. However, whenever a base changes hands, the
port and AF values revert back to whatever they were at the start
of the game, in this case 0,0.
To the USN player, the base multiplier is only 5. So after he
improves your little island paradise back to what you had it
(AF=2, Port=1), his point contribution will only be
(5) * (2*1 + 1*1) = 15.
And there you have an explanation of how VPs work.
You'll notice there are alot of bases that aren't worth invading
(if they're worth 0vp as their base). And again, a base doesn't do
you ANY good unless it's got a Port or AF at it. So look at that
base multiplier, it makes a BIG difference in the points (example
Rabul, Truk, and Wewak have multipliers of 50, but it's not like
you're likely to capture them).
In WWII the Allies used two types of vessels designed to beach
themselves and quickly discharge troops, vehicles and cargo
directly onto a landing beach. The larger variety were the landing
ships, the smaller ones were the landing craft.
Landing ships were oceangoing vessels, seaworthy enough to cross
open waters. They could be loaded with assault troops at a rear
base, move to the objective under their own power, and discharge
their cargo directly onto the beach. The main types were the LST
(Landing Ship Tank, 300 feet long, full displacement 4000 tons,
max speed 12 knots, capacity 20 tanks) and the LSM (Landing Ship
Medium, 200 feet long, 1000 tons, 12 knots max, 4-6 tanks).
Landing craft were much smaller and lacked oceangoing qualities.
They were used to transfer troops and equipment from AP/AK
transports to the beach and for short hops along the coast.
The larger types were the LCT (Landing Craft Tank, 115 feet, 290
tons, 10 knots, 3-4 tanks) and the LCI (Landing Craft Infantry,
150 feet, 390 tons, 200-250 men). These craft were capable of
short-range assaults in coastal waters from a friendly port to an
objective up to 100 miles away.
The smaller landing craft are the well-known (seen in many films)
LCVP (Landing Craft Vehicles and Personnel, 36 feet, 10 tons
empty, 36 men or a Jeep) and LCM (Landing Craft Medium, 50 feet,
23 tons empty, 60 men or a tank).
The smallest landing 'craft' were the LVT (Landing Vehicle
Tracked, an amphibious APC) and the DUKW (an amphibious truck),
which were truly amphibious vehicles capable of swimming and
These smaller craft were carried on the deck of transports
(lowered into the water like life-boats) or inside the LSD
(Landing Ship Dock, 450 feet, 4500 tons, 15 knots, 3 preloaded LCT
or 14 preloaded LCVP or 41 LVT in the dock inside the stern).
Landing ships and craft were armed with 40mm and 20mm AA guns,
quite a few were converted into fire support vessels with 5-inch
guns, mortars, more AA and rocket launchers. The wear, tear and
hull stress during the run up onto the beach reduced the life span
of a landing ship to a dozen landings at most.
The main benefit of these vessels was that they could beach
themselves to land troops, tanks, jeeps, trucks, trailers (in most
cases already loaded with supplies), bulldozers, artillery etc.
directly onto the beach, often sending them straight into battle.
Their cargo could be discharged in a few hours or even minutes,
which was also important for a quick turn-around-and-get-away. In
comparison, AP/AK types required a transfer of their cargo into
barges and landing craft for the run to the beach, a rather slow
and labor-intense process. Transports often took days to unload -
even if combat-loaded, which was a bad thing in face of possible
enemy reactions by air, surface and submarine counter-attacks.
The main drawback of the beaching vessels was their small cargo
capacity - hull stress upon beaching puts limits on the size of
beaching vessels - and their slow speed.
The designs of landing ships and landing craft corresponded with
the basic types of amphibious operations - shore-to-shore and ship-
Shore-to-shore operations embarked and disembarked the landing
force in/from the same vessels, usually landing ships and craft of
the LST, LSM, LCT and LCI types. Since landing craft had little
oceangoing ability, shore-to-shore operations usually covered
relatively short distances in coastal waters. Many operations in
the Solomons and PNG areas were shore-to-shore movements.
Amphib assaults against more distant targets across open waters
required ship-to-shore operations. Many operations in the Central
Pacific area were of this type. The landing force was embarked in
transports (AP/AK) and landing ships. Upon arrival at the
objective troops and equipment were tranferred from the transports
into the landing craft for the run to the beach, usually LCT, LCI,
LCM, LCVP and LVT types. As mentioned, LST and LSM types were a
special case, since they didn't require a transfer but carried
troops and equipment from the staging area directly to the landing
beach - a kind of long-distance-shore-to-shore rather than ship-to-
In UV, the numerous types of landing ships and craft are
represented by the LST and LCI which are modeled like the other
ships (individually sent from Pearl), and by the LCM and LCVP,
which like PT boats are created en masse using supplies from
transport TFs and which are essentially the USN version of the IJN
Since they unload and retire out of harm's way quickly, LST and
LCI are useful if you don't want to risk APs under the nose of the
enemy. This is important when you assault beach dots without a
base, because AP/AK types take forever to unload without port
facilities. LST and LCI can drop off their loads quickly and
retire during the same turn, reducing exposure to enemy reactions.
This works best with unoccupied hexes, since the number of assault
troops carried by the few LST/LCI tends to be rather small and
against opposition your few troops maybe pushed back into the sea.
Concerning the LCM and LCVP, it is obvious that the 'organic'
craft carried by the AP and AK types for assault/transport
purposes are not represented, while 'independent' vessels of these
types can be generated as barges. They are useful to carry
supplies to lightly held hexes or to hexes where enemy opposition
is heavy and you don't want to risk larger ships. But their impact
on the progress of the game will be rather small in most cases.
The Use of Sea Power in History and its application to Uncommon Valor
1. Airpower plays a predominate role. Surface engagements will
almost never be decisive. Battles on land and between guns are
only useful to the extent they influence the possession of bases
from which airpower can be used.
2. A concentrated carrier air fleet will prevail over one
dispersed and unsupported.
3. Carrier air engagements that risk the loss of carriers should
only be attempted outside the range of enemy land based air. If it
is necessary to engage enemy carriers withing the range of enemy
land based air, make all attempts to reduce its effectiveness
prior to the engagement by using other land based air assets,
surface forces in a bombardment and suppression role, or as a last
resort land forces.
4. If the enemy has a greater number of strike aircraft, whether
land or carrier or the sum of these, it is more important to use
your fighter resources to protect your carriers. It is far better
to lose bomber airgroups to enemy fighters than to lose a carrier
to enemy bombers.
5. The goal of all operations should be to establish air
superiority in the theater. Enemy carrier groups are the most
significant threat, since they represent offensive power.
Eliminate or neutralize the enemy's offensive power, and victory
will eventually follow. It therefore follows that the first goal
of operations should be the destruction or neutralization of enemy
carrier groups. Neutralization can occur if the enemy's carrier
based airgroups suffer irreplaceable casualties.
6. Tactical goals should be ordered as follows :
a) destruction of enemy carrier groups
b) neutralization of enemy carrier air groups
c) destruction or neutralization of enemy land bases or land based air groups.
d) the prevention or obliteration of enemy attempts to construct new airbases.
e) the elimination or neutralization of any surface force capable of damaging
significant friendly land bases.
f) the development, reinforcement and protection of significant
friendly land bases.
Note that 5 of the 6 tactical goals are offensive in nature. Sea
power in the air age is offensive, not defensive. Victory is only
achieved by offensive action.
7. The enemy should not be relied on to violate any of the above
8. The enemy should be, and can be, destroyed if he violates any
of the above principles.
9. Superior force can be overcome by stealth, surprise, attrition,
and unexpected offensive action. If faced with superior numbers of
enemy carriers, observe enemy behavior and look for opportunities
when you may engage within range of friendly air, out of range of
enemy air, and come upon the enemy without notice or after they
have expended resources in neutralizing their target.
10. As with offensive actions in all forms of warfare, strike with
concentrated forces of all types, have a specific tactical goal.
have a method or means of execution, and be flexible enough to
depart from a battle plan without causing dispersal of effort or
loss of a cohesive tactical goal.
Stopping the AI at Gili-Gili
There have been a number of posts here on the difficulties
involved in trying to stop the AI from landing troops at Gili-Gili
in the early turns of scenarios 16 & 17, as well as stopping the
"bombardment express" that can make things miserable at Port
Moresby. Well, through dilligent repetition, I've finally
discovered a strategy that takes care of both problems.
First off, this works well for scenario 16, but I haven't worked
out all the bugs for scenario 17 yet. So, for scenario 16, some
things to remember :
1 - As the Allies, you do have three potential surface task forces
available. Your first move is to set up all three and send them
2 - All three TFs ought to be fairly close by the third turn, at
which point the AI will be getting set to move in
3 - Send all three surface TFs to the same hex, around 2 or 3
hexes from Gili-Gili and put them on "patrol" and "react"
4 - Once all three TFs are in the same hex, redistribute the
cruisers so you have 1 or 2 cruisers and a handful of destroyers
in each TF - then wait.
5 - In the meanwhile, set your Australian Catalinas to 100%
search. As well, put the Hudsons in Port Moresby on partial search
6 - Transfer all of your shorter range tactical bomber you can to
Port Moresby, along with your better fighters. Sure, you will have
more aircraft than aircraft support points, but that doesn't
matter for a couple of turns.
7 - Transfer your B-25s to Cooktown - they can reach Gili-Gili
8 - Transfer your B-17s to Cairns - they can also reach Gili-Gili
9 - Of course, put all your tac bombers on "naval attack" and
10 - Oh yes, right from the start, send all of your Australian
subs to Gili-Gili and vicinity - they will get there "just in
11 - Now, for the key - transfer one of your DC-3s groups to each
of the 4 northern most Australian bases and set them to transport
the air support base forces to Port Moresby. You have more than
enough air base force strength in each base, and a single squadren
of DC-3s will only take half of the force.
12 - Wait, and enjoy!
13 - Remember to turn off your DC-3s afterwards - you will have
more air base forces in Port Moresby than you need.
The AI in the game I'm currently playing threw everything at Gili-
Gili and ignored Buna. As the AI's remaining forces limped home
through my subs, I realized that I had a golden opportunity, and
started to fly engineers into Gili-Gili via Catalina, and moved a
couple of DC-3s to Port Moresby to move some excess air base
forces to Wau and Buna, as well as foot solders to Buna. Suddenly,
I had four quite strong bases building up, and the AI sitting
there with most of its transports on the bottom or burning. And
this without bringing a single one of my transports into "harms
way" - instead I was using them to ferry up more troops from
Brisbane to Cairns.
Later, I realized that Wau is the ideal place to put a forward
recon squadren, so I moved one Catalina group there. Then I moved
the F-5s to Buna to remove some of the draw on Port Moresby and
get them close enough to recon Shortland. At this point I moved
some of my tac bombers back to Australia to let them rest and wait
to see what the AI did next. Soon enough, the AI tried to bring a
cruiser squadren within "midnight dash" range of Buna or Gili-
Gili, but my tac bombers flamed most of them. Recently, the AI
tried to put a battleship squadren in position to bombard Port
Moresby, but I could easily spot it there, and once again moved a
ton of subs, and 4 cruiser/destroyer squadrens in the pathway, as
well as moving my tac bombers back into Port Moresby.
Surprisingly, the AI decided that "discretion is the better part
of valor" and pulled its battleship squadren back.
In the meanwhile, as I've received reinforcements in Noumea, I've
regularly sent bombardment TFs into Lunga and regularly caught
lots of transports there. I've also created a nice Northern base
from which my Catalinas can easily watch everything the AI tries
in the Solomons.
So far, I haven't seen hide-nor-hair of any carriers, ( It's July
2 ) and there is no sign that the AI has either. And if it has,
there aren't many destroyers left that can escort them. None-the-
less, I would love to see the carriers wander near New Guinea
BTW - the AI has been sending larger and larger fighter escorts
with its few remaining bombers - the last forey into Port Moreby
had 78 Zeros along with 7 Bettys. But I had around 50 experienced
and rested fighters, so although I didn't shoot down any of the
Bettys, they were all damaged and there were no hits on the
ground. It now looks as if the AI is tired of losing planes and
morale over Port Moresby, and has taken to try to bomb Gili-Gili -
but it isn't being very lucky, so I'll eventually move some
fighters in there once I get some air support in place.
The order of operations kicks in here:
Supply Phase: (the very end of the turn)
Air groups short pilots check for pilots needed after performing repairs then Air groups short planes check for planes in pool.
This means unless you have spare pilots for the new planes coming from the pool you will not get planes that can fly right away.
Ground based air groups check 2 out of every 3 turns.
Ship based air groups check every turn.
Air groups with less total aircraft (ie: those who need lots of replacements) are given priority.
I cannot find the exact point in the turn resolution sequence where replacement aircraft are added to the pool, it may or may not come before the step where the pool is checked to see if planes are available. This could cost you an extra turn, as when you are looking at the pool information, it is always the turn after these steps have taken place.
It's a safe bet, 3 turns of sitting there will get you your aircraft. 1 turn is unlikely, 2 turns is risky, if you plan on 3, it's a sure thing.
Leo's "recipe" for best possible (for me) loading of troops on "Transport" TFs
Write on paper the names of units you want to load. Also write how much space
they will take on ships.
Create separate TF for each unit you want to load. The size of such TF depends
on available ships and other issues (i.e. larger ships are faster but they
load/unload slower - it's your choice).
The cargo space in any such created TF should be equal to or larger than unit
you want to load on it (i.e. if you want to load Japanese Inf regiment with
6900 load points you must create TF with at least 7000 points of cargo space).
If there are more transport ships (i.e. APs and AKs) in harbour than what you
need put them all in one auxiliary/temporary TF. This is to stop UV to
automatically add ships to your "Transport" TFs if it thinks you allocated
insufficient cargo points on ships).
Load every unit on appropriate TF (the units will start loading).
Join all TFs into first one.
Now all ships are in single TF and they will continue to load their allocated troops.
Disband auxiliary/temporary "Transport" TF (it is no longer needed).
1) How to build a base
Bases can only be built where you see red or green dots. If the place you want to build a base is not controlled by you (i.e. the dot is red and you are playing the US) then you need to first capture the "dot." This will require that you have a force with infantry squads that can "attack" the dot.
Once you have place secure where you wish to build a base you will need engineers to commence construction. By examining the base screen you can see the progress of your construction of airfields, port facilities, and fortifications. The number in parentheses tells how big and airfield or port can be built without the expenditure of large amounts of supplies and considerable extra effort on the part of you engineers. Any base can be built to three levels beyond the number in the parenthesis. Thus, a base with a max airfield size of (0) can be built up to size 3.
Each level increase in the size of a port, fortification, or airfield takes an increasing amount of time. So you can have a level one airfield built very rapidly, but as the size of the field grows the rate of construction will slow down. Port build slower than airfields and fortifications build the slowest of all.
2) Prioritizing your building
If you have your engineers building airfields, port facilities and fortifications all at once, then 33% of their effort will be devoted to each effort. By only building two items, 50% of your effort will be given to building these two items. And by focusing on just one item you will devote 100% of your engineers' effort to building that item. Therefore, if you want to get an airfield built rapidly, as an example, then stop building fortifications and port facilities until you have your airfield built to the size you want.
Also remember that expanding facilities absorbs supplies. So if you are having a difficult time supplying a base you might want to stop construction after you have achieved the airfield and port sizes you need as a minimum.
3) What should build priorities be
In building a base, airfields and port facilities are the main item that need to be built. Fortifications are very useful for increasing your defensive strength and for giving you time to bring in reenforcements. But additional troops can be just as, if not more effective for this than fortifications. There are no substitutes, however, for port facilities and airfields.
Every port should be built up to size three so that ships unloading supplies are not vulnerable to submarine attack. An advanced port facility of size three can also be useful as an emergency stop over for ships that have received floatation damage.
All airfields should be built up to at least size 2. A size 1 airfield can only support a very limited number of missions whereas a size 2 airfield can host most types of planes and missions except for level bombers. Thus, if you wish to base SBD's or Val's at an airfield to fend off an invasion, it will need to be size 2 so that these planes can operate in an Naval attack role. If you plan to use the base for level bombers, then it should be built to at least size 4. Also remember, the bigger the airfield the few operational loses your squadrons will suffer when operating from that base.
5) An important note for the japanese player: When initially building a base, the malarial effects are extreme. The larger a base grows, the less malaria will effect the units located there. Therefore, if you capture a base hex where there is no base currently, for example, Woodlark Island, then the engineers that are initially sent there will degrade rapidly. If you send a base force there to help in building the base, your base force will degrade along with the rest of the units. Because you have limited aviation support points, however, this will mean that you are adding to your woes as far as keeping your airforce supported. Therefore, a good strategy for the japanese player will be to send in non-base force engineers to prepare the base before sending in a base force unit. A good rule would be to wait until the airfield and port ar both size 2 before sending in a base force. Once a base has an airfield of size 3 the malaria effects seem to bottom out. So I would recommend building your airfields up to size three. But you don't need your non-base force engineers to do this additional building. Once you have a size 3 port and a size 2 airfield, move the engineers to another location where you want to build a base and put them to work there. Meanwhile, the engineers associated with your base forces can continue to expand the airfield and build fortifications.
Finally, keep in mind that the more engineers you have the faster your bases will grow.
How to provide bombardment support for invasions
For a long time I was mystified as to how to keep my bombardment TFs in the
same hex with my invasion force. When I simply set them to a bombardment
mission with patrol/do not retire, they would bombard, switch to a surface
combat TF and set retire allowed and then head for home. I know many other
players have had the same problem. But there is a way to stop this and keep
your bombardment TF in the same hex as your invasion TF. (If you have already
figured this out, please don't throw stones at me, I just stumbled on this
solution not too long ago.)
To get you bombardment TF to stay with your transport TF, set it to follow
the transports and have it set to patrol/do not retire. The bombardment TF
will bombard the target hex and then switch to being a surface combat TF with
retire allowed. But it will still be set to follow the transport TF that was
previously set. Reset its patrol status to patrol/do not retire. If you want
it to bombard again, change its mission to bombardment. Be sure to set its
retirement status to patrol/do not retire.
Voila. You now have naval gun fire support for your invasion and the ships
with the big guns will not be heading for home the next turn.
Severe Casualties from Deck Explosion
Severe Fire Below Deck
Severe Damage to Electricals
Severe Engine Damage
Fire in Control Room
Fire on the Bridge
Fires Below Deck
Explosion Below Water Line
Listing, Counter Flooding
Explosion Below Deck
Ammo Storage Explosion
Fuel Storage Explosion
Massive Explosive Damage
Ranks of the aircrew in the IJN
(from lower to higher)
Airman (or, Flyer) 3rd Class
Airman (or, Flyer) 2nd Cclass
Airman (or, Flyer) 1st Class
Petty Officer 3rd Class
Petty Officer 2nd Class
Petty Officer 1st Class
It was uncommon for a squadron to contain any personnel of higher rank than Lt., thus those with ranks higher seldom fly on anything near a regular basis. While most non-american air services contained many non-officer pilots, in the IJN, this was carried to the extreme with rating pilots being the predominant feature on the roster. Most squadrons had only two to four commissioned officers (Ens. and above) aircrew, though some went as high as six.
Generally, squadrons had 1-2 officers per chutai, with Kansen and Kanbaku having 2-3 chutai's, while Kanko had three. Also, the IJN was like the Fleet Air Arm and Luftwaffe in that the plane commander in multi-place aircraft was often not the pilot. Likewise, more often than not, the unit commander was a non-pilot.
Some of Japans best Naval aviators were petty officers. This however can be deceiving since Petty Officer status in IJN during WWII was most nearly if not equivalent to Ensign status in the USN. The range of IJN aviators in combat is usually Airman (or, Flyer) 1st Class and above. Those lower ranks of Airman 2nd Class and Airman 3rd Class are in training schools.
Officer ranks of IJN and IJA.
Japanese Officer ranks are the same for IJA and IJN. The point of difference is in translation. The terms after '=' are American equivalent of Army or Navy.
Taisho = General or Admiral
Chujo = Lt. General or Vice-Admiral
Shosho = Major General or Rear Admiral
Taisa = Colonel or Captain
Chusa = Lt. Colonel or Commander
Shosa = Major or Lt. Commander
Taii = Captain or Lieutenant
Chui = First Lieutenant or Lieutenant (JG)
Shoi = Second Lieutenant or Ensign
IJA Enlisted Ranks
Juni = Warrant Officer
Socho = Sergeant Major
Gunso = Sergeant
Socho = Corporal
Heicho = Lance Corporal (leading Private)
Jotohei = Superior Private
Ittohei = Private First Class
Nitohei = Private
IJN Enlisted Ranks for aircrew (pre-June 1941)
Joto (Koku) Heiso = (Air) Chief Petty Officer
Itto (Koku) Heiso = (Air) Petty Officer First Class
Nito (Koku) Heiso = (Air) Petty Oiicer 2nd Class
Santo (Koku) Heiso = (Air) Petty Officer 3rd Class
Itto (Koku) Hei = (Air) Airman 1st Class
Nito (Koku) Hei = (Air) Airman 2nd Class
Santo (Koku) Hei = (Air) Airman 3rd Class
IJN Enlisted Ranks for aircrew (post-June 1941)
Joto (Hiko) Heiso = (Flight) Petty Officer
Itto (HIko) Heiso = (Flight) Petty Officer 1st Class
Nito (Hiko) Heiso = (Flight) Petty Officer 2nd Class
Santo (Hiko) Heiso = (Flight) Petty Officer 3rd Class
Itto (Hiko) Hei = Flyer 1st Class
Nito (Hiko) Hei = Flyer 2nd Class
Santo (Hiko) Hei = Flyer 3rd Class
After November 1942, three changes:
the (Hiko) Heisocho = (Flight) Warrant Officer
was placed above the CPO; and an (Hiko) Heicho = Assistant (Flight) Petty Officer and a Joto (Hiko) Hei = Chief Flyer replaced the Santo (Hiko) Heiso.
Air Transport Msteries (Edited)
Supply Transport by Air
Apart from a one thread in the forum, there’s very little information about Air Transport. I’ve run Scenario 1 (up to the time the Japs invade) a number of times, transporting supplies to Buna and Gilli Gilli from a variety source locations.
At the start of this scenario the status of these bases is:-
Airbase Supply Troops
Buna 1 0 None
Gilli Gilli 0 0 None
This is what happened on five occasions.
Townsville to Buna – Dist 24 Hex
Turn A/c Supplies
1 16 x C-47 80
2 16 x C-47 80+80-1 = 159 -5 (for lost A/c at Buna) = 154
3 15 x C-47 154+75-1 = 228
4 15 x C-47 228+75-1 = 302 -5 (for lost A/c at Buna) = 297
5 14 x C-47 297+70-1 = 366
Cooktown to Buna – Dist 15 Hex
Turn A/c Supplies
1 14 x C-47 70
2 15 x C-47 70+75-1 = 149 - (5 for lost A/c at Buna) = 144
3 15 x C-47 144+75-1 = 218
4 15 x C-47 218+75-1 = 292
5 15 x C-47 92+75-1 = 366
Port Moresby to Buna – Dist 3 Hex
Turn A/c Supplies
1 15 x C-47 75
2 16 x C-47 75+80-1 = 154
3 16 x C-47 154+80-1 = 233
4 16 x C-47 233+80-1 = 312
5 16 x C-47 312+75-1 = 391
Brisbane to Gilli Gilli – Dist 35 Hex
Turn A/c Supplies
1 8 x PBY 16
2 7 x PBY 16+14-1 = 29
3 8 x PBY 29+16-1 =44
4 6 x PBY 44+12-1 = 55 -4 (for 2 x PBY lost at GG) = 51
Note that during turn 4 I lost 3 PBY in total but from the supply figure I’m assuming I lost one on the return leg.
Port Moresby to Gilli Gilli – Dist 8 Hex
Turn A/c Supplies
1 8 x PBY 16 -2 (lost PBY at GG) = 14
2 9 x PBY 14+18-1 = 31
3 8 x PBY 31+16-1 =46 -2 (lost PBY at GG) = 44
4 7 x PBY 44+14-1 = 57 -9 (due to air attack) = 48
The last turn summary reported 3 port damage and 2 Supplies lost? Don’t know why this comes out at nine though unless repairs are carried out after the attack and before the next turn starts.
From these figure I’ve come up with the following:-
Air transport missions exceed they Extended range. It appears that the max range for these missions is half the A/c maximum range.
Mis Range Max Ext Nor
C-47 24 49 16 12
PBY 36 72 24 18
It does not matter what the range is, they always carry the same load.
Capacity per A/c Supplies per A/c
C-47 10,000lb 5
PBY 4,000lb 2
From this each supply point weighs 2000lb (A US (short) ton = 2000lb)
It also confirms that the further they travel the more prone A/c are to crashes. A/c can crash at either end. If they crash at the target you loose both supplies and A/c, while crashing back at base loses the A/c only.
All bases use at minimum of 1 supply point every turn, hence the -1 in the calculations.
Supply Transport by Ship
This is much easier to work out. Ships carry tonnage not lbs, so 1 supply weighs 1 US ton (2000lbs) and 1 Fuel weighs 2 ton. (A 1500 cap AK can carry 750 fuel).
On a different note entirely
Currently I’ve restarted this scenario 9 times. The Japanese:
Invaded 7 times Gilli Gilli on turn 4, Buna on turn 5.
Once they invaded both were invade on turn 5 BUT
Once they went for Guadalcanal. Didn’t know what happen after turn 5 though.
After spending a considerable number of hours rerunning Scenario 1, transporting various units to different locations I was still confused. About the only definite conclusion that I came to was each C-47 could transport 2 x Support Pts (40men)
SWPAC men/equip 3000 2nd line troops
It comprises of 150 Support (3000/150 =20men per support point)
Load cost 3000
Brisbane to Townsville
Turn A/c Support 2nd Line Troops
1 15 x C-47 30 600
2 16 x C-47 30+32 = 62 1240
3 16 x C-47 62+32 = 94 1880
4 16 x C-47 94+32 = 126 2520
This puts each man at 250lb. A reasonable weight I suppose for a man and his equipment.
The difficulty comes when you transport units with mixed men and equipment. To start with you can’t pack men and equipment in the same way as supplies and they don’t all weigh the same. Look at turn 1 for an ANZAC Bde
Cairns to Townsville
1 16 x C-47 14 x Anzac Sqd x 11 = 154 load cost
2 x 81mm Mtr x 4 = 8 load cost
2 x 37mm AT x 6 = 12 load cost
2 x 25Pdr x 10 = 20 load cost
2 x Support x 20 = 40 load cost
The more ground units I transported the odder the results seemed to be.
I gave up on this approach and edited the scenario, generating my own units so that they were made up of one type of men or equipment. E.g. Each unit made up of all 81mm Mtr or all ANZAC Sqd etc. The results indicate that:
• Only guns/vehicles with a load cost of 10 or less can be transported by Air.
• Load cost for ground units has NO affect on air transport (Exp. See above).
• Each C-47 can carry 1 gun + men irrespective of load cost (Exp. See above).
• Each C-47 can carry either 2 x Sqds, 2 x Eng, or 2 x Support irrespective of their different load costs.
• Each C-47 can carry 6 x Av Support.
• PBYs cannot transport guns/vehicles.
• Each PBY can carry either 1 x Sqd, 1 x Eng, or 1 x Support irrespective of their different load costs.
• Each PBY can carry 2 x Av Support.
• Motorised support cannot be carried.
• Planes can’t carry mixed loads.
• Maximum transport distance is half Max A/c range.
In a nut shell, ground unit load costs apply to ships NOT air transport. You can also ignore weight.
• One gun one plane
• 2 x Sqd/Eng/Sup one plane
The only real oddity is Av Support.
English meaning of IJN CVs name (literally)
I always wondered the meaning of IJN CV names. And here is some literal translation of their names. I know literal translation of their name is misleading. It's like translating the names 'Carpenter' or 'Bush' literally. So, take this tranlation just for fun. These tranlation could be incorrect.
IJN named their first Japanese CVs after mountains and provinces. And then named later CVs after mythological characters.
Ryujo - Galloping Dragon
Kaga - the name of an old Japanese province
Akagi - Red Castle, actually the name of a Japanese mountain
Shokaku - Flying Crane
Soryu - Blue Dragon
Hiryu - Flying Dragon
Zuikaku - Lucky Crane
Zuiho - Happy Phoenix
Shoho - Lucky Phoenix
Junyo - Falcon
Hiyo - Flying Hawk
Unyo - Cloud Hawk
Taiyo - Big Hawk
Night Time Naval Attack
These attacks all occured during the turn's night phase. A Jap surface combat force were spotted in Momote harbour the day before. 3 elite (80+ exp) Catalina squadrons were shifted to allied held Madang and dutifully attacked during the night phase.
One squadron was used as a "pathfinder" for the other 2 by making an attack against the port. When they made the port attack, they sighted the IJN ships which was enough to trigger the night naval attack by the other 2 Catalina squadrons during the same phase. So yes, they can attack. You just have to set up the proper conditions. The P-70s just came along for the ride, as usual (they are not needed for the attack to work, the Catalinas on there own will do the trick despite not having radar).
Couple of things to note for night naval attack success -
1) Do not waste your time expecting to attack enemy TFs other than those that are at a base.
2) Slipping a sub into the same port as an enemy TF will help trigger a night naval air strike (sub acts as a spotter).
3) Despite the resetting of the DLs to 0 before a night phase, prior daylight air recon missions of the enemy port will help keep up the MDL of any enemy TF sitting at the location. While it wont trigger a night air attack, it does help the strike in finding and hitting the enemy TF. Heavy use of daylight naval search missions on the prior turn will also benefit your attack.
4) The closer your strike base is to the enemy TF, the better.
5) Finally (and most important of all), have at least one other friendly squadron from the same friendly base (as the squadrons on night naval strike) set to make a night port attack on the enemy base containing the enemy TF. This one is critical as, if the squadron attacking the port is experienced, its sighting report will have a good chance of triggering the night naval strike.
As expected, to have a good chance to deliver an effective night attack, use aircraft with an experience of at least 75, preferably a lot more. The "Night Cats" from the AAR all had experience in the 80's to 90's (after about 6 months of game play, most Catalina squadrons should have sufficient experience for night attacks, even if they had spent the whole time just doing naval search).
The allies also get an extra advantage in the form of Coastwatchers. Their sightings (increase target DL) will occur at the start of the night phase, increasing the chance of a naval strike occuring during the night air phase.
I have had a fair amount of success with the Jap night naval strikes as well. In a PBEM game, the allies were operating a large number of TFs out of Luganville (which was protected by heavy CAP). My LBA (Bettys and Nells) were based at Lunga. The distance between the 2 bases made triggering a night naval strike difficult but by setting some of my squadrons to port attack and slipping subs into Luganville harbour, I managed to get off about 1 (large) naval strike a week for about a month. The results were not as spectacular as those that can be gained in daylight but losses to AA was far less than a daylight mission and his night CAP failed to cause any real casualties. Non combat operational losses from night missions, however, must be taken into consideration when planning operations under the current 2.3 version of UV.
Number of mines in "Combat Round"
one combat round = one mine.
mine capacity of vessel = number of weapons by amount of ammo.
Examples from UV
USN DM's Mk 16 mine capacity = (number of weapons = 2) x (amount of ammo = 40) = 2 x 40 = 80 Mk 16 mines (which was its historical capacity).
USN S-Class Mk 10 mine capacity = 4 x 2 = 8 Mk 10 mines (+ 4 21" torps).
CAP and LRCAP
If your base is invaded the CAP over that base HEX will _NOT_ participate
in offensive air-to-air combat (i.e. help your attacking aircraft).
The CAP will only defend the base itself when attacked.
Please note that the CAP aircraft will be shown in "Combat Animations" but
they will not participate in offensive air-to-air combat (i.e. help your
attacking aircraft). The "Combat Replay" textual file will have correct list
of participating aircraft though.
The only way to fix this is (to use fighters from HEX under enemy invasion):
Set fighters from near-by HEX-es (if they exist and are in fighter range)
and, possibly, HEX thatis under enemy invasion to CAP 0% and hope your
bombers (and other aircraft) that come to that HEX to fight would be escorted
Sending ships back to Pearl harbour/Turk
In my experience CVs go away for (Sys Damage x 4) +19 days as a rule of thumb.
BBs are times 5, CA are times 2, CL and DD 1 times, all + 19. About the same
for IJN except its +11 (difference in travel time from Japan compared to PH).
Note these are times to when they are available. You may not get them back
for a long time after that, depending on how many ships you have and where
you are during the game.
Withdrawn units give their aircraft to the other group but KEEP the pilots (they do not go back into the pool. When the unit returns (60-90 days) It has these pilots.
Exception to rule regarding returning to pool. By withdrawing or disbanding the remaining group would exceed its max size both pilots and aircraft will return to pool. Group returns in 360 turns
Example you have 2 fighter groups. Max size 24ac
Group A has 12 ac and 19 pilots
Group B Has 14 ac and 16 pilots.
If you withdraw group B Group A would have 26 ac (2 would return to pool or go into reserve) Group B would have 0 AC and 16 pilots. (Group A would draw 5 new pilots at whatever level of training was current)
If you disband Group B Group A would have 26 AC (2 would return to pool or go into reserve) And 35 pilots (hopefully 11 would return to pool)
Group B would return in 360 turns with all new aircraft and pilots (it might return with 0 of both and then draw from pool as available)
Disbanding send both aircraft and pilots to other group.
Off map CV are treated as Withdrawn units. (the ac go into pool the pilots stay with group. This is the only case where ac go to pool rather then on map unit)
When to withdraw and when to disband.
You have 2 groups. combined they would produce 1 normal unit.
You have two groups. Both have excess pilots but are low on aircraft.
You have an airfield that can not fly ac and is about to be captured
withdraw as many groups as possible. (you leave the ac behind but save the pilots and get the groups back within 90 days. If you place too many ac into the remaining group they will fly off (and into pool) damaged ac in excess of max remain on map.
Suppose you have excess pilots at Truk. Transfer group to Rabaul. You
should have a few ac disabled by move. Next turn move group back to Truk. Now
you have disabled aircraft in partial group at Rabaul. Excess pilots should
remain with partial group. Withdraw this group (do not disband) AC will go to
other group at Rabaul (if you move a group that is below full size first this
works better) all excess pilots return to pool. Don't withdraw entire groups
(since pilots withdraw with group. Partial airgroups do not return full
A quick look through my bookshelf came up with the following information. I hope you find it useful.
Source: Zero, Hurricane and P-38 by Stewart Wilson, Aerospace Publications Pty. Ltd. Fyshwick, Australia, 1996. ISBN 1 875671 24 2
A6M2: (3,432 total)
Model 11: 2 prototype, 15 pre production and 48 production aircraft produced. Accepted by IJN during Jul '40 after carrier trials and first used in combat over China from 19 Aug 1940.
Model 21: Appeared from the second half of 1940 and incorporated folding wingtips. 804 examples were eventually built by Mitsubishi and 2,628 more by Nakajima at its Koizumi (Okawa) plant.
A6M3 (903 total)
Model 32: Incorporated the larger Sakae 21 engine which reduced fuel load and hence range. First flew with square wingtips during Jan '42 with a combat debut of Aug '42 in the Solomons after several months of delays in power plant availability. Mitsubishi built 343 examples of Model 32 aircraft before switching over to Model 22 toward the end of 1942.
Model 22: Retained the Sakae 21 engine whilst reverting to the longer folding tip A6M2 wingspan with extra wing tanks which restored range. Mitsubishi built 560 (903 - 343) examples to mid '43.
Model 22a: Version fitted with long barrel cannon. Numbers uncertain but likely to be low and are included in Model 22 total.
A6M5 (some 6,000 built, including about 3,500 by Nakajima)
Model 52: The 904th built A6M3 was fitted with extended non-folding wings, long barrel cannon, extra fuel and exhaust extractor stacks and was in effect the prototype for the A6M5 and was first flown Aug '43. Operational service of the A6M5 began Oct '43.
Model 52a: Structural improvements to improve dive speed and improved firepower with belt rather than drum feed cannon. Deliveries from Mar '44 and 391 built by Mitsubishi.
Model 52b: Armoured windshield and fuel tank extinguisher system fitted. One 7.7mm cowling MG replaced with 13mm MG. 470 built with operational debut on Jun '44 (unfortunately just in time for the Marianas Turkey Shoot).
Model 52c: 13mm MG added outboard of wing cannon and the 7.7mm cowling MG deleted (leaving one 13mm cowling MG). Cockpit armour plate, extra self sealing fuel tanks and underwing hardpoints for ten 22lb bombs or two 132lb rockets fitted. Grossly overweight and underpowered, only 93 were built from Sep '44.
A6M5d-S: Unofficial designation for some A6M5s of the 302nd Kokuti used in night defence of the home islands. These aircraft had a 20mm cannon mounted in rear fuselage pointing 30 degrees up and out.
A6M6: Introduced the water-methanol injected Sakae 31a engine. Unsuccessful and the project was abandoned Nov '44.
Model 63: Fighter bomber for smaller carriers (following the loss of most of the larger ships). Similar to Model 52c with the now (reasonably) sorted out Sakae 31a powerplant with bombrack on centerline and smaller drop tanks under wings. Number built unknown from May '45 but 150 is a popular estimate.
A6M8: Two prototypes only (May & Jun '45) before war ended but orders had been placed for 6,300 examples for the Model 64. This aircraft finally had the engine it needed in the Mitsubushi Kinsei 62 (1560 hp) which only provided a marginal improvement in performance over the A6M5 but could do so while carrying proper pilot and fuel tank protection including an improved automatic fire extinguishing system. Continuing problems with self sealing tanks meant this feature was not included.
A6M2-K: Though field modified two seat A6M2 versions (for recon and command duties) appeared in 1942, it wasn't until Nov'43 that a specification for a newbuilt two seat advanced trainer was issued. Dai-Nijuichi built 238 from Early '44 and Hitachi built 272 from May '44. Cannon were deleted. Hitachi also built the A6M5-K based on the A6M5 from Mar'45 but only 7 examples were completed.
Note that Nakajima never produced the A6M3 and so I assume they continued with A6M2 production until the advent of the Model 52.
Replacements: For a unit to get replacements it needs one of two things. To be short 25 percent of full unit size or have at least 10 items from unit missing. It also needs to have the parent unit still on map. If these conditions are met a new unit is placed in schedule and will arrive (Brisbane/Noumea/Truk) This new unit will merge if in same hex. No unit can get more then one replacement unit in 14 days.
Support does not impact attrition. Supply does. Noumea/Brisbane/Truk units should never suffer from attrition. But having a gun break is not attrition (unsupplied items that break will eventually die/be destroyed)
Units that are in range of their HQ are 25 percent more effective then units outside the range of their HQ.
Support and supply both have impact on reducing unit fatigue. Units at Brisbane/Noumea/Truk should reduce fatigue faster then units located anywhere else. (Rockhampton/Townsville/Charter Towers and Cairns are considered maleria free zones so units there should be next in reducing greatest amout of fatigue since supply moves overland automaticaly to these bases. (Note: Cooktown is not a maleria free base and supply does not move there in amounts moved to other bases)
There are three main HQ in UV 8th Area Army for Japanese SOPAC and SWPAC for Allies. I think every Allied Division and every Japanese Division Brigade has it's own HQ. Units gain 25 percent effectiveness from these units. (But only units belonging the the Div or Bde)
Then there are other 'higher' HQ fleets and Army for Japanese, Corps for Allies
These units add to any unit in range in their chain of command. Air HQ impact airgroups. Japanese Fleet HQ impact Japanese ground units that belong to Navy HQ. (It is best to keep units in range of their HQ. Just having a HQ nearby is not enough)
So I'll have to somehow find time to run enough turns to see if units at Noumea are attriting down or just suffering normal breakdowns and repairs. The best way to check if a unit is in trouble is to watch it's fatigue level. If it goes down from one turn to the next it is ok. (I think the lowest a ground unit can be is 5 fatigue) I think just sitting at Lunga makes units increase around 3 per turn up to mid 40's low 50's (modified by supply and HQ support)
On the base menu you see support present and support required. On unit menu you see support the unit has and support the unit needs. Units other then HQ/Base force will always have one number in red. The Base menu may be in red or white if enough support present. Engineer units appear to need more outside support. Without it they are less effective but they do not attrit. (when alone in a base other then Noumea/Truk/Brisbane they suffer breakdowns according to the supply level of their base.)
(You'll notice Japanese engineer units in hex with 4x supply level and the proper HQ build considerably faster then a lone engineer with just 1x or 2x supply required)
Just to be clear, Units do not suffer attrition based on support. Units are more effective when they have full support. Extra effectiveness can come from higher HQ.
Supply is what impacts attrition. A unit below its total support but in range of it's HQ or higher HQ with abundant supply is fine. (It will recover fatigue and fight with improved effectiveness.
Support impacts combat and fatigue. Supply can impact combat/fatigue/attrition
This is how the air-to-air combat system is coded and functions. The most important factors are squadron leader skills, pilot/crew skill, maximum speed. cruise speed, climb rate, maneuver, durability, radio, armor and gun factor. I cannot easily post the equations, as there are hundreds of them. Many of these variables combine in each equation. The most important effect of each variable is listed, below.
The maneuver variable is a combination of acceleration in level flight, turn rate and roll rate. It is most important in fighter versus fighter dog fighting. Pilots in aircraft with significantly maneuver will try to make the fight a maneuvering contest. If they succeed, they will a greater chance to fire at the rear of the enemy fighter or fire without being fired at. If they succeed or no will be strongly influenced by the relative maneuver, squadron commander skills, pilot skills and aircraft advantage.
Maneuver: A6M2 - 35, P-40 - 31, F2A - 29, F4F - 32. As can be seen, the Zero has he advantage in maneuver. The F4F is also a fairly spry aircraft.
The maximum speed variable is how fast the aircraft can travel in level flight. It is most important in fighter versus fighter dog fighting and fighter versus bomber combat, as well. Pilots with a significant maximum speed will try to avoid dog fights and make slashing attacks against enemy aircraft. In the case of fighters attacking bombers, the fighters will be able to make more attacks against slower bombers. In the case of fighters versus fighter combat, a very fast fighter may fire deflection as it passes an enemy fighter, go head to head or fly past one fighter to attack another from the rear. If they succeed or no will be strongly influenced by the relative speed, squadron commander skills, pilot skills and aircraft advantage.
Maximum Speed: A6M2 - 332, P-40 - 362, F2A - 321, F4F - 320. As can be seen, the P-40 has the advantage in maximum speed. This allows the P-40 dive through the formation at high speed.
A higher cruise speed will allow the aircraft to get to the target in a shorter time. In the case of attacks versus shipping, the chance of locating the ships is increased. In all cases, fatigue is less than with a slower aircraft.
Cruise Speed: A6M2 - 207, P-40 - 275, F2A - 161, F4F - 155. As can be seen, the P-40 has the advantage in cruising speed.
The climb rate is very important in determining how many combat air-patrol aircraft are able to engage and if they engage enemy aircraft from above or below. A high climb rate will increase the chances of the fighter engaging the bomber from the best angle. Diving on the enemy bomber or climbing towards it, depending on the pilot skill and gun locations on the bomber. All other factors equal, it is usually better to dive on the bombers, as the fighter speed will be greater. Against enemy fighters, a higher climb rate allows the fighter to more easily escape from an enemy fighter who is behind him, forcing the enemy fighter to use deflection fire. A high climb rate makes for a better interceptor.
Climb Rates: A6M2 - 2640, P-40 - 2083, F2A - 2200, F4F - 1950. As can be seen, the Zero has the advantage in climb rate.
The durability factor is the toughness the plane. An aircraft with a higher durability can sustain more damage before being shot down, can fight better when damaged and can land with more damage. Some bombers with an extremely high durability, when combined with a very high gun factor, may discourage brittle enemy aircraft without self sealing fuel tanks and a limited gun factor with from attacking. So, against the B-24, a Nate or A2M6 might only make one or two passes and fire at a greater range, before retiring. A George, on the other hand might press the attack.
Durability: A6M2 - 22, P-40 - 29, F2A - 28, F4F - 29. As can be seen, the Zero has a significant disadvantage in durability and combined with a zero armor, no self-sealing fuel tank, this aircraft must use the high maneuver rate to avoid getting hit.
The gun factor is the relative firepower of the aircraft. In the case of aircraft with guns that fire other than directly forward, such as bombers, it is the aggregate firepower. So, a dive bomber might be able to fire at an aircraft above and to the rear. Each weapon is fired separately and therefore the firepower factor is never used in combat. But indicates a greater chance to damage enemy aircraft, or when strafing, units or ships.
Gun Factor: A6M2 - 12, P-40 - 18, F2A - 12, F4F - 18. As can be seen, the A6M2 and F2A have a smaller gun factor. Should you look at the actual weapons on the aircraft, you will see that limited ammunition, short range or inaccurate weapons will hinder the aircrafts ability to shoot down enemy aircraft.
Many Japanese aircraft lack radios. The lack of a radio makes it harder to intercept incoming attacks with sufficient aircraft, which reduces a squadrons CAP ability.
Most calculations include the leaders skills. He can make his pilots/crews use better combat tactics, better coordinate attacks and defenses, increase repair rates for aircraft, increase morale and decrease pilot/crew/ground crew/aircraft fatigue. It is a good thing to make sure the leader is highly skilled.
All calculations include the pilot/crew skill factor. It is important.
The fatigue variable is a calculated and accumulative assessment of the pilot/crew, ground crew and aircraft physical condition. It is used in most combat and many non-combat calculations. Flying a lot of missions will increase fatigue and make the group less effective.
The group morale factor is a calculated and accumulative assessment of the pilot/crew and ground crew general fitness. It also includes group Intel and mission preparation time, as lead time is needed to fly missions, some longer than others.
Not a variable, but a calculated value, the aircraft with the advantage has a greater chance to implement the tactic the pilot would choose. It increases the chances of the pilot to bouncing an enemy aircraft and increases the chances for aircraft to evade.
Ships disbanded in port >6
I think I remember a Matrix staffer once upon a time commenting on this. Ships disbanded in size 6+ ports don't sink from port air attacks is what I kind of remember him saying, they merely settle on the bottom and can be raised, so the damage inflicted is only system damage, not flotation damage
How to fill up air squadron with pilots (more aircraft than pilots)
When a group flys all aircraft without pilots get one. So the easist way to get a pilot for each aircraft is fly the entire group. For bombers/transport/patrol you just select training 100 percent for 1 turn. For fighters you need to do a long range CAP for 1 turn.