A "detachted station" as you call it is essentially a station in deep space. If you were to successfully build it on the planet, it would move with the planet. So when you initially built it, the game thought you intended to build it in space and so it didn't move. May be a bug, may be user error.
Although I haven't checked in a long time, a resort base will work no matter where you build it. But if you build it somewhere with a scenic bonus, it gives bonus revenue when you sell tickets (so-to-speak). If you build somewhere with no bonus, you just get the standard base revenue (if/when tourists show up).
I also believe that the scenic bonus drives up demand for that station compared to others.
If anyone has more accurate information, please say so.
Finally, I would like to know if a resort base gets the scenic bonus from a nuetron star if it is built on a planet orbiting the neutron star. My guess is no. But there seems to be no way, in game, to determine if a resort base is benefiting from a scenic bonus.