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RE: RHS Design Theory: JNAF Aircraft/Art (REVISED)

 
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RE: RHS Design Theory: JNAF Aircraft/Art (REVISED) - 6/15/2013 3:07:24 PM   
el cid again

 

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This material reposted after significant updating at the end of the thread.

< Message edited by el cid again -- 8/18/2014 3:20:44 AM >

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Post #: 301
RE: RHS Design Theory: USAAF Plane Art w ECM aircraft - 6/15/2013 3:16:27 PM   
el cid again

 

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This material reposted after significant updating at the end of the thread.

< Message edited by el cid again -- 8/18/2014 3:21:01 AM >

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Post #: 302
RE: RHS Design Theory: USAAF Plane List 1 Slot Order - 6/15/2013 3:20:47 PM   
el cid again

 

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This material reposted after significant updating at the end of the thread.

< Message edited by el cid again -- 8/18/2014 3:21:20 AM >

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Post #: 303
RE: RHS Design Theory: Korps Insulinde - 6/15/2013 10:28:38 PM   
Jo van der Pluym


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quote:

ORIGINAL: el cid again

The Korps Insulinde was a special operations force of Dutch troops sent to Ceylon from the UK.
It had two operational components: No 1 troop (completing training sometime in 1942), which had
154 men (17 officers, 37 senior NCOs, 28 corporals, 70 privates) conducted commando style landings
on Sumatra in 1943 and 1944; No 2 troop (also 154 men), conducted airborne or naval landings from
May, 1945. While the first troop arrived at Columbo on 7 March, 1942, it had not yet been trained
as commandos. The two units were considered part of the Princess Irine Brigade.


Hi el cid again

I have some info about Korps Insulinde out the Book Korps commandotroepen 1942-1997.

1. The commanders of Korps Insulinde are:
Maj F. Mollinger: 19 Jun 1942 - 16 Feb 1943 transfer to Suriname
Maj H.G.C Pel: 16 Feb 1943 - 23 Mar 1945
LT (Navy) C.J Wingender 23 Mar 1945 - Mar 1946

2. The men from 2nd Dutch Troop, 10th IA Commando do not arrive all in May 1945. They arrive in parts from May 1945 to 1946

3. Korps Insulinde was from 19 june 42 raised as NSO. From 1 Aug 42 renamed as Korps Insulinde. And was disbanded in March 1946. The Depot Speciale Troepen or DST is raided on 15 june 1946 with the men from Korps Insuline and 2nd Dutch Troop 10th IA Commando.

I have the following suggestion. Rename 1 Trp Korps Insulinde to Korps Insulinde and made it airborne. Then give Korps Insulinde a delay to 420801. Delete 2 Trp Korps Insulinde

Make also a TOE for it, with NE Commando Squad. And let this TOE upgrade to another TOE with double strenght in may 1945.

Then there also unit name errors.

Namely:

5800 KNIL MobieleEenheid Bn must be KNIL Mobiele Eenheid.

5808 KNIL 1945 Mariener Bde must be KM Mariniers Bde

5809 KNIL 1st Bde must be NE T Bde




_____________________________

Greetings from the Netherlands

Jo van der Pluym
The CrazyDutch

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Post #: 304
RE: RHS Design Theory: Eastern Fleet HQ, Rearming Shi... - 6/24/2013 10:46:41 PM   
el cid again

 

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I had a complaint that ships could not rearm at Trincomalee. Investigation amplified that to ships cannot rearm at Seattle or Bremerton.

Turns out there is a gigantic difference between a Level 7 port and a Level 6 port in terms of armament points (5500 vs 700 not counting the effect of naval support squads present, which add 5 armament points each).

Investigating that led to the discovery the RN Eastern Fleet is at Columbo instead of at Trincomalee. Turns out it was NEVER EVER at Columbo, and only went to Trincomalee after a temporary stay in Java. It should start the war in Singapore!

That research led to information about the development of Addu Atol. This led to modifying its base force and infrastructure. The base should have a airfield build of 0 at game start with a base airfield value of 2 - permitting a build of 5. It probably should have a port value of 3, and a base port value of 4, permitting a maximum build of 7 - so battleships can rearm there.

Another discovery was that fortifications were built at Johore Bahru before the war began because of a report that there was some risk of an attack overland from the North. The same report which caused the Australians and some Indians to be sent to Malaya caused that construction. Johore Bahru should not start with a fort value of 0.

Looking at that, I found that many units in Malay have high fatigue values, and morale values of 10. The fatigue value should be divided by 5 or 10, and the morale multiplied by 3 or 4 in my view. This may make Malaya marginally more defendable.


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Post #: 305
RE: RHS Design Theory: Eastern Fleet HQ, Rearming Shi... - 6/25/2013 4:36:04 AM   
dwg

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: el cid again
That research led to information about the development of Addu Atol. This led to modifying its base force and infrastructure. The base should have a airfield build of 0 at game start with a base airfield value of 2 - permitting a build of 5. It probably should have a port value of 3, and a base port value of 4, permitting a maximum build of 7 - so battleships can rearm there.


Taking a look at a map of Addu, I'm far convinced that a airfield value of 5 is at all practical http://gan.philliptsmall.me.uk/AdduMapsLinks.htm Nor do Somerville's references to Addu in the Eastern Fleet War Diary suggest it was capable of rearming battleships - basing yes, limited fuelling, yes, but I suspect any significant munitioning would have been dependent on auxiliaries, not port facilities.

Here's a description of the situation at Addu at the time of the Indian Ocean Raid:

"After the completion of the provisional defences, i.e., laying of the controlled minefields and indicator nets and the installation of the coast defences, a combined reconnaissance of Addu Atoll was carried out by representative of the Navy, Army, and the Civil Engineer in Chief’s Department. This report was considered by the Commander in Chief, India, Air Officer, Commanding in Chief, India, and myself, and a general agreement was reached. A representative of the Superintending Civil Engineer, Ceylon, was flown to the Untied Kingdom with a copy of the report in order to give whatever further explanation was necessary.

2. The principal features of the report were that very serious difficulties were to be expected in regard to major developments, such as the boom defence depot, the deep water approach for small craft, and the building of adequate piers. Recommendations for the deterrent scale were also formulated.

3. Before these projects could be put in hand, however, the strategical situation in the Far East and the appearance of Japanese naval forces in the bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean resulted in a change of policy in regard to the base, and the first action was to cease all further developments at Addu Atoll, and the Naval Officer in Charge and the Defence Commander were instructed to concentrate on maintaining existing defences and on improving the general health and recreational conditions. The Naval Officer in Charge was further instructed to prepare a denial scheme."

Equally Somerville describes a fairly limited airfield installation:
"(b). Gan Island Aerodrome

(i). I visited the prospective site of this aerodrome which at present consists of a natural clearing about a mile long and 800 yards wide in the middle of a coconut plantation.

(ii) The only work done on this aerodrome until work was stopped last April was to peg and mark the centre of what is to be the main East/West runway and the shorter Northeast/Southwest runway.

(iii). Although the natural clearing exists there is still a very considerable amount of scrub and undergrowth over the whole area. The sub-soil also appears to be very soft and spongy, which will necessitate special construction of the runways.

See http://www.naval-history.net/xDKWD-EF1942-Introduction.htm

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Post #: 306
RE: RHS Design Theory: Policy/Strategy for Axis Players - 7/9/2013 7:46:06 PM   
el cid again

 

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Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: General

There are two major flavors of RHS scenarios: standard and simplified. The differences are primarily technical and relate to the amount of work players need to do entering turns. In general terms, they do not matter very much in terms of game strategy or policy. Standard scenarios are identified by odd numbers (101,103, 105 and eventually 99). Simplified scenarios are identified by even numbers (102, 104 and eventually 106 and 92). Simplified scenarios omit units which require human understanding and which would confuse AI running a game. For example, railroad units (which have RR in the unit name) are wholly absent - because only human players can understand they must move along a rail line. A bigger example is naval units in land locked rivers and lakes: they confuse the AI (which tries to send them to places they cannot go) - so they are missing entirely. This permits Scenario 102 (AI Oriented) to work (as well as AI ever works) in play vs the computer. [Other even numbered scenarios are simplified for player convenience, but are not suitable for AI - since the Russians are active - which is beyond AI's understanding.] One major "simplification" is related to aircraft production. While this does affect the Allies - it is much more important for the Axis with its more elaborate production system. In simplified scenarios, aircraft production requires less player management. For the Axis, this means that trainer aircraft are not produced in numbers (a few are around for occasional use; the Allies do not use trainers except in cases where they were used by operational units in non training roles). But aside from eliminating the need to manage production of trainers and pilot training by training air groups, there is no effect on Axis strategy using a simplified scenario unless for some reason minor naval vessels on land locked interior waterways are critical to that strategy. In such a case, the plan is only possible in a standard RHS scenario.

There are two ways to play the Axis in RHS - as an individual or as a tag team. Surprisingly, it has been found the Axis benefits from multiple players more than the Allies do. The Axis team needs a great deal more economic management, and its entire land and sea line of communications is on the map, and vulnerable to enemy countermeasures (at least eventually). For this reason, the Axis team needs a production manager who is generally responsible to insure that everything needed for production is flowing where it is needed, when it needs to be there, to the extent possible. This person also logically tends to allocate newly arrived units in the rear areas when these are to be sent to forward commands. For this reason, the "economic chair" can also often effectively serve as the "high command" or team leader. That is natural if the "team" is a single person. Yet in that case, there is so much to do that often one or more forward areas tend to be neglected and not diligently managed. With area specialists who are focused on a regional strategy, the Axis tend to generate higher quality turns which more fully exploit the potential of available units and resources. There are more such regional areas than one might at first assume: there is the Nanyo (Pacific Ocean area - literally "Seas South of Japan"), there is a China area, and there are two logical regional players in the SRA. One starts with 14th Army and 16th Army, supported by the Fifth Hikoshidan (Air Brigade) and Third Fleet. It initially faces due South toward the Philippines and eventually the Eastern NEI. The other logical focus faces SW and West, and includes 25th Army and 15th Army supported by the Third HIkoshidan, Second Fleet and "Minami Kantai" (a sort of SE Asia Fleet). This player initially faces Malaya, Thailand and Burma, and eventually the Western NEI, particularly Sumatra. In some circumstances the Japanese may find the initially quiet Northern Area has become active - and needs a forward commander. This area, usually managed by the economic player, might then be attached to the Nanyo Player. Another possible development is if the Russians become active in the war. Manchukuo, Korea and Sakhalin, and NE China all are normally quiet areas managed by the economic player. But this area can be handled by the China theater player if desired. Otherwise, both the Northern Area and the Manchukuo/Korea/NE China area can be managed by other players brought in for that purpose. They are daunting regional commands with little in common with other areas that benefit from focused management.

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Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Strategic Options

The grand strategy of Japan is decided by the scenario situation: the decision has been made not to give in to Western (US, British and NEI) economic blackmail (the embargo of iron ore, rubber and oil), not to give up its conquests in China, and not to permit thereafter its foreign policy to be dictated by the West. Instead, it has decided to attempt to seize new sources of strategic raw materials with a view to creating an autarky, and then to defend the area seized - until such time as the cost to recapture it is considered prohibitive and the Allies stop trying. Wise or foolish, practical or nearly impossible do not matter: this is the grand strategic context the Axis team is stuck with in the game.

What the Axis player can control is where to commit his assets? This is substantially defined at start by pre-war planning, by pre-existing units and their locations, command assignments and planning. However, aside from modification in detail to improve on these dispositions and plans, the Axis also has control of where new units are sent, where rear area units are sent, and where follow up operations will be staged? Since the initial operations cover about a quarter of the globe, starting air and naval units are stretched thin, and only minor modifications are possible at first. However, land units are a great exception to this pattern: only about one fifth of the IJA was ever committed against the Western Powers (the previously named US, British/Commonwealth, and NEI). If there are real needs to have land units facing the USSR and in China, it remains that relatively minor changes to the remaining 80% of land forces can have a major impact on the forces in the SRA and Nanyo areas. Doing this sooner really matters, permitting the Axis to develop a momentum that will seem to be unstoppable in 1942, and possibly into 1943. The trick is to manage this without suffering major defeats in China or inviting invasion by Russia. The other great strategic option available to the Axis is control over what aircraft are produced. In RHS there is a rich set of options, with many considerations involved in deciding what aircraft to produce (and, to facilitate that, which aircraft engines to produce), in what quantity, at what time? In a similar way, the Axis gets to choose which ships to produce or convert, and which to suspend or not produce at all? Related to that, the Axis has control over production of other things which require HI points (e.g. armaments, vehicles). There are simply not enough HI points to produce everything - so trade off decisions must be made - or production will not be complete. And how many HI points exist on any given date relate to the amount of HI centers that have been captured and repaired, and more critically, how many HI centers, old or new, are properly fed with fuel and resources? In RHS HI centers have huge demand for resources, in part to simulate the need for coal (which accounted for 2/3 of all Japanese imports by weight). There are ample quantities of resources on the map - just as there is ample oil: but often they are not where they are required. Some of them can move automatically, using roads and railroads. But most of them must move by ship. So there is an intimate and intricate relationship between strategy (what is captured and defended), what is allocated to moving oil and resources, supplies and fuel, and what is produced? A proper Axis policy needs to fix realistic goals which generally will represent compromises between what is theoretically desired and what is impractical. To the extent a strategy fails to do that, the Axis will suffer a reduction in production, eventually if not immediately - reducing the assets available to implement the plan, whatever it may be? The great advantage of deciding to commit more IJA units sooner is that they already exist, and can be used to capture more places of value, and then to defend them.

Page 3

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: China

It may seem odd to say so, but China is the heart of the Pacific War. If Japan was willing to withdraw from China, and to permit its policy be dictated from Washington, there would be no war at all. So in some sense, China is the point of the exercise, not a backwater of no interest. If China is not worth fighting for, then concede the issue, withdraw from China, and give the Allies victory by default. [At the same time, expect Japan to be forced to allow the US and UK to dictate its future policy: it will not have an autarky and will not be able to survive a lack of imports they control.] IF China is worth fighting for, THEN it is both an asset and a liability. First, to the extent China is controlled, it can be exploited for its resources. Second, to the extent China's LOC are controlled, some resources from SE Asia can be moved across it without risk of attack by enemy submarines (at least not other than at the Tsushima Straits). Third, to the extent China is NOT controlled, it will eventually become a significant threat to the Japanese rear areas of Formosa, Korea, Manchukuo and the Home Islands. The Chinese have existing and potential airfields, and eventually get a significant air force - operating B-24s and P-51s supported by F-5 recon planes in 1945. The US and UK can also use bases in China, particularly if these bases are supplied by productive local industries. So the strategic choice facing Japanese players is this: conquer East and Southeast China early, and exploit it for resources and supplies, at the same time reducing the length of the front to a reasonable size in rough terrain, OR face a significant Allied air offensive out of China late in the war - with more and better bases than are possible in the Aleutians (where the closest Allied bases otherwise were established). The problem is how to conquer China without needing significant additional troops, aircraft or ships? The answer lies in a comprehensive combined arms plan exploiting Japanese naval superiority along coasts and deep into the interior along rivers, the Yangtze in particular, in addition to Japanese early technical superiority in aircraft quality. Even second line Japanese aircraft are generally fine in China. If these advantages are combined with a policy of controlling the lines of communication and of clearing out whole areas, those areas will become economically productive, and except for garrison requirements and the need for a front somewhere - not place excessive demands on Japanese forces. This is much easier to say than to do. China in RHS has been extensively developed, and has elements not previously found in AE: its full air force, its Marines, a fully developed river navy that never lost control of the upper Yangtze, the actual regional economies including local sources of oil or similar fuels for industry, guerilla formations semi-independent of lines of supply, pre-existing fortifications at walled cities, "heavy" (medium in US terms) artillery, the 200 th Motorized Division, etc. Its units, unlike in stock or other mods, do not start out "pre-defeated" - with horrible rates of exhaustion and disorganization, and not planned for the areas they know well. Most of all, the China theater requires dedicated attention to detail by a player. The remaining strategic option is to attempt to conquer all of China. This will not be easy - given the lack of good LOC into West and SW China. Probably there is only one good land invasion route - from SE China - up the primary road from Liuchow through Kweiyang all the way to Chunking and Changtu - with a Western extension to Kunming. There is also a practical Marine route - up the Yangtze. Another primary road LOC exists from Central China, more or less converging with this primary route South of Chunking. This is faster and can move a lot more supplies. It faces significant coastal defenses and, if the enemy uses them, thousands of mines. There is also something of a river Navy which is effective vs small vessels - be sure to face it with the "river cruisers" in IJN service. Invasion of the Szechuan Basin around Chunking also might be possible from the East, but only one secondary road route exists to support it. Less obvious, a river LOC exists to Baoji year around, so that land LOC can be supported with supplies near its Northern end better than just looking at the road might imply.

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Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Nanyo

The Nanyo (South Seas) more or less means "Pacific Ocean Area South of Japan." It is vast in extent and the primary "front" between Japan and US forces. Its sheer area combines with the nature of naval warfare to make it relatively fluid and very difficult to control absolutely. In spite of planning invasion operations (of Hawaii) since 1910, Japan conducted relatively few operations in this area. It probably drew the wrong conclusions from the defense of Wake Island by the US Marines, and bet too much on the value of static defenses. This area requires a sophisticated, mobile defense by air and naval forces supported by a network of land bases. Since it is substantially an economic and logistical desert, its main function is to serve as a barrier for enemy operations against Japan itself, or its possessions in the SRA. Its other utility is to serve as a way to contest the enemy SLOC and spread out his assets attempting to cover it all. That happens in two ways: First, submarines and raiders can penetrate deep into enemy areas, and tend to encourage a disproportionate number of aircraft and escorts be assigned to places where, most of the time, there are no Imperial forces at all; Second, bases taken far enough South, and carrier operations in the enemy SLOC area, tend to discourage (or sink) enemy shipping which otherwise will be able to use direct, efficient routings to send units, supplies, fuel and oil to the SRA, or to be used in opening direct offensive operations vs Japanese possessions in the Western Pacific. It is not nearly as important how many submarines are sent as how continuously some submarines are operating in the enemy rear areas? Any attacks at all will tend to cause ships not to sail, or to use inefficient routes, as well as escorts and air units to be diverted to that area. It also is not nearly as important if an island can be held as if it is taken. The enemy cannot use enemy occupied islands as bases, and the act of retaking them will generate information about where he is operating? Lightly held islands are bases for friendly "eyes" - air search aircraft - and information about forces about to invade them can sometimes be exploited to cause significant attrition of enemy forces. This is only possible, however, if there are significant commitments of aircraft and naval units to the area. Since the area is so empty of resources, it is also valuable to exploit the few exceptional locations: ships returning should, where feasible, load at guano islands or other similar places resources appear in numbers, but are more or less useless unless moved to Japan. It is not feasible to invade Oahu. It MIGHT be possible IF one takes nearby islands first, and reduces the Hawaiian Coast Artillery Brigade by sustained air bombardment. [This is the largest coast defense unit in the world, starting with 117 guns according to Gen Marshall, and gaining many more over time.] It is probably a good idea to take the outer islands (Midway, Johnston, Canton) which otherwise the Allies will use for long range reconnaissance and naval searches into Japanese areas of the Central Pacific. It is probably an even better idea to take the larger islands at the Southern end of the SLOC (New Caledonia, the New Hebredes, Fiji, Samoa, the Solomans and Santa Cruz Islands). These islands do generate some exports (as do Ocean Island and Nauru Island), and are so important to the enemy SLOC he is likely to launch offensives to retake them. Such efforts are a great way to divert the Allies from attacking things that matter to Japan, and the amount of units and supplies reaching Australia will be reduced to a trickle until it is done.

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: The Philippines

The Philippines are "the center four squares of the chessboard" of AE. They generate significant resources and supplies in their own right, but their strategic value lies more in the well developed (and potential for more development) port and air bases, supported by good roads and a railroad on Luzon, as well as the presence of an enemy army, air force and small fleet when the war begins. Unfortunately, the enemy also has a powerful coast defense unit in the Bataan hex. As long as this unit exists, Manila is denied to the Axis as a port. Not as powerful as the coast defenses at Oahu, it remains one of the most powerful in the world, and alone (without an army in support) it will hold out for some time.

Page 4

As in other theaters, the key to success in the Philippines is timing combined with the indirect approach. A direct invasion of Manila is not feasible due to the coast defenses and mines in the Bataan hex. But long delay means the Philippines will generate many reinforcement units which will never otherwise be in play - if their hex of appearance is taken. Many Allied ships as well as significant numbers of Allied land units will appear if their hexes of arrival are not captured. On the other hand, capturing hexes like Manila and Cebu mean that a small number of Axis vessels will appear in the country after that date. Also, delay means the local forces have the time to build fortifications. Finally, enemy control of resource generating hexes combined with LOC hexes and industry hexes means he will generate significant amounts of supply. Rapid conquest reverses this, and not only does the enemy not get supplied, some of the local industry will convert to making supplies for the Axis. ALL the incentives are on the side of rapid conquest, NONE on the side of delay. The more locations that are taken, the more local resources and/or supplies can be reaped for local use or to send to Japan. As well, ports and airfields can be used directly in support of Axis operations.

The "squares" of the Philippines are more like a vertical line of important points, North to South. In RHS, there are river like crossings between many islands, so it is possible for even a restricted unit to "walk" all the way from Northern Luzon to Southern Mindinao. On Luzon, a fine primary road system connects from the far North to Gumaca - at the top of the Southern peninsula. As well a rail line connects from San Fernando in the North all the way to Legaspi at nearly the Southern tip of the island. Most of the rest of the country is connected, if at all, by minor roads. Mindoro and Panay have short primary roads, and Panay has a minor RR tied for shortest in the game (with one that appears in 1942 on New Caledonia). Mindinao has a good primary road running in a semicircle from North to South via its Western port at Cotabato. Generally these roads and rail lines are the LOC for local economies, moving resources to ports, which either export them or have Light Industry to convert them into supplies. Manila also has Heavy Industry and a small oil refinery, permitting oil reserves or imports to be converted to fuel, mainly for industrial use. There are significant resource hexes, especially Baguio City in the mountains of Northern Luzon, which holds the largest copper mine in Asia and other mines of value. A tiny apparent RR connects this hex with the coast - without a trail (as all other RR have) - it is ONLY to move resources and does NOT move troops (it is a peculiar overhead bucket tramway moving ore to the coast unsuitable for moving men) - and its one hex length means it isn't worth entraining and detraining to use it for troops anyway. Baguio City, Clark and Manila are also unusual, malaria free hexes.

There are far too many places to invade for the Allies to cover them all well. In addition, only a few land units are fit to contest the IJA. These are the 31st US Army regiment, the battalion sized Fourth Marine Regiment, and a few units of the Philippine Scouts and Philippine Constabularly. [The Fourth Marines eventually grows by addition of sailors and Philippine Scouts from disbanded support units] It is best to seize objectives quickly, landing where there is minimal defense, and attacking with combined arms teams the not yet fully assembled Philippine Army. It is also essential to eliminate the Far East Air Force so only the Japanese have air support and to minimize losses to Japanese shipping near the islands. The most dangerous aircraft to ships or air bases are the B-17s. Their best bases are at Clark and at Cagayan on Mindinao, Another key early objective are the numbers of ships based at Manila: many of these ships and submarines may be damaged or sunk by an early attack - unless the enemy elects to leave port en masse. [It is far easier to sink a submarine in port than at sea]. It is also wise to take as many locations as possible which are connected by roads at the earliest opportunity so that local industry will tend to generate supplies for Axis forces in the territory and need less to be imported.  
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Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Malaya and Thailand

Thailand is the Keystone for the campaign facing South and West from Indochina. The Kra isthmus offers quick access to the key Western rail line of Malaya, at the top, as well as the primary port which feeds both the Eastern and Western rail lines of Malaya from the initial Japanese point of view: Singora. All the other ports in the area are too small to efficiently disembark supplies and units. As well, Singora is a key early air base for the campaign. In RHS, Thailand starts as a "mixed country" - with both Axis and Allied locations - as does Indochina. Speedy conversion of the "Allied" locations permits the local economies to become functional as well as providing a RR LOC from Phnom Penh all the way to Singapore in the South, and to key air bases in Northern Thailand. Axis planning should be setting up the invasion of Burma from Thailand at the same time Malaya and Southern Thailand are being invaded.

An unusual feature of RHS is that the Royal Thai Army Sixth Division, reinforced by local Thai Provincial Police and secondary school military academy units and supported by an element of the RTAF start the game as Allied and resist initial Japanese operations. Within one day, these units are ordered to stand down, and Thailand becomes a somewhat neutral country for a couple of weeks. Then Thailand becomes an Axis power - and its land, air and naval units appear as Axis units. Later, on the occasion the Thai dictator is deposed, Axis Thai units "disband" leaving Japan to defend the country or annexed territories without their help. Meanwhile, a few minor Allied Royal Thai units have formed up, and operate as Commonwealth forces, and continue to fight with the Allies after Thailand "switches sides" the second time. This is fairly normal for the Thai, who believe in principle in "bending with the wind" rather than being conquered by a major power: they are very proud to be the only nation in Asia never colonized by a foreign power. Axis players need to be aware that the Thai will abandon them when the war stops going their way. The date on which this happens, in June, 1944, is a year later in Scenario 105 - on the assumption things turn around somewhat later in the Japan Enhanced Scenario. FYI a case can be made that Thailand's leader was the only successful Axis head of state. He changed the name of the country to a peculiar mixture of Thai and English - it means "Free Land" literally - and it stuck. He is the only Axis head of state to return to power after the war - never mind being tried and convicted of war crimes!
As is the case at Bataan and Oahu, it is unwise to sail into the Singapore hex. Coast defenses will decimate the ships - generally sinking all of them in a single action. For this reason, landing farther North and marching to Singapore is the best policy. But except for Mersing in the Far South, the East coast ports are not well connected by roads to the main North South LOC on the Western side of the peninsula. Also only Singora is larger than a level one port. [Singora, when occupied, should be built up to a Level 3 port ASAP]. Unfortunately, there is only a secondary road from Singora to Western Malaya - and nothing but a trail due Southward. So Singora tends to be a trap for land units, which cannot rail out until some more distant location on the rail lines is captured and an offensive based entirely on it will have a slow start - until units can move two hexes to Alor Star. For this reason, Axis players should consider landing fast moving armored units as well as regular units at Patani, which has a primary road both South and West. Attacks on Alor Star, Georgetown and Taiping can all happen sooner if units come from this direction. As well, if the Axis wishes to avoid the cost of a frontal attack on Kota Bharu in Northern Malaya, a landing at Patani offers the fastest way to come into it by land. Attacks on ports farther South are dangerous during early days when Allied airpower has not yet been reduced: they will tend to be expensive in terms of sunk and damaged ships, and troops lost on board them. After the Allies cease to have effective air power in Malaya, landings farther South tend to make them abandon defenses farther North. Landings on the West coast of Malaya are generally very dangerous while the Allies still contest the Malacca Strait.  

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IJA divisions assigned to Malaya tend to be broken into component units for transport. It is wise to land these elements near each other and to combine them as soon as possible, since larger formations are more effective in combat. Even if a unit is later split into three "brigade" formations, these will be combined arms and more effective than the typical six sub units of the division would be operating separately. The key to success in Malaya is to achieve tactical air superiority and exploit that to provide air support for the advancing spearheads. Because of the primary road in the West, and only a trail in the East, the Western axis of advance works far better - and the enemy will tend to abandon positions in the East (or be isolated in them). The best plan is to seize airfields immediately, march to Taiping, and begin moving South along the Western highway. Georgetown can be reduced on a priority two basis. Alor Star needs to be reduced because it permits the RR to function all the way to Singora, and without it, supplies will be limited due to a half hex of secondary road on the route from Patani. If tactical air power is focused on preventing enemy air operations vs the advancing spearhead, and otherwise on continuously engaging the enemy units at the front, the offensive should succeed in every attack, as soon as a position can be reached. The only problem with this is that it permits the enemy to concentrate on a single, predictable axis of advance. For that reason, a landing at Malacca should be attempted after a week or so, assuming enemy bombers in general, and Vildebeeste in particular, no longer are a major threat. This will tend to make the enemy voluntarily withdraw any remaining units North of Jahore Bahru. Note that Gen Yamashita, commander of 25th Army, was correct: it is difficult to supply more than three IJA divisions from the poor ports available, and three are adequate to achieve operational success at the front. Sending more units to Malaya tends to result in critical shortages of supplies, particularly if there are many forward based air units consuming supplies as well.

As the campaign for Malaya winds down, give consideration to what shipping should move to Singapore. The first ships should be minesweepers - it isn't safe to enter until the minefields are cleared. Transports are necessary to move troops from Malaya to Sumatra or other places. And warships are necessary to protect the transports. Also, to be fully productive, Singapore needs to be importing oil. Initially, this probably should come from Brunei and Miri. Eventually it can come from Palembang.

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Burma

Although RHS features additional development of Commonwealth defenses in Burma (e.g. the Burma Division can form from component units, many additional local Burma Military Police BMP and militia battalions are included, and most of the significant vessels of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company are present), nevertheless its defenses are remarkably inadequate. A wild card is the extent to which additional units may enter the country, particularly from China. One squadron of the AVG begins in Burma (two arrived at Kunming just in time for the Pacific War to begin), but the others might transfer in later. Even in this case, a modest force can occupy Burma rapidly. Just how much to send depends as much on future plans to invade Bengal or China from Burma as on what will be required for immediate operations?

As in other theaters, early operations pay dividends, robbing the enemy time to build fortifications and plan units to defend specific locations or to send in additional units. The primary problem with early operations in Burma is a lack of sea communications, or good road or rail connections with the territory from Thailand. One solution is to plan on using airborne units in these operations. To facilitate this, base forces should be moved into Central and Northern Thailand, together with air transport units and one or two airborne infantry formations. Another is to begin marching units from Thailand overland via secondary roads and trails as soon as possible. There are three routes into Burma proper. Since each has limited logistic capacity, it is best to use all at the same time, spreading out the logistic burden.

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In addition, once a few transports are available in the Indian Ocean, it is possible to march units across the Kra Isthmus to Victoria Point, moving them from there North to Moulmein, a good port on the Burma Railroad. One also can combine airmobile movement with overland movement: once an airfield is taken by light airborne units, fly in most of a heavier unit. What is to heavy to airlift then can move by RR to a location suitable to march overland from, and can then "walk in" to join the rest of the unit. Generally, the best early airhead should be at Moulmein, which also can be reached overland from Phitsanulok, Thailand.

Basically Burma can be used passively by the Axis to cut off Allied supplies to China. The Burma Road automatically delivers 500 supplies per day to a city West of Kunming until Rangoon falls, and some additional supply might go down the secondary road from Burma to China in some circumstances. Over time the Ledo road appears, and if Northern Burma is in Allied hands, it can be used to send units to China as well. The other utility of Burma, aside from small exports of oil (and rubber plantations modeled as small oil centers), is to defend against Allied operations from India into Southeast Asia. There is a natural barrier of jungle between the Irrawaddy basin and Bengal, initially without a single road or rail crossing. Even the trails disappear during the Monsoon season. Eventually, one secondary road, the Ledo Road, appears in the Northern part of this sector - but it is not a very good LOC and is easily defended - every hex being jungle, and every location along it being capable of fortification. The alternative Axis use for Burma is as a base of operations for an invasion of India and/or China.

Note that by midwar the lack of communications with Thailand is mitigated by construction of the Burma Siam Railroad. To facilitate the project, the existing trail (a traditional if difficult trade route across the Three Pagoda's Pass) is upgraded to a secondary road. In strictly historical scenarios (101 to 104, 106 and 92) this is done at the expense of ripping up the rails of the Eastern Malaya Railroad, which were used for the project - so that RR "disappears." In Japan Enhanced Scenarios (105 and 99), new rails are used instead, and eventually the road is upgraded to primary road. These improvements to the LOC significantly improve the ability to export resources and oil and resources from Burma, and to move units and supplies into Burma. If the war extends past the Fall of 1945, and if the Allies have recaptured Northern Burma, they have the option of completing the Burma-Kunming Railroad, a project begun before the Pacific War abandoned in 1942. That facilitates Allied communications into China from Northern Burma, connecting with the existing Burma Railroad.

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: NEI

In many respects, the object of the invasion of the SRA is to capture the oil centers and major resource hexes (in particular on Banka Island, the world's largest source of tin) for export back to Japan. As well, the largest oil refinery in the Far East is at Palembang, creating fuel from nearby oilfiends locally, which is more efficient than exporting the oil. [In RHS, it takes 15 oil to make 12 fuel and 2 supply points; there is a 1/15th loss due to oil burned to power the refinery process itself.] Because the oil produced at Balikpapan and Tarakan can be used directly in ships boilers, medium sized refineries at those locations turn some of the oil into fuel on the spot, mainly for use by ships docking there. Most of the oil needs to be exported to refineries in Japan, or at Singapore, Saigon, Manila or Canton. The other reason to occupy the NEI is to deny the enemy long range bomber bases which threaten all the vital resource and industrial hexes, and Axis bases in the South China Sea area. Finally, NEI can be used as a base area from which to invade Northern Australia. Since communications overland on Australia is limited at start to one secondary road, locations along its Northern coast are essentially no different from islands. Everything sent to or from them needs to go by sea. So resources in them can be exported to Japan. More important, the enemy cannot use them as air bases from which to attack Java and the NEI.

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The NEI is a very large territory and should be invaded from several directions. Early operations include a minor invasion force out of Palau which is directed at Hollendia, the best potential airfield/port complex in Dutch New Guinea. Other operations are directed at Northern Borneo. But players should organize still more invasions as resources permit, culminating with the invasion of Java. In RHS, NEI is similar to the Philippines - even restricted units can "walk" from the Northeastern tip of Sumatra all the way to Bima on Eastern Sumbawa. [Crossings between islands are treated like navigable rivers, with trails representing local ferries and coastal craft which can be pressed into service by a military unit] The central island of Java is the primary strategic prize. It has no less than five non-malarial hexes (Batavia, Soerabaja and three mountain hexes: Malang, Buitenzorg and Bandoeng). It has significant industries and considerable local production of resources, and even some oil. Soerabaja has a fine shipyard. The best rail network on any island South of Japan is found on Java. There are a number of good airfields, some of them inland and not subject to bombardment by battleships, and some of them Malaria free. If in Japanese hands, significant local "Anti-Dutch Army" units appear later in the war - the largest of the Japanese organized allied military units - units which never leave the field until they win independence for the territory. There are even Anti-Dutch air units which form on Java. Unlike the Thai, these units never go away or surrender to the hated colonialists. For all these reasons, Java should be the primary focus of Japanese defenses in the NEI. Java can be invaded from the Sea. Almost all invasion sites are along the Northern coast - the Southern side has few beaches and only one developed port - Tjilitjap - a location just developed before the Pacific War begins to facilitate Allied supply and reinforcement, and later evacuation. Java also can be invaded at both ends, crossing the narrows from Sumatra and Bali. There are actually two routes in from Bali, converging at Banjoewangi. This location is also classified as important in victory point terms because it is where the cable station is for the link with Australia. Whatever routes are chosen, the key to success is to capture, repair and supply nearby air bases on Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Bali. From these a comprehensive recon of Java should be made, with a view to locating enemy air units (to wipe them out) and land units (to insure landings are not defeated at the invasion sites). The details of a Java invasion plan should reflect the actual conditions found at the time units are in position to attempt the operation.

Most of the "outer islands" are entirely malarial (Palembang is an exception on Sumatra) and communications are generally limited to secondary roads and trails (although Sumatra has two minor railroads and good primary roads in the Southern sector). The importance of each location is a function of its resources or base infrastructures, and its geographic position relative to other places of interest. The larger islands also become home to generally communist or native insurgencies which fight the Japanese later in the war - but only if the locations these units appear at are in Allied hands when the units form. One countermeasure is to capture every location in these islands - forcing enemy guerilla units either not to appear or to appear on Ceylon. One exception is at Makassar on Celebes: the only pre war guerilla unit outside of China, a formation of local Dutch planters, starts already formed there. This unit may be able to sustain itself from many interior locations unless all are captured. The historical tactic of IJN, using tiny fractions of naval airborne SNLFs to capture undefended locations, is very suitable for game use. In spite of objections in the forums this is "gamey play" it is entirely historical practice. In addition to making it difficult for guerillas to appear or be supplied, capturing locations generates resources, supplies and victory points for the Axis.

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Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: India

In game terms, as in real life, an invasion of India is possible. As with almost every other area Japan might occupy, early operations offer the greatest prospects for success. Eventually the Allies will gain massive forces in India as well as be able to build strong fortifications and plan units for the defense of specific areas. But initially, India is surprisingly undefended, its best units having been sent to North Africa and other places. Except for considerable coast defenses, India is generally weak in ground units, and almost stripped of aircraft. Trainers and obsolete biplane cooperation aircraft equip many of the early units which appear there. Over time, this changes dramatically, and substantial UK, CW, US and even Chinese forces appear on the subcontinent. Axis strategy should either contemplate using Burma and the Bay of Bengal as a natural barrier to Allied operations from India, or it should consider early invasion of Bengal. A variation, which requires commitment of naval power to the Indian Ocean, is to invade Southern India and/or Ceylon AFTER sucking most Allied land and air units to Northeast India to face a threat from Burma. India also has one of the true Axis allied armies - the famous Indian National Army. There were actually two of these: the early Hindustan Field Force Regiment (which gets confusingly renamed as the INA Second Regiment) as well as the later First through Fifth "Guerilla Regiments" all of which are real regiments - plus the unique all female battalion Rani of Jhansi Battalion. The potential of these units was squandered by the logistical nightmare of how they were employed historically, but in some circumstances they might be very useful. There is also eventually a tiny INA air force.

The problem in India is mainly to decide how much to occupy and where to establish a defensive front? India is so large, and has so many population centers that would require a garrison, total occupation is probably impractical. RHS has considerably developed the area along the Northern map edge, representing NW India, so that there are numbers of supply sources on which the Allies can fall back, and fully developed base infrastructures. It is unlikely that they can be pushed entirely off the map. In particular, the Allies will fight for Karachi, an important location where many units appear, with substantial local industry and base infrastructure, and good road and rail connections to NW India (Sind: today's Pakistan). As well, the Allies will fall back on Peshiwar, which due to terrain and being a supply source, will be hard to take. Two other map edge supply sources exist between Peshiwar and Karachi. Even if the enemy is defeated in NE India and in Southern India, a defense of the areas around Bombay and Dehli should be expected, falling back on Karachi as required. The forces required to conduct offensive operations in this area in later 1942 or 1943 are probably excessive. But it might be worth doing in an attempt to achieve an automatic victory - because many valuable victory point locations are in India.

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Australia

Some Australian territory should be invaded. Certainly the Bismarck Archepellego, the Solomans, Papua and NE New Guinea should be seized as early as possible. These areas offer bases for operations further South vs the New Hebrides, New Caledonia and Fiji. As well, the Australian guano islands - Nauru and Ocean Island - both "defended" by tiny coast defense units - should be captured - and their resources exported to Japan. Similarly, resources can be exported from New Guinea. Since supply ships must go there anyway, returning loaded is better than returning empty. In addition, capture of Port Moresby facilitates an invasion of Horne Island, closing the Torres Strait to Allied use - a considerable logistical problem for them.


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Northern Australia proper probably should also be occupied. Not so much for its exploitation - although there are considerable resources to export and ships should return loaded - as to deny development of these locations into heavy bomber bases which would be used to attack Japanese locations in the NEI. Locations in Northern Australia are substantially similar to islands, only practical to approach by sea.

Southern Australia is a different proposition altogether. The distances from Japan are excessive, so the SLOC is very long. These locations are much more developed than in the North and NW, and connected by considerable road and railroad infrastructure. Nevertheless, a push is possible because there are simply so many locations it is generally feasible to flank any significant enemy defensive position. In circumstances where land and air units are available (say if India and North America are not invaded in particular), offensive operations in Southern Australia may be feasible later in 1942 - if early operations have taken the NW approaches and captured the Northern bases.

Note that in Japan Enhanced Scenarios (105 and 99), the contemplated and surveyed railroads from Darwin to South and also to SE Australia are constructed midwar. This facilitates rapid movement of Allied units to and from Darwin and provides a natural LOC for a counter offensive if Northern Australia has fallen. Also note that the Murray River in Southern Australia is a unique waterway. Generally landlocked where it seems to enter the sea, it IS navigable to the sea, but only in Monsoon season. [This has changed for technical reasons today, and it no longer is ever navigable from the sea] It would offer a very unique invasion route into the interior of SE Australia in the Monsoon season. Similarly, there is a year around river invasion route to Timber Creek - SW of Darwin - potentially permitting isolation of Darwin and attack from the South.

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Alaska

Alaska was historically invaded in a denial strategy: Aleutian Island bases are the offer potential for bomber raids on Hokkaido, Sakhalin Island and the Kurils. When the war ended, the nearest major US communications station to Japan was at Adak, so surrender instructions were broadcast from there. In game terms, and in the fears of Alaskans and Canadians in particular, Alaska also offers a potential invasion route to North America. For this reason the ALCAN highway, and other projects, were major priorities early in WWII. RHS features development of the CANOL road and pipeline in strictly historical scenarios (101-104, 106 and 92). Japan enhanced scenarios 105 and 99 do not construct this excessively expensive project in extremely remote and difficult mountain terrain, only to complete just in time for the war to end. Instead, a planned development connecting Canadian and Alaskan railroads, and upgrading the ALCAN to primary road, is built instead. By the late game period (RHS lasts until the end of Monsoon 1946), there is a railroad all the way to Fairbanks and a primary road all the way to Nome. The intent of the ALCAN, and later upgrading to primary road and the linking of four pre-existing railroads, was to permit overland supply of units defending Alaska and Western Canada. As well, the US Army built a radar station at Point Barrow - the Northernmost town in North America - to detect any invasion of Canada using the Arctic Ocean and MacKenzie River system. This is only possible in the Fall season when the Arctic Ocean is navigable in RHS.

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Alaska is a surprisingly naval campaign area, although more so in Monsoon and Fall than in Winter and Spring when the Yukon River is closed to navigation and much of the Western coast is blocked by sea ice. There are no good road or rail connections at all when the game starts, although development of the Northwest Staging Route (a series of airfields across Canada and Alaska) began before the war. Supporting these, most of the airlines of the US are mobilized in early 1942, and all these aircraft appear as para-military (military controlled) air groups in RHS. While players may use them anywhere, they are very likely to use them as was historically done - to support movement of units and supplies to Alaska and Western Canada - particularly if there is a threat from that direction. Even construction of the ALCAN only marginally changes the LOC situation, and the entire area is remarkably dependent on air transport to the present day. Construction of the railroads in Enhanced scenarios does not complete until late in the war - so early operations are not affected by that. An Axis strategy to go for an automatic victory by capturing locations to gain victory points might be feasible for the beginning of 1943 or 1944. Lack of roads and rail lines means Alaska and Western Canada depend almost entirely on seaborne logistics. If Japan invests the air power required to dominate the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea, the Allies will find their shipping unable to supply their bases. Only limited air supply will be feasible. Alaska does produce some resources: as always, supply ships returning from the area should do so loaded rather than empty.

Policy Considerations for Axis Players in AE-RHS: Russia

Russia is probably undefeatable in AE, and more so in AE-RHS. RHS has considerably developed Russian orders of battle, adding many land, naval and air units. As well, many locations have been added, and the major infrastructure known as the BAM (Baikal Amur Mainline) is considerably developed by RHS pwhexe files over time. The game starts with the first segment of this rail line completed - from Taishet to Ust Kut - and it is shown in Andrew Brown's map art. In strictly historical scenarios 101-104, 106 and 92, the wartime completion of the Easternmost segment is also shown: from Komsomolsk na Amur to Sovietskaya Gavan on the Pacific/Sea of Japan coast. In Japan enhanced scenarios 105 and 99, this segment is not built. On the assumption Japan might invade, the interior line parallel to the Trans Siberian is extended from Ust Kut past the Eastern end of Lake Baikal at Nizhne Angarsk, onward across the mountains to Tynda, where a connection back to the Trans-Siberian is then build. In 1946, the railroad pushes on into the forest but is impossible to complete even in 1946 even with massive pressed POW labor. This RR and additional locations added all over the area, plus historical Russian control over Sinkiang and other parts of Northern and Western China, give the Russians considerable defense in depth.

General Togo, Foreign Minister of Japan when the Pacific War begins, once said "Every night I go to sleep worried about what to do about Russia. Every morning I wake up without an answer." Russia has a large army and several air forces as well as a modest naval force. On the vital Amur River system, however, it isn't nominal at all - it dominates and means the river system can be used to invade Manchukuo - as historically happened in 1945. Axis strategy should generally be to delay Russian entry into the war: this requires stationing of enough ground and air forces to deter an attack in Russian active scenarios (101, 104, 105 and 99). It is generally better to try for an automatic victory before 1945 (at the start of 1943 or 1944) than to fight the Russians at all. The historical plan of Kwangtung Army required massing 14 divisions for an attack and contemplated going no farther than Chita. This is a force difficult to assemble and probably inadequate to the mission.

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Nevertheless, conflict with Russia may be unavoidable or even an actual Axis plan. In Russian Active scenarios (101, 104, 105 and 99) the Allies have the option to attack Japan. If/when they do, Japan is in a fight, like it or not. Otherwise, if the decision is made not to commit as many troops to invasions of the SRA, or India, or Australia, or North America, the Axis might contemplate an attack on the USSR. In that case, it is recommended that as many divisions as possible be assembled for the mission. As in other theaters, early operations will work better than later ones. In the case of Russia, early probably means in the summer or fall of 1942. At that time, more Japanese armor formations are available. As well, early operations in the SRA and China may be completed, possibly facilitating transfer of more units to Kwangtung Army and to Northern China.

The Russian problem is that it has a single critical RR LOC. This has a parallel primary road from Khabarovsk na Amur to just north of Irkutsk - otherwise only secondary roads for troops not entrained. The logistic capacity even of a primary railroad combined with a primary road is limited, although generally adequate to supporting a single strong force at the end of the line if there is a battle front. Worse, for the Russians, this long RR LOC skirts the Manchukuo border for much of its length, and is vulnerable to being cut even my minor units entering LOC hexes. Axis planning should contemplate cutting this vulnerable LOC at several points, and prepositioning units to do that. At the same time, Axis planning should contemplate construction of fortifications at the few points the Russians have railroad connections into Manchukuo or Korea. There are a total of four of these in RHS: press the Y key to see them. All of them have segments of minor RR to simulate the inefficiency of gage changes at or near the border. But only these routes offer potential serious routes of invasion for the Russians during the half of the year (Winter and Spring) that the Amur river is closed to navigation. The Russians also might drive West from Biken to connect to the Japanese road/rail network during the Monsoon or Fall seasons, since they might be able to support it logistically with an invasion down the river system on the right flank of the advance. This was done in August of 1945.

The land frontier between Vladivostok and Turij-Rog offers a real front with major fortifications on both sides, even in peacetime. A war broke out at the extreme Southern end of this line in 1938 in a dispute over where the border should be (the Japanese position remains the border to this day). While this area does have two RR LOC as well as several secondary road crossings, the combination of fortifications, defensive terrain and major units in place on both sides means it is unlikely to be broken by an attack by either side. If such an attack were contemplated by the Japanese, bring up the Artillery Command HQ and all three of its subordinate Artillery Groups, and reinforce the attack with armor. Attempt to destroy enemy air bases in the immediate area (Russian fighters have short ranges) and support the attack with several bomber units. The keystone position is Voroshilov, the nexus of both roads and rail lines, offering the potential to isolate Vladivostok from the rest of the USSR. As well, Voroshilov is an important air base. Throw everything available into the drive to take that position. In general, this area will be difficult, expensive and time consuming to reduce and capture even if it is possible. Enemy naval and air units will tend to use it as a base area for attacks on Japan, Sakhalin and ships at sea as well as Manchukuo and Korea. It will generally be easier to capture other areas first, and to isolate this area from reinforcement and supply. It may be better to invade it by driving SW from Khabarovsk - than to try to cross the fortified frontier.







(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 307
RE: RHS Design Theory: Policy/Strategy for Allied Cha... - 7/11/2013 2:56:38 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
Definition of Chair 1

In a tag team, Allied Chair 1 is essentially the US Pacific Fleet plus the US West Coast Command. Pacific Fleet includes what will eventually become the North Pacific Command (it starts as Naval Forces Alaska) as well as what will eventually become the South Pacific Command (it starts as Naval Forces Samoa) - both of which start the game as small HQ but grow extensively. It also includes the New Zealand Command. That is, the entire Sea Line of Communications from the West Coast across the South Pacific as well as across the North Pacific all the way to Palau is part of Chair 1 responsibility. Excluded are Alaska Command (places on the Continent itself, but none of the islands offshore), Canada Command, USAFFE, Asiatic Fleet and what will eventually become SW Pacific Area (which starts as US Naval Forces Australia, another one of those tiny starting HQ which grows to full size). Chair 1 may elect to retain command of a battleship and/or carrier force even if it technically leaves the area for a while, if it intends to return to the Pacific area of operations. This is an exception to the general rule that units in a geographic command area belong to the chair in charge of that area.

Primary Port of Embarcation and Export: Los Angelus

For a number of reasons, Los Angelus is the only US West Coast port to consistently have huge excesses of supplies, even if all industry (except aircraft types not yet in production) are set to production, and if construction of all infrastructures is set to expand. The combination of local industry, local resources and oil, and the lines of communication from other sources of oil, resources, fuel and supplies all contribute to this situation.

Los Angelus also is a major port with shipyards able to load and unload ships in numbers, and to repair any ships arriving with damage. Of all the West Coast ports, only Los Angelus rarely runs low on supplies when convoys load there.

Location of US West Coast HQ: West Coast Command, III Corps, Fourth Air Force; Pacific Fleet

The theater command starts at San Francisco; The major Army land HQ of the West Coast is III Corps at Fort Ord, California. USAAF Fourth Air Force starts at March Field in Southern California. USN Pacific Fleet HQ was at San Diego until it moved to Hawaii just before the war begins.

In peacetime military terms, this may make strategic sense: the West Coast borders the Pacific Ocean, which is thousands of miles across, and only two countries border the USA: Canada and Mexico. Since Mexico has by far the larger population, and is not a close historical ally, locating the land defense HQ nearer to it may be the best policy.

In game terms, if there is going to be a major Japanese threat to the US West Coast, will probably require supporting bases in Alaska and Canada. Also, an overland invasion from Canada does not require the risk of an amphibious operation.

If there were to be an amphibious invasion, probably the best location for it would be at Aberdeen and Hoquiam, Washington. This location has a ports and an airfield, and lacks fixed coast defenses. It has road and rail connections to Tacoma and Seattle Washington as well as to the Portland area. It is also within long range fighter and bomber range of bases in Western Canada and the islands offshore from it.
Basing III Corps at Fort Lewis (Tacoma) Washington, and Fourth Air Force at McCord Field (also Tacoma, Washington), permits the HQ to be within command range of both overland invasion routes from Canada as well as contesting any landings from Astoria Oregon North along the coast to Southern Canada. Tacoma is only technically a coastal hex, and enemy bombardment by ship is unlikely because of the Puget Sound Coastal Defenses in the Oak Harbor Hex as well as Canadian CD units. Theater command, with a command radius of 9, might be better farther South, at Portland, which is a port, road and rail center protected from seaborne invasion and bombardment by Fort Stevens at Astoria. This would permit efficient coordination of defenses from Canada to Northern California.

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Disposition of the United States Fleet

In RHS, there is no “house rule” which requires the US battlefleet to remain in Pearl Harbor, sitting ducks, until the Japanese attack (if they do – they are not required to attack either). But the fleet MAY elect to stay in port, covered by what little fighter planes manage to get into the air under the special conditions which apply on turn 1. It ALSO may elect to split: this is in fact historical – Adm Kimmel, supported by Adm Richardson’s mentoring, contemplated rotating half the fleet to sea, while the rest would stay in port.

In Tests Six and Seven, US battleships actually engaged in the doctrine of emergency sea sortee – and in both caught enemy carriers which had come too close to Oahu. [A wise enemy will stand off at a distance greater than the battleships can reach, which is only about 4 hexes on turn one.] In order to maximize the chance of such an intercept, carriers, cruisers and destroyers sailed in several task groups in several directions.

In Test Eight, half the US fleet remained in port. Every battleship, and almost every other ship in port, was sunk by the air attack. The other half of the US warship fleet went to the traditional Fleet anchorage of Lahaina, while many auxiliary ships sailed for the South Pacific or for the US West Coast. All these battleships survived, and so did most of the rest, in spite of being detected and attacked by the enemy carrier force as well. Precisely what would happen depends on the exact details of the enemy choices about where to send the KB, and what ranges and missions to assign to its air squadrons, and also on the “die rolls” for detection and attack resolution. Great variations in outcomes are possible – the outcome does not have to be similar to what happened in Test Eight.

The initial choices made about assignments for ships and air units on and near Oahu will interact with enemy choices and luck to determine the losses on to the US fleet (and supporting aircraft) on the critical first turn. RHS permits players a wide range of options, restricted only by the RHS “Primary House Rule”

If you don’t think a historical commander would do it, don’t do it.

For this reason, for example, the US battlefleet cannot, on turn one, be assigned to change its basing area. Admiral Richardson, its former commander, was fired for trying to send it back to San Diego. So Admiral Kimmel won’t do that – or anything similar. He might order the ships to do anything in the area of Hawaii proper, for any logical reason. Transports and auxiliaries and submarines also might be given any orders, even to leave Hawaii altogether, on any logical mission. Similarly, if for some reason it was attractive, a group of cruisers and destroyers might be ordered to meet with (and perhaps merge with) one (or both) of the carrier task forces. No such moves are forbidden by house rules. The only deterrent is practical – is such a move likely to get the ships sunk? [There is no definitive answer to such a question either: it is up to the player to decide what risk to run in every case]

Related to the assignments to ships in and near Hawaii is the decision what to do with air groups in the same area. Some long range aircraft might be ordered to other Pacific Islands, for example, to conduct searches, to defend those islands, or as step one in a plan to transfer them across the entire ocean. Fighter planes might be transferred to nearby islands and/or set to fly overlapping CAP over Oahu and perhaps other bases. The details of these assignments will have an impact on what aircraft are lost in the enemy operations at game start as well as possibly impact on what enemy ships are detected and/or attacked, and on what damage enemy aircraft inflict on friendly ships. These assignments should be carefully considered, and it is NOT required that all aircraft simply sit on their starting base, with no mission assigned.


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Disposition of the US Carriers

The US carriers start the game separated as well as equipped with aircraft generally inferior to Japanese carrier aircraft. Two are in the Central Pacific area, each involved with delivering air units to island bases (one such delivery has happened, the other still has not happened). The third carrier, with inadequate escorts, is in port at San Diego. It is important that all, or at least as many as possible, of these carriers survive, and eventually end up in a combined force – together with reinforcements arriving from the Atlantic Fleet. With technical exceptions, it is probably unwise to permit these carriers to engage in attacks, betraying their location, and risking their catastrophic damage or loss, before they can have better air groups and be combined into a KB like force of multiple carriers. This consideration is somewhat contradicted by the US Primary House Rule on turn one: US naval officers do not yet appreciate the range of Japanese aircraft, the power of Long Lance torpedoes, or other aspects of the IJN opposition. Admiral Halsey, in particular, intended to attack the KB if he detected it – a surely suicidal concept (without understanding that was the case). The two carriers in the Central Pacific had a secondary mission of “probing” to find any enemy force which might be present. Aside from that, they are tied to the Fleet at Pearl Harbor (at least while it still exists) – they are “the eyes of the fleet” – and not free to leave the area on some other mission before the war even has begun. Precisely what assignments to give the carriers is up to the Chair 1 player. However, they cannot be set to run for some distant point, on turn one – the battle fleet still exists and they are assigned to support and cover it. The carrier closest to Wake might attempt to deliver its (non-carrier) squadron to Wake. Or both carriers in the Central Pacific might attempt to join together into a common force for mutual protection. Or both might attempt to “probe” to find the Kiddo Butai. Alternatively, both might try to retire separately from the waters near to Oahu – perhaps combining with other US warships near Johnston Island and or from Oahu itself. The carrier at San Diego may elect to stay there, waiting for better escort, or it can sail at once to try to join the other carriers in the Central Pacific area. Because the US will not get a large number of carriers until 1943, decisions about initial carrier assignments should be carefully weighted.

The Sea Line of Communications to Australia

The SLOC between the US West Coast and Australia is critical to the efficient transfer of supplies, fuel and units to the Chair 2 command area (which includes the SW Pacific Area and Australia). The enemy may attempt to cut this line of communications entirely in early 1942. Even more likely are enemy efforts to raid this area with submarines, surface raiders and even carrier forces. The bases along it are not well developed and poorly defended at the start of the game. Initial planning should include deciding which of the islands along this route will be primary and secondary bases, and what units can be sent, and by what shipping, to begin their development? Considerations should include what is the range that is possible for air transfer between bases: any aircraft with less range will have to transfer by ship. Another consideration is which islands can and should be used as bases for long range naval searches to provide early warning and identification of enemy naval forces in the area? Initially the Allies have very limited numbers of flying boats and bombers suitable for such searches, so only a few of these bases can be used. Also, initially the Allies may have difficulty supplying bases used for continuous air operations, particularly if those bases are contested by submarines, given a lack of ASW escorts at start. Then there is the problem of base defense should the enemy attempt to capture them. Only a limited number of units are available for ground defense, and many of these are not sufficient to stop even a single brigade of Imperial troops. The choice of which bases to develop and defend should include consideration of their relative distance from probable enemy bases of operations (i.e. Kwajalein, Truk and Saipan), and for that reason, the relative risk each island has of being the object of an invasion.

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It is essential to organize a convoy system as soon as possible. Convoys, even when poorly escorted, have repeatedly demonstrated they lose fewer ships to enemy action than individual sailings do. These convoys need support by long range, land based aircraft conducting naval search. That permits the convoys to evade detected enemy submarines and surface ships as well as to vector forces to engage them when this is possible. The key questions are where should the convoys form up and where should they go? Except when a convoy can form on the US West Coast - say at LA - convoys should form at Oahu or at the "Eastern Anchor of the SLOC." This might be at Christmas Island - a place large enough to permit significant base development and strong land defenses which might be able to defeat a Japanese brigade sized force. An alternative needing even more development is Nuku Hiva. Other options include Tahiti and Mangariva - trading longer sailing times for less likely chances the enemy will guess where the shipping is coming from? The "Western Anchor of the SLOC" should probably be Fiji - an island with significant development and large enough for major defenses from which ships can sail to New Zealand, New Caledonia or Australia - only the first being a Chair 1 destination and responsibility. Other bases should be developed in between these "anchors" to permit rapid aircraft transfer and continuous searches of the waters near the convoy route. Since the number of units able to be sent is critically dependent on political points, one strategy is to send units with South Pacific or Chair 2 command assignments to the Eastern Anchor, and then have them hop, island to island, as replacements arrive. This way these units can provide security or aviation support or naval support for the bases and at the same time gain in experience, until such time as the units you want to operate the bases actually arrive at them.
The SLOC is long, and it is inefficient to have shipping transit it empty. When feasible, ships returning to the USA should carry resources. Even if ships have to divert - say to Noumea or some other location with resources in order not to return empty - it is far better to do that than to spend half the time at sea with no cargo. Allied Chair 2 (USAFFE, NEI, Australia, SW Pacific Area as well as Russia) needs to understand there is a critical relationship between ships arriving with cargo and ships returning to they can replace the ships which are arriving.

North Pacific Command Area

This is an area with a deliberately divided command because that was historically the case during all of WWII and at times since. The commanders of Alaska Command (General Buckner) and the North Pacific Fleet (Adm Theobold) did not get along or coordinate very well. The Chair 1 Allied player may, at his discretion, elect to give control of North Pacific Command to the Chair 3 player who, aside from commanding the Western side of the game map, also controls Canada. The defense of Canada and Alaska is unusual, as the area has significant and related lines of communication. The sea and river LOC vary seasonally. In the Monsoon and Fall, ocean ships can sail to Whitehorse, Yukon Territory via the Yukon River, while in Fall (only) they can sail as far as Great Slave Lake via the Arctic Ocean. In Winter and Spring such routes are blocked, as is most of the coast of Alaska. During that season what naval units there were in Alaskan waters were usually at Kodiak or Dutch Harbor, or at Sitka. In the Spring of 1942, a "thousand mile war" campaign developed along the Aleutian chain. That campaign ended with strategic bombing of Japan from the Aleutians, and the closest US bases in distance from Japan - so the surrender instructions were broadcast from them. In RHS there is a wide range of possibilities for this area, ranging from being wholly ignored by both sides to being a major focus of offensive operations vs the enemy homeland by either side. If a significant invasion threat is to occur to the US West Coast Command, it probably requires Japanese domination of the North Pacific area first.

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 308
RE: RHS Design Theory: Policy/Strategy for Allied Cha... - 7/19/2013 3:51:07 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
Definition of Chair 2

In a tag team, Allied Chair 2 has the “Center” of the map representing several different national commands: The Soviet Far East Command (which is neutral unless war breaks out with Japan); USAFFE, The Asiatic Fleet, The NEI Command, and Australia Command. Chairs 1 and 3 (representing the USA and British Commonwealth) each have a substantially uniform national point of view. On the other hand, Chair 2 represents several very different, if allied, points of view. The Chair 2 player, both internal to its defined commands, and also because of the need to get assets of all kinds from the other chairs, is very much a coalition player. Chair 2 strategy and policy is complicated by the different political considerations of each territorial point of view. The RHS Primary House Rule says that “if you don’t think a real world leader or commander would do something, don’t do it.” For example, there is a political and even legal imperative that a territory be defended in order to preserve a claim of sovereignty. The player needs to consider what the local leaders would do in each instance, not just what makes sense from an overall Allied strategy point of view.

Soviet Policy

RHS Scenarios come in two flavors: those with Russians Active and those with Russians Passive. In BOTH cases, when the game starts, there is NO war between Japan and Russia. Instead, there is a non-aggression pact which expires in the summer of 1945. Scenarios with passive Russians are just like standard AE games and most mods: the Allied player is unable to control the Russians unless the Japanese attack, or the date the historical Russian attack arrives in game time. Scenarios with Russians active are very different propositions. This was done as a boon to the Allies and it should not be abused. With active Russians, the Allies can decide where to move units, where to build fortifications, where to build stockpiles, and even engage in a limited amount of naval operations. In addition, the Axis no longer has a monopoly on deciding if the peace will end? But that is not a decision the player is free to make merely to inconvenience the enemy. Stalin was very opposed to fighting a two front war. In the event, Russia honored the non-aggression pact until it expired, and gave due notice it would not be renewed – AFTER Germany had surrendered. The design intent in RHS is to give the Japanese a need to maintain a realistic deterrent force in Manchukuo, Korea and Northern China. In Russian passive scenarios, Axis players may strip the air forces in the North with impunity – there is no “garrison requirement” for air units at all. In Russian active scenarios, the Japanese need to maintain a sufficient force to be competitive in the event hostilities begin. The Japanese also don’t want to add another front to the war. The largest and most powerful of Japanese military forces faces the Russians, but is inadequate to forcing a passage through the defensive terrain and fortifications without major reinforcements which, committed to fighting the Allies in the SRA and the Chinese, the Japanese cannot easily allocate. So, unusually, for much of the war It is actually in the interests of both nations not to fight.

That is more complicated than it sounds. Game code does NOT understand “active but neutral Russians.” In order to insure that the code does not automatically force combat operations, Russian units need to be carefully set. To some extent, this requires cooperation (or at least toleration) by both sides. For example, the Allied player might propose that Soviet coastal hexes will be constantly defended by submarines, surface task forces or PT boats limited to one hex reaction, and air units range limited not to strike more than one hex from the Soviet coast. All the Japanese need to do to avoid being attacked is not to enter a coastal hex. Air searches and recon pose a different kind of problem. Over land, in limited numbers, they can be confidence building measures. On the other hands, AAA and fighters will try to shoot down intruders. Either do not overfly Axis territory, or tolerate it when they shoot at you! And similarly set up CAP over your bases – but range limit the fighters NOT to intercept over Axis territory. At sea, it is more complicated: air searches and ASW patrols WILL attack enemy ships and submarines. Because the Japanese are at war, they MUST patrol the open sea. So the Russians should not patrol over the sea, risking attacking Japanese vessels. Japan is an island nation and MUST import to survive. But what about distant Soviet territories and islands that need to be supplied? There also may be vessels you wish to move to a different base at the start of the game – a relatively safe time for Japan NOT to patrol since Allied ships and submarines have not had time to reach the area. Agreements can be made with the Japanese to facilitate such maritime operations.

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One policy worth considering is sending long range AKs to North America – where later in the war many others will be built and handed over to the Russians. These ships can carry cargos in relatively safe areas, creating good will with the Chair 1 allies, as well as delivering needed to supplies to Russian ports isolated for half – or in some cases five sixths – of the year. Another might be to establish a “secret base” for submarines. The Russian Navy has one AS, and some seagoing submarines. These would be less vulnerable to destruction in port by a surprise attack at the start of a war (a traditional Japanese practice, including in the Russo-Japanese War), if the submarines were not at one of the few ports they normally would be based at.

The Soviet Far East is a complicated region. In RHS (and to a small degree in stock) it actually extends BEYOND the USSR. In addition to the nominally independent Tannu Tuwa state, and other land near it, in RHS the Soviets also control Sinkiang and the province between it and Mongolia. The locations are defined as Chinese, but also Soviet Far East Command. There is only one unit (a historical NKVD regiment at a vital economic location), but there are several Russian allies Chinese units of Sinkiang Province. Siberia has one primary line of communications – the Trans Siberian Railroad. But there are other lines of communication. The addition of Sinkiang, and development of a parallel railroad system (the BAM or Baikal Amur Mainline) and the addition of many new locations provide considerably increased strategic depth should the Russians face a successful Japanese invasion. It will be nearly impossible to drive the Russians off the map, and there are several map edge supply sources to fall back on.

Another complication in the region is its important, but very seasonal, inland waterways. The Amur river system was an important invasion route of Manchukuo in 1945. The Russian Navy may be a minor force in the Pacific Ocean, but it dominates this river system, with its heavy armored river gunboats. Another important system is the Amur River. There are two lesser river systems as well. These are all closed at game start by Winter and also in Spring, a period known as “break up” in Russia, Alaska and Canada (when the ice breaks up and neither ice trails nor water navigation is possible). In fact, in the Winter season, Russia has the most developed ice roads in the world, crossing Lake Baikal and even connecting Sakhalin Island with the continent. As well, much of the Russian Pacific coast is icebound in Winter and Spring, while the Arctic Ocean coast is only navigable in the Fall. But settlements in these areas mainly export – and import vital supplies and fuel they will need for the long periods of isolation – when sea communications is possible. As well, during the Monsoon (along the Pacific coast and the rivers fed by it) and during the Fall (both along the Pacific and Arctic coasts and the long Lena River), Russia is theoretically vulnerable to an Axis invasion deep into areas they normally could not reach by land. Yet another problem is the long frontier – the longest in the world. A creative enemy might cross at an unexpected point, and cut the LOC – which is too long to be defended at every point. The Chair 2 player should consider these risks when deploying Soviet forces.

Soviet air and ground forces are robust and capable. There are important natural barriers – mainly mountains in depth – and a strong fortified line North from Vladivostok – which make defense in important sectors feasible. Over time the quality of Soviet air and ground forces increases dramatically, while often the Japanese forces get weaker because of transfers to other fronts when (if) they are needed. Over time, Soviet forces should become relatively more and more capable of defeating the Japanese in their area. While there was a US plan to base bombers in Soviet territory, it is virtually impossible that Stalin would ever have agreed to this in any circumstances. But the chair 2 player gets to decide if, in the game world, those circumstances have been met? Similarly, China took control of Sinkiang back in 1944. This may or may not happen in the game – it is up to Chair 3. Since you cannot actually fight an Allied power, there is no practical way to prevent it.

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Philippines Policy and Strategy

Excluding the KB attacks, at the start of the game the main Japanese offensives tend to focus on the Philippines (as well as Malaya in the Chair 3 area). The Philippines is almost certain to fall, substantially or entirely, within the first few months of the war, often within 90 days. Later, the Allies may elect to return, as happened historically. Alternatively, they may elect to invade Formosa. In an RHS tag team game, Formosa is considered to be a Chair 2 area, as are Guam, the Ruykus, Okinawa and the Japanese Home Islands.

Several unique political, scenario and geographic considerations apply to the Philippines. When the game begins, it has not one but two Allied commands: USAFFE and Asiatic Fleet. USAFFE is essentially a restricted command, and almost all land combat units assigned to it are restricted to Philippine territory. On the other hand, Asiatic Fleet is entirely unrestricted, and free to move. Both are time restricted to the early war period.

In spite of being restricted, Philippine Army, Philippine Constabulary and US Army units assigned to USAFFE may generally move between islands where they are so close that the crossing can be simulated by a navigable river. Many of these have “low capacity ferries” (represented by trails). For this reason, a restricted LCU in the Philippines can move from Northern Luzon to South Mindinao, as well as between some island combinations in other places. [East to West movement is not so completely facilitated – you cannot get from Cebu to Tacloban for example.] The Chari 2 player should be generally aware of these “overland” movement options. To see the connections clearly, turn on reveal hexsides. If the line between two islands is purple vice blue, land units can cross it. [Sometimes a white line permits the same thing.]

Many of the land and naval units assigned to this theater do not start the game. They will ONLY appear IF the place they are supposed to appear at is Allied on the turn of entry: unlike other commands, they will not go to a default location if their normal entry hex is blocked. This is a function of how code is written, but I like it. It creates an incentive NOT to surrender territory – the longer you hold locations, the more units you will get. Some Philippine Constabulary Regiments appear years into the war: permitting the Japanese to occupy all of the Visayas is not in your interest. Unlike in stock, in RHS each location tends to have a somewhat self sufficient local economy. Groups of connected local towns can support units with supplies for a long time, provided demand does not exceed supply. RHS is logistically driven – it is vital to assign forces proportional to the local supply unless you can provide supply imports. Many of the small vessels pressed into service (noted by USAT after their name) appear where and when they were pressed into service. These small vessels are intended to be used to build up supplies at places like Bataan, Cebu and other locations the player elects to defend for long periods. They are not present simply to run away and operate in other territories. If and when a vessel does leave the Philippines, if possible, it is wise to have it carry supplies, fuel or resources – to deny them to the enemy.

The most important island in the Philippines is Luzon. It has considerable local industry, road and railroad infrastructure. Manila is one of the great ports of the Orient. Manila Bay is also blocked by minefields and major coast defenses in the Bataan hex. The Coast Defense units in particular should tend to be well supplied in a siege (because technical advice from a programmer was implemented). For this reason, players may wish to consider a minimal defense force for Bataan. The CD command alone closes Manila Bay, and can stay well supplied longer if it does not have to compete with 80,000-100,000 other Allied troops. [Fort Drum would hot have surrendered except for lack of food – in spite of losing 26 feet of concrete to shelling and bombing, all systems were still operational). There are three malaria free hexes on Luzon – Clark, Manila and Baguio City. The latter is in the mountains of the North, and it is de facto fortified by sheer mountains, sometimes with difficult water barriers which have the effect of fast flowing moats. The final approach of the Naguilian Road to Baguio city is a huge circle of nearly 270 degrees with sheer mountain on the outside and sheet cliff on the inside – all of it contestable by artillery from the Baguio end of the road. In some tests, the Camp John Hay column (from the Philippine Military Academy at Baguio) is the last unit on Luzon to hold out. Baguio produces supplies and resources.

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North of Baguio City is an area rich in minerals. Among other things it has the largest copper mine in Asia (until after the 21st century turns, when a project in New Guinea took that title). [There is a weird gravity powered overhead bucket conveyor system that takes this ore to the coast – where it can be exported from the port of San Fernando. It is modeled by a one hex long minor RR which has no parallel trail – it isn’t a route for walking troops so they must pay the full terrain cost to move its route. It isn’t worth paying entraining and detraining costs to move one hex. Its only job is to move ore automatically under code control.] While Luzon cannot be held from a determined attack by IJA’s 25th Army, it is possible to deny its full exploitation by the enemy for a long time – as happened historically. RHS offers different ways to do that – permitting the player to decide what assets to commit to defend which locations in the context of a specific enemy threat. The numbers of US Army patrol boats are just the first line in this set of delaying concepts. At a minimum they steal ops points from enemy ships and force them to expend ammunition which then cannot be used on airplanes or ships. But remarkably often they cause invasion TFs to return to port – losing a day at least in the enemy timetables. Mountain positions at Baguio City and Balinta Pass are well developed, and will be hard to take if defended. All Philippine and US Army troops have had their data revised so they are not “pre defeated” with dismal morale, no planning, and high rates of fatigue and disruption. As well, submarines can be vectored onto invasion hexes, and many air basing options permit creative players to occasionally hit them with air strikes. In one test, a combined ABDA fleet won a significant surface battle NW of Northern Luzon weeks into the game. Players who wish to engage in an offensive-defensive on and near Luzon have the tools in RHS.

The most important island in the South of the Philippines is Mindinao. This island gets considerable reinforcements at the historically correct time they really were raised IF the player holds the island longer than usually is done in game terms. This island also has a significant air base at the Dole Pineapple Plantation at Cagayan in the North, and a good one at Davao in the South. Inland there is a significant supply generating hex at Cotabato Province (not to be confused with the adjacent Cotabato City, a port on the Western side of the island). There is a primary road running in a semi-circle from Davao to Cotabato City to Cagayan – with a branch across the center of the island. This island is worth fighting for UNLESS the Japanese strike early in force, rendering defense impossible. A good tactic is to transfer the B-17s from Luzon to Cagayan, joining the B-17s already there. These can all be vectored onto enemy shipping by creating an overlapping set of naval search patterns using the many recon aircraft and flying boats in the command. Only a Japanese landing early in the game prevents moving in regiments of the infantry division on the island to defend the base. The Island command HQ unit is already there to support its defense. If Cagayan can be used as a bomber base, Davao can support it with recon aircraft – as can Cebu and other more distant bases.

Between Luzon and Mindinao are the Visayas. The most important of these is Cebu. It is the second best port in the country and its only shipyard besides that at Cavite (in the Manila hex). It is possible to move supplies, fuel, support ships, HQ units, base forces, land combat units, submarines, ships, patrol craft and aircraft to this city – turning it into a significant source of intelligence (via air searches) and raiding while the enemy is heavily engaged reducing Luzon and/or Mindinao. The division which starts there has a detached battalion – one island farther West – which can “walk back” to Cebu using a road/ferry link – rendering the division at full strength. There are numerous small ports in the Visayas with some fuel and supplies which can be used to build up reserves at Cebu. Since the enemy lacks the resources to do everything all at once, having significant defenses in Luzon, Mindinao and Cebu almost guarantees a protracted campaign to capture the Philippines – one that offers ongoing chances to inflict casualties on the invaders.

Admiral Hart knew war was coming in a sense other commanders did not. He was under orders to start it – in December if possible. [See The Cruise of the Lanokai by Rear Admiral Vince Trolly] For this reason, the Asiatic Fleet started the war already dispersed. He also had intelligence from the RN Black Chamber (code breaking room) at Singapore that “hostilities will commence on or after 8 December, 1941, Tokyo Time.” It IS (unusually) realistic to disperse the remaining ships and submarines at Manila and other places even on turn one. Asiatic Fleet assets MAY leave Philippine waters at any time there is a tactical or operational advantage to do so. Generally it should join ABAA forces in NEI.

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Netherlands East Indies [NEI] Policy and Strategy

In many ways, the NEI is the primary strategic objective in Japan’s quest for autarky. First, it has major and minor sources of oil. The refinery complex just North of Palembang is the largest in the Far East. It is fed by the gigantic oilfield one hex South of the city, connected by major road and minor railroad. In addition there is a large field several hexes North at Djambi, also connected by a primary road. There is yet another major oilfield at Balikpapan and a medium sized one at Tarakan. Since both of these produced a crude oil so light it could be burned directly in Japanese ship engines, and since AE runs ships only on “fuel” – both have minor refineries to permit ships to refuel there to a limited degree. There are yet other oilfields – on Ceram and New Guinea – as well as in the adjacent territory of Brunei and at Miri in Sarawak (both Chair 3 managed unless handed over to Chair 2). Second, the world’s largest tine mines are on Banka Island, resulting in more resource production than is easy to haul away. There are yet other significant resource centers in many places as well. Third, Java has a major amount of industry and a very well developed rail and road network, combined with a significant shipyard at Soerabaja. Java also has no less than five Malaria free hexes – two at Batavia and Soerabaja (due to urban development) and three in mountain areas (too cold for mosquitoes). In addition, Java is the the one place the Japanese are really popular: numbers of “Anti-Dutch Brigades” and even a minor air force will eventually appear there (provided the capital of Bandoeng, which also is the location of the camp where Indonesian forces trained, is in Japanese hands). It is almost the only place in the NEI where Japanese troops can recover from jungle fatigue effects (Palembang is the exceptional alternative). All of these reasons mean that Java tends to be the major base and force complex of the NEI – first for its Dutch defenders – and later for the Japanese.

The NEI is a very long territory with significant differences between its islands. The larger islands other than Java (Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and New Guinea) are places where (communist and/or native) guerilla units appear on the Allied side – if their remote locations of appearance are still in Allied hands when they appear. For these reasons, the Allies should attempt to hold these islands as long as possible. Each of these islands, and many others, have significant economic locations as well as both developed and undeveloped ports and airfields. Undeveloped locations should NOT be built up just to hand them over to the enemy. But their base potential may be a consideration, along with local industry, in deciding to resist their capture. The problem in the NEI isn’t so much identifying locations valuable to the enemy that might be worthy of defense as it is deciding which few locations can be somewhat effectively defended with the limited forces available? One change from stock and other mods is that units are generally not “pre-defeated” by terrible rates of morale, disruption, fatigue and lack of planning for the location a unit has long been assigned to. Another change is a significant addition in the number of units available to the Allied player - all of them historical. In particular, several locations have 15 cm CD guns, and/or fortifications, to facilitate their defense.

The KNIL command is a conditionally restricted one. Only some units are forced to stay in place – they are static. Others can move - but find it easier to “walk” than to take a ship or use air-movement. It is cost prohibitive to move very many of these units by sea or air – but it IS possible to the extend pp can be found to buy them unrestricted commands (with exceptions). However, ALL non-static units can “walk” between many islands, where their meeting points are modeled as rivers. It is possible to “walk” from the NW tip of Sumatra all the way to the Eastern end of the island East of Bali. A few other inter-island links exist as well – best indicated by playing with hexside details on. There are also significant air transport assets in NEI – so some smaller units can fly if pp are spend to put them in an unrestricted command. This should not be done excessively – NEI troops will want to defend the NEI – but some of them DID join Commonwealth forces to fight on elsewhere.

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NEI has a significant if not major navy and related maritime force of shipping. It also has both an Army (KNIL) and Naval (MLD) air force – and two units of the national airline (KLM). These forces should be used creatively along with land units and Allied units which retreat into the NEI (or unusually, come to reinforce it) to frustrate Axis operational objectives. These air and naval forces start the game in part outside the territory (notably at or near Singapore) – and conducted operations from Australia and Ceylon during the war. Some reinforcement units appear outside the NEI itself – on Ceylon – at Aden or even in Panama. For these reasons, it is possible to decide certain units will leave NEI territory and waters for the sake of the larger war strategy. Nevertheless, most NEI units will tend to stay in the territory until overwhelmed. Political point costs are a major constraint preventing wholesale transfer of units out. But a player should avoid a policy of sending everything out that might be useful to have somewhere else: the RHS Primary House Rule (if the local commander would not do it, don’t you do it) applies. The Dutch should generally conduct a stubborn resistance to takeover of their “empire” – not abandon it without a fight. Units MAY leave, for strategic reasons, but that should be the exceptional case, not the general rule.

Because the NEI is a major stepping stone that might be used to support an invasion of Australia, and because it is the primary strategic economic object of the enemy, NEI should generally be defended as long as possible. To the extent feasible it should be stripped of resources, supplies, fuel and oil. To the extent possible, industry should be damaged. Occupied islands should be harassed and, when practical, their LOC cut. Historical policy of sending more units TO NEI should be considered: It should not be left to merely what it has and what is forced to retreat into it. The longer NEI takes to reduce, the less threat there is Axis forces can focus on additional conquests beyond it.


Australian Policy and Strategy

Australian defense policy was (and remains to this day) to fight as far as possible from the sub-continent. While Australian territory in New Guinea and the Solomans was invaded, and Darwin subject to significant air attacks, and the Southern maritime approaches were harassed by submarines and raiders, the mainland was not actually invaded in WWII. But there was a real risk it might be. Australian planners considered extending the RR from Alice Springs to Perth (as well as a line from it to the Eastern RR network). [In Japan enhanced scenarios, these surveyed lines actually get build, because of the greater risk of an effective Japanese advance in them]

Northern and Northeastern Australia are, of course, the most likely to be invaded. This area is poorly developed and in many ways locations in them are more like islands than part of a large land body: they can be supported well only by shipping. This geography means that the potential exists for the enemy to seize such locations and use them just like islands, defending them only locally. Such action would deny their use as Allied bases until retaken, and almost guarantee early Allied offensives against them INSTEAD of against places the Japanese need for their autarky. Such an enemy policy is so obvious that it should be expected and be a factor in defense planning for Australia. Do not denude Northern locations of the assets needed to defend them or, if no adequate defense is feasible, strip them to the extend possible. Some of these locations produce significant resources, for example. Enemy supply ships can return laden with resources. Stripping them before capture limits this for at least a while.

Western Australia is more developed than the North, and has a significant if limited local road network and a rail connection to the East via a trans-continental railroad. Unfortunately, this suffers efficiency issued due to gage changes, which are modeled in RHS. This area ia also much more distant from enemy potential bases, and probably less likely to be invaded than the North is. Nevertheless, it should have some resources committed to its defense, and fortifications should be built at key locations. This area can benefit from airfield construction which would permit transfer in of many air units in an emergency.

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Southern and Eastern Australia is the major developed area of the Continent. It has two major cities – Melbourne and Sydney – both with significant local industry (thirsty for oil and resources) and even aircraft factories and shipyards. In addition, there are other large cities with developed industry (e.g. Brisbane and Newcastle), and numbers of other important economic and infrastructure locations. There is a well developed road and rail network – the latter somewhat compromised by gage changes at various points. Most Australian units of all types appear in this area (unless transferring onto the map from ETO) and many locations have significant local fixed defenses. There are a few aircraft training bases in addition to line air force bases because they can be used operationally in an emergency. The entire civil airliner force is modeled because it was organized (similar to the Japanese, US and Canadian airlines) for para-military use during the war. This area is also farther from enemy bases than North and extreme NE Australia are and for that reason less likely to be invaded directly. It also would require significant enemy forces, causing the IJA to reject completely IJN proposals to invade it. Nevertheless, an invasion is possible, particularly if NE, North and/or Western Australia were secured first. This area should never be stripped of military units for its defense, except perhaps late in the war. It also would have priority, if threatened, for Australian units, wherever they were at the time the threat materialized. That is, if SE Australia was under threat of invasion and conquest, most Australian units everywhere on the map would go there if they could get there.

SW Pacific Command Policy and Strategy

Tue Southwest Pacific Command starts the game as a rump HQ organization called Senior Naval Forces Australia. On 18 April 1942 it changes its name to SW Pacific Command. The HQ itself slowly grows in assets until it is full size. This permits units to b be assigned to an unrestricted command in the area. Number of units assigned to this command appear before it is formally established by name and they reported to the senior US Naval Officer in the area. Eventually the command was assigned to General MacArthur, but at the start of the game he is in charge of USAFFE.

The designation SW Pacific Area refers to geography from a US point of view. To Australians the same area was considered to be the NE approaches and the Eastern approaches to the subcontinent. While Australia has sovereignty over Eastern New Guinea, the the Bismarck Archipellego and the Soloman Islands, it is necessary to have an unrestricted command which permits units to move by ship between Australia and these territories, as well as to New Caledonia right from the start of the game. This area is almost an economic and military desert, with very few assets. For that reason it is very vulnerable to Japanese invasion forces attempting to cut the Sea Line of Communications between the US West Coast and Australia. The area also might be used for bases from which to threaten the mainland of Australia itself. While it may eventually also become an area from which the Allies launch an invasion of Japanese mandated islands like Truk, or Japanese captured territory in Dutch New Guinea, its primary significance is as an area the Allies contest for the sake of the security of Australia and the SLOC between it and the USA.

Because the Japanese will tend to invade this area very early in the war, the Allied defense must begin at the start of the game, at a time when there are few available ships, land units or air units in it or available to send to it. Because Chair 2 controls both Australia and this command, and because units coming from the USA need weeks to arrive even after they become available, the player should consider sending troops and supplies and fuel and air units from Australia itself to reinforce the small force already in the area. Note that New Caledonia is technically a Free French Command. While most Free French units are controlled by Chair 3, those on New Caledonia are controlled by Chair 2 and those on Tahiti are controlled by Chair 1.

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Just as it is in Japanese interests to seize bases as early as possible, when they are undefended or almost undefended, it is in Allied interests to send units before the Japanese arrive. Just which locations to defend depends on how quickly the enemy offensive develops and where? For example, if the enemy fails to secure Tulagi (near Guadalcanal), the Allies should reinforce the tiny base force on it. Tulagi is the administrative capital of the Solomans, in spite of the tiny number of people who live and work there. It also is extremely rugged terrain, and so small it is treated like an atol – forcing a shock attack when invaded. These factors mean that if defended, it can inflict a disproportionate cost on the attacker. A good unit to send is one of the Australian coast defense units with six inch guns. But this won’t work if the Japanese invade it right at the start. While eventually the US forms units on New Caledonia, and sends still other units there, these might not arrive before an invasion threat develops. New Caledonia is mineral rich as well as a significant source of supplies, and it has a good port at Noumea used to export. This location can be developed into a major airfield – by either side. It is also large enough to be difficult to capture with a small force of SNLF or Brigade size. For these reasons, Australia may wich to consider sending a significant force to contest the island. It is fairly likely a Japanese threat will develop to New Caledonia before they consider invading Fiji or Samoa (both of which were historical objectives) – and in fact Japan itself developed a major mine on New Caledonia before WWII, expecting to gain control of it as well as other mines during the war. Also, control of New Caledonia gives Japan an unusual source of recourses and supplies, and a fair port/air base complex, which make invasion of SE Australia more feasible to consider. For all these reasons, it may be the defense of the island sould have priority over Australia itself – as an integral part of the defense of the subcontinent.

When considering where to build up bases once Allied forces are strong enough to go on the offensive, there are only a few major potential base sites. Tulagi was proposed by Admiral Lort Fisher before WWI as a potential base for the British Pacific Fleet – it is such a fine potential naval base. Thousand Ships Bay has equal potential. Rabaul offers a fine base complex likely to have been built up by the Japanese. It might be bypasses, as In history, or seized for use as a location already developed. On New Guinea there are several potential good base complexes, all of which require development, although Lae and Hollendia have minimal development at game start and both are likely to have been expanded by the Japanese by the time the Allies ae on the offensive. All of these bases sufer from malaria effects, so the Allies also might wish to by pass it entirely, isolating enemy units to wither when cut off from supplies. Aside from Truk and Palau, not many Japanese base areas can be threatened directly from this command area.



Coalition Policy and Strategy

The Chair 2 area has its own local coalition political considerations. For example, US Philippine Forces and Australian units should join forces with Dutch forces for the defense of NEI territory in general and Java in particular. These considerations are similar to the kind of cooperation needed between the Chair 1 (US Pacific Forces) and Chair 3 (mainly UK and CW forces) with the Chair 2 nations and services. Except for the fruit of local industry and limited local forces raised or built in the Chair 2 area, almost everything Chair 2 gets must come from Chair 1 and 3 players. Yet the Chair 2 player often will be doing a major share of the fighting – both defensively to start and offensively later. For these reasons, the Chair 2 player is most effective if serious coalition policy and strategy is evolved. This should be a two way street. In order to get a maximum of ships arriving in the Chair 2 area, as many long range ships as possible (perhaps all of them) should be returned to Chair 1 and 3 locations. Whenever possible these ships should be loaded with resources. In addition, If a significant threat develops in another area, Chair 2 should consider immediate transfer of long range bombers or other critical assets that might matter in the short term – regardless of the impact on operational plans.



(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 309
RE: RHS Design Theory: Policy/Strategy for Allied Cha... - 7/19/2013 6:09:26 PM   
derhexer


Posts: 242
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OK, where can I download these scenarios??

Thanks

_____________________________

Chris
(Did you ever stop to think and forget to start?)

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 310
RE: RHS: Policy Considerations for Allied Chair 3 (UK/... - 7/22/2013 10:13:38 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
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Definition of Chair 3

In a tag team, Allied Chair 3 has the “Left Side” of the map (plus Canada and Alaska Commands) representing a surprisingly unified UK and British Commonwealth political area, along with China, which is logistically tied to support from India. It is also a surprisingly active combat command area, generally involving combat in Malaya, Burma and China, even if India and Ceylon at not attacked. As well, a Japanese threat may develop to North America. If it does, it will generally involve invasion of Alaska and Western Canada first, even if it extends onward into the US West Coast Command eventually. Finally, Chair 3 has vital locations (Aden and Capetown off map, Karachi, Columbo and several Indian cities on map) where numbers of Allied units appear. One of the tasks of Chair 3 is to decide which units should be sent onward to Chair 2 and which should stay in the Chair 3 area, as well as when and how to send them?

China Policy and Strategy

China is a surprisingly important and difficult command area. In an important sense, it is the subject of the Pacific War involving the USA, UK and NEI to begin with. It was Allied demands over China which led to the embargo of iron ore, rubber and oil which forced Japan to either leave China or attempt to create an autarky. There were few illusions that, after four years of continuous warfare and a decade of limited military operations in China, Japan would walk away from its conquests. Both sides understood that if Japan backed down, it would continue to have its war policy and foreign policy dictated by Washington and London. Not many people expected Japan to agree to that.

While the Chinese seagoing Navy and the Chinese Air Forces, as well as many of the modern land combat units which had been trained and equipped by the Germans, Russians and Americans had been substantially wiped out or weakened by offensives from 1938 to 1941, and much of Northern and coastal China are occupied by the Japanese when the game starts, China retains control of significant areas in Central, Southern and Western China, and substantial ground forces and air forces in addition to a riverine Navy which never lost control of the Upper Yangtze. In RHS, as in real life, the Yangtze is the vital primary line of communications of China. Ocean ships can sail all the way to Wuhan, a unique triple city, all of them walled (i.e. fortified), separated by rivers in the very heart of China. While this area was lost to Japan before the game starts, its land lines of communications are all occupied by the Chinese, and it is supplied only by river. If facing an Axis team or player that regards China as a strictly secondary and non-naval theater, it is possible to threaten or even recapture these three cities, and from them launch offensives in some circumstances.

In a game in which the Axis goes on the offensive in China, the above may seem to be pretty academic. Although RHS has extensively developed China in terms of adding locations, developing the economy in detail in each area, adding land, air and naval units and even entire capabilities, it remains that much of China will fall in the face of a Japanese offensive. If the Japanese do not transfer out of China units assigned to other command areas, and instead send more naval, air and land units to China, they may be able to conquer China entirely. That would tend to reduce forces available for other command areas of Japan, but it also means that Japan can secure many of the resources and even some of the oil it needs from China, and not face the use of Chinese bases by Allied bombers later in the war. Because Japan has interior lines of communications and an army 80% of which is not assigned to face the US, UK and NEI, the Axis gets to decide if and to what extent China is a priority. The Chair 3 player at the start of the game is more or less forced to react to the Axis strategy adopted in that particular game. IF China is held for years, its forces will eventually be well augmented by modern aircraft and Chinese land units which appear in India outfitted and organized to US standards. Also, when Chinese land units are wiped out, they reappear 30 days later at Chunking (or if it falls, at Chengtu, several hexes North of it). As long as these cities are held, the Chinese Army tends not to disappear. Instead, it grows over time as reinforcements appear in addition to the recycled units.

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Each area of China has significantly different operational situations, related to the geography of the area and the relative presence or absence of Axis forces and, sometimes, relative to lines of communications with other Allied areas. China’s road system is fairly well developed, but its railroads are incomplete, partially ripped up, and only well connected to non-Chinese areas in the Japanese held part of Northeast China. There is limited RR construction during the war, although the main line NW from Sian does continue construction during the war (at a faster pace in Japan enhanced scenarios). The main North South line – of strategic interest to Japan – was not quite completed to Nanning where it joins the French line from Indochina. This gets completed early in the war (and historically was seized by Japan during Operation Ichi Go later). If the war extends past its historical ending, the Allies get to decide if they will build the Burma-Yunnan line between the Burma RR and the lines in Western China. This also happens in Japan enhanced scenarios, which also extend these minor rail lines to connect to the main line at its SW terminus. As well, in some circumstances the torn up section of the French line to Yunnan is repaired (just as was done post war). Nevertheless, at start the Chinese RR net is both limited and broken by enemy occupation of significant portions of its length. The functioning of economies along the rail lines as well as support of large military operations is affected by which side, if any, can establish long sections of controlled track. The only significant strategic movement using RR in China from outside of Chinese controlled areas is possible from Indochina to the extreme SW or to Manchukuo in the far Northeast.

Sinkiang in RHS, plus a narrow province between it and Mongolia, start under the Soviet Far East Command. [Just a tiny part of Sinkiang, West of Tannu Tuwa, is shown as Soviet controlled in the stock map system and other mods, but this was not the historical case in 1941.] That entire area is almost devoid of land units: there is one NKVD regiment at a significant city producing oil and resources, one para-military base force of the nationalized Eurasia Airline, which serves as a secondary hub for iits air transport service to the USSR, and a few Sinkiang Province units which are assigned to the Soviet command because they are loyal to the provincial warlord, who is a Russian ally. This entire area was retaken by the ROC in 1944. It can be converted to ROC control any time the Allies are willing to spend the political points required, and need not ever do so. Since both Russia and China are Allied powers, the economy functions regardless. Additional Soviet units should not move into this area unless both Chair 2 and Chair 3 agree it is necessary to counter a Japanese threat. This area has very limited economic development and many locations are connected only by secondary roads. In effect these locations, which are often oasis areas, have limited local supply generation, and otherwise are more like islands which no ships can visit in economic terms. Very limited amounts of resources will occasionally be automatically exported down the secondary roads. Somewhat more consistent exports may occur down the primary road, but that will be limited if the road is supporting major troop formations.

The Upper Yellow River area is relatively isolated and self-sufficient. Since the lower Yellow River has been turned into a vast marsh by ROC sabotage of the dykes, only the Upper Yellow River functions as a waterway. This is limited in even-numbered (simplified) RHS scenarios because no ships appear on it, but landing craft cn be created by either side. In standard RHS scenarios, the Upper Yellow River is dominated by the ROC and even has limited RED Chinese shipping. This permits the river to assume its actual role as an economic and military LOC for the region. Very late in the war, the RR from Sian to Lanchow may complete, significantly improving the movement of oil, resources, fuel and supplies between the opposite ends of the Yellow River Loop running between Lanchow and Sian by a much longer route. The portion of this area NE from Sian is a fairly well developed part of ancient China,
The cradle if its oldest kingdoms and home to significant local industries. Yenan is a unique location in this area, fairly isolated from LOC, with a small (but old) oil industry feeding the first refinery in China, which in turn feeds a small amount of HI. This is the area in which RED Chinese forces are based, although ROC units have also entered the area as Japanese forces drove them Westward. In the area generally NE from Sian, many fairly accurate stock deployments of troops now benefit from locations added in RHS so they can be fed, and so roads and a long minor RR have economic justification, and can be used to feed Sian resources. Sian does have major a major road as well as a primary RR to the SE, but the forested terrain helps make the area somewhat defensible.

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Still farther East and NE, China is substantially occupied by Japanese forces, but ROC units continue to chop up the LOC, and to defend significant local locations. In the North, ROC and RED forces contest fairly rough terrain all the way to the enemy held capital Peking. In the South, the Yellow River Plain usually sees a major effort by the Japanese to clear it of Chinese forces, or at least to clear the RR lines so they can permit strategic movement to a useful extend. This is not an ideal location for Chinese forces early in the game. Many units are under strength, and additional Japanese units are available inside the sector, simply by moving them to contact. In general, Chinese objectives should be limited – to contest and delay clearing the NE RR LOC to the Wuhan area, and to contest and delay the clearing of the RR and road LOC to Sian. Defense should focus on good terrain, walled cities (modeled by the presence of Level 2 fortifications at start), and on using guerilla units to cut enemy LOC at inconvenient points. Chinese guerilla units are semi-independent of LOC and can move long distances across enemy rear areas to jump on a road or RR LOC. Japanese air power is limited unless reinforced, but deadly to ground units, and probably not worth contesting early in the war (but see ROCAF below).

SE China is very rough country and has the main East West RR LOC. Much of this is controlled by ROC units at star. Japanese forces usually try to clear it, but are hampered by mountains and forest terrain. There also are guerilla units in the area and one significant coastal city, Wenchow, which can hold out for a long time if reinforced. It can be used as a naval base and even an air base in some circumstances. This area also often is subject to Japanese offensive clearing operations, but these can be very expensive because of the difficulty of obtaining odds in defensive terrain. ROC forces should contest this area with the object of delaying operations against vital Central China, unless the enemy is inactive, when offensive operations may be possible vs isolated enemy units. A great deal depends on how the enemy elects to use the lower Yangtze river – and how many ships to commit to logistic and economic exploitation – or even to amphibious operations and bombardment along it? If the enemy is passive, his units are vulnerable to isolation and attrition by combat as well as supply depravation. If the enemy is active, units other than guerilla or falling back on Wenchow should move toward Central China and the potentially critical campaign there.

The area West of SE China is central China. It contains the strongest of ROC armies. They have just won the Second Battle of Changsha and go on to win the Third early in 1942 (historically). Much of China’s “heavy” (really medium) artillery is in this area. It is one of the few places supported by a significant air force (see CAF section below). It has enough naval units to exploit the extensive rivers in some circumstances, or to contest enemy use – particularly by minelaying (see the ROCN section below). The key location is Changsha, although the “triple city” of Wuhan NE from there is even more important, and may in some situations be possible to recapture. [Always be watching for sings this is the case] In most campaigns with active Japanese offensives early in the game in China, a major battle for Changsha will develop about the same time as the historical Third Battle of Changsha. The city itself is classified as Urban Heavy in RHS, and it also is walled, and the location of significant NRA (ROC) units planned for its defense. The city is most vulnerable if the enemy first isolates it, which is possible from the East AFTER they capture the LOC (which are well contested by Chinese units). Unless major supplies more up the Yangtze, the enemy also probably needs to clear the RR NE from Wuhan to be able to conduct a major offensive SW from it toward Changsha. In some conditions, Japanese forces might drive SW from from Ichang upriver from Wuhan, threatening Changsha in rear. A comprehensive defense of Changsha and its approaches denies the enemy the ability to unify the main North-South and East-West RR lines, and the strategic and economic benefits of doing that. Also, the battle for Central China generally is a preliminary requirement before a drive on Chunking can be considered so fighting even to a stalemate in this area is a strategic defensive victory for China.

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South China is a good deal like SE China – an area with good defensive terrain with some RR development and a strategic river system. Enemy forces are limited, and many are supposed to leave for SRA operations. Their initial focus is always to capture Hong King. They dominate the coast and the Pearl River system, to the point there is no reason to contest them for control early in the war. Here the object generally is to save what can be saved from enemy operations, and to contest mainly the RR LOC – of which there are two – to hamper the unification of the rail system by the enemy. Enemy control of this area is a strategic objective (historically achieved in Operation Ichi Go late in the war). As with Central China, delay of enemy control of this area is generally a strategic victory for China. An attack on Chunking depending on land LOC is best launched from this area, down a primary road axis, but only after it is cleared and can “feed” supplies to such an offensive down that road. As well, the enemy can export significant resources and supplies from this area if it is completely controlled and functional. Delay of that is always a Chinese objective even if it cannot be prevented.

One of two vital “rear areas” of China is the Sechwan Basin around Chunking. This is where many Chinese reinforcements and all replacement units appear (either at Chunking itself, or at Chengtu, a few hexes North of it. This area has its own local oil and fuel sources, and so it can feed even heavy industry and fuel river shipping. It is shielded by coast defense units which, combined with extensive minefields and active support by a river navy, never were breeched by the Japanese. It is also the location of significant local industry. There is no RR into the area and few primary roads or secondary roads, all of them supported by defensive terrain. Nevertheless, the area might be captured if the enemy can secure North, Central and or South China, and elects to drive along the roads or, even worse, is able to come down the Yangtze – which permits very fast movement and unlimited supply support. See the ROCN section for how the ROC Navy can contest such a threat.

The other vital “rear area” of China is SW China, around Kunming. This area gets 500 supply points a day if the Burma Road is open. It is in air range of India and historically important airlift of supplies occurs. Early in the war this is done by DC-3s of the government controlled China Air Lines. Later by large numbers of heavy Allied air transports. It is an area that can get significant reinforcements, including Chinese units which form in India, and Chinese units which start in Northern Burma. Chair 3 has considerable tension about where to commit the AVG – which was paid for by China in 1941 – and which is nominally committed to fighting in this area in particular. Historically it was forced to go to Burma and then to India, against the will of most of its pilots. These are the best Allied fighters, and the most numerous, in the Chair 3 area when the game begins, so where to commit them is a difficult strategic choice that falls on the Chair 3 player – who is responsible for both British and Chinese interests. Extensive mountain terrain makes the area a difficult one for the enemy to enter and capture. Also it is the only part of China which historically got some logistical support and reinforcements from outside China. It will usually be the last part of China to fall, if China is conquered.

The ROCAF is of medium size. In spite of major foreign aid and purchases, by the end of 1941 it is not in good shape. Many units operate obsolescent types, with the notable exception of the IL-4 bomber and the P-40A3s of the AVG. This force does not grow during the war. Instead it loses some squadrons - the AVG in particular. However, unlike many minor air forces, it is supported by some local production and by some foreign aid. By the late war period it should be possible to re-equip entirely with modern aircraft, including B-24s, B-25s, P-51s and F-5Es. The ROCAF ground support situation in RHS is wholly revised compared to stock, other mods or earlier editions of RHS (which were based on stock). Using official historical information, the basing situation has been substantially recreated. It should be possible for the AVG to take two large squadrons to an existing base which already operates aircraft and not overload it, in many instances (a typical historical movement). ROCAF can conduct significant air operations throughout the war if care is used in decided which, where and when? It has a dedicated recon squadron as well as bombers which can fly recon missions at great distances (initially the SB-2 and IL-4). It has several government controlled air transport formations with considerable airlift potential (the DC-3s of CNAC famously doing so early in the war). One of these units operating the Lockheed Model 18 out at Hong Kong will be lost unless it is evacuated before the enemy has a chance to eliminate it. [Most or all Chinese air transports can be upgraded to DC-3s, if the player has a use for air transport operations]
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In areas where Japan does not contest the air, Chinese bombers should be used to inflict attrition on key enemy ground units, or to degrade bases and ports of interest. And in areas where Japan is conducting air operations, they should be carefully examined. Japan usually have few air units in China, and does not have the ability to do different things at the same time as a rule. If enemy fighters are committed to ground attack missions or to escorting bombers, they probably are not defending hexes from ROCAF bomber attacks. It is often possible to conduct one time only, hit and withdraw attacks of various kinds and achieve favorable exchange rates. These will build the experience ratings of ROCAF units to make them more valuable when they get modern aircraft. Constantly monitor aircraft pools to insure you are using the latest types available. And try not to lose all of China's pilots in a short period of intensive operations - it will be a long war.
The ROC Navy substantially lost all its seagoing ships to enemy action or by scuttling to block ports before the game war begins. However, it retains a significant river navy on the Upper Yangtze, and other river naval vessels on the Lower Yangtze, the Yellow River (except in simplified RHS scenarios 102, 104 and 104), and on the Pearl River. There also is a two brigade ROC Marine Corps trained for amphibious operations, supported by landing craft, bombardment support craft, gunboats and small transport ships. There are also four regiments of CD guns on the Upper Yangtze, numbers of minelayers and thousands of small mines suitable for river use. In addition, Chinese River Steamers and Chinese Junks may convert to different useful types of vessels in small shipyards. River Steamers may convert to larger River Gunboats or Minelayers (for large or small mines). Junks may convert to landing craft, support landing craft, or to small minesweepers. Finally, the ROC Navy has a simulated River Boom. Each "section" represents 8 dismasted junks, 7 of which have no engines, linked together by heavy cables. Each section has a 77 mm field gun, two 81 mm mortars, a 37 mm AT gun, 4 heavy MG and an artillery spotter team. They move just enough to slowly relocate. The intent is that several of these sections (ideally about 8) will be in a single Task Force set to remain on station in a hex. It is extremely likely that any vessel attempting to pass the boom will be detected and engaged. Most river craft will be vulnerable to the weapons embarked. Finally there are many ROC vessels in coastal ports.
At the start of the game, it may be wise for coastal craft and those on the Pearl River to attempt to leave China altogether, and run for Allied ports in other territories. In some cases, it may be realistic to try to run up the Yangtze River as well. Vessels on the Lower Yangtze should either hide in extreme upriver ports of various rivers, or attempt to go up river en masse to join the ROC vessels on the Upper Yangtze. Those on the Yellow River in Japan enhanced scenarios should simply exploit their local superiority for logistical or amphibious support of Chinese units in the area. On the Upper Yangtze, initial focus should be on establishing an effective barrier to Japanese use of the river at some key point. Such a point would probably have a CD unit, massed Chinese gunboats, and the ROC River Boom. All available minelayers should then lay mines in the barrier hex - and perhaps other hexes as well. If the situation on the Yangtze does not include use of Japanese river cruisers, nor anti-shipping air strikes, it may be possible to conduct amphibious operations with Marine battalions - mainly with a view to cutting enemy land LOC. It may also be possible to insert or recover guerilla units from the enemy rear.

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India Policy and Strategy

India is the largest of all territories in the British Commonwealth, both in area and in population. It is also has one of the largest economies in Asia. It a territory in political crisis, when WWII began the Congress Party (then unified, including virtually every Hindu and Moslem politician) demanded Indian independence as the price of supporting the war. The British Governor-General interpreted that as treason, so (except those not in country) every member was put in prison. The most prominent one NOT in country, Chandra Bose, former mayor of Calcutta, was sent by submarine from Germany to Japan. Eventually he became head of state of a revolutionary Indian regime, supported by the Indian National Army and a small INA Air Force, both raised by the Nakano School (IJA Special Operations). This force participated in the Imphal campaign, an operation hampered by impossible logistics and horrible LOC along the Burma-India frontier. RHS partially models this situation, and INA units do appear as Axis reinforcements. RHS also models many of the Indian States Forces (ISF) units which belong to the many Indian quasi-sovereign principalities. As well, India gets many of the naval vessels “teken up from trade” or built locally. The former ROC aircraft factory from Canton appears at Hyderabad where it began building Hawk 75s from 100 kits sold to China, and moved on to become a major aircraft rebuilding center (modeled in RHS). Karachi is not only a major reinforcement center, it is also an aircraft final assembly point for several US types, as well as another significant repair center. India has many large and medium sized shipyards and many large and small resource centers, oil production centers, and both major and minor industrial centers. There are many more locations in India than in any other mod, and all those with major population centers have garrison requirements. [In stock many locations in India which are major cities have no political point value at all, and no requirement for garrisons.] Finally, India has the finest railroad infrastructure of any territory in the game, and a well developed road system. However, the RR system in NE India (Bengal and Assam) starts with severe limitations: (a) it is rated as a secondary RR; (b) it does not cross the Bhramaputra River at all (although far up the Ghanges River there is a crossing); and (c) a section of the line along the border with Nepal washes out during Monsoon (until the US Army takes over management of the line). All these things change AFTER the US Army is allowed to take over – something long forbidden by the Governor-General of India. [The main trunk line, but not spurs, upgrades in the Spring 1943 Season, and includes the first RR bridge across the Bhramaputra River.]
In most games, India is a vast “rear area” which generates supplies and reinforcements, and bases from which ships and long range aircraft can affect operations in Burma and China. The historical invasion of Assam from Burma may also happen. However, in many games, Burma falls much earlier than history, and invasions of NE India happen using the coastal secondary road as well as shipping, not just an attempt to invade overland using mainly jungle trails. The NE Frontier area of India and Burma have very rugged terrain, and even the trails disappear in the Monsoon season. For this reason it is a natural defensive barrier and one possibility is that Japan will stop in Burma and simply defend its autarky in SE Asia from there. Precisely what Axis forces attempt is decided by the other side. But the most significant invasion threats generally occur in the NE area (Bengal and Assam), and are most serious if done early in 1942, when India has few air, land and naval assets. At this time much of the future Indian Air Force is flying spotter planes useful only for limited air searches and reconnaissance. There are only a handful of escort and patrol vessels. Most Indian ground units are of “regimental” (i.e. battalion) size, and most of the rest are brigades. While these are not “pre-defeated” with terrible rates of morale, exhaustion, disruption and planning, as in stock and most mods, nevertheless they are generally not able to stand up to IJA and IJN land units in combat early in the war. In addition. India can be invaded at many places along its long coastline, if the Axis commits large numbers of ships to Indian Ocean operations. Sending everything to NE India creates an opportunity for invasion in the South or even the NW.

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India also has important offshore, island territories. Ceylon is by far the most important. Columbo is the strategic logistical center of the entire Eastern map area. It has a large shipyard, port and airfield infrastructures. Ceylon should be held at all costs, and for that reason, no matter the operational situation, it should never be stripped of units necessary for its defense. Locations on Ceylon are also places where many Allied reinforcements appear. It is the best location for Chair 3 strategic reserves to be used in the event of an emergency. These forces also double as defense forces should the island be attacked.
Another offshore territory of note is the Andaman Islands. Historically UK built a “secret base” there, from which Axis operations could be monitored. Also, after capture, it was the only part of India formally turned over to the INA government of Chandra Bose. The only significant location is Port Blair, and fighting normally either uses it as a base, or is focused on its capture or defense. It is very close to the mainland of SE Asia, and useful in particular as a recon base for either side.
India has been extensively developed in RHS. In particular the “Northern map edge” (actually NW India) has many new locations, many industries, bases and units, and several map edge supply sources. One major and one minor oilfield are located in this area (although the largest oilfield is in the Ledo hex). In the most extreme invasion situations, the Allies should fall back Northward on these map edge supply source areas. The most important location of all is Karachi. In no circumstances should it be surrendered to the enemy. It is valuable in its own right, as an industrial center and base complex. But it is of critical strategic value as a location where many Allied reinforcements appear, as well as many Allied aircraft are repaired or assembled. Surrender every other part of India and even all the rest of the Northern map edge area before you surrender Karachi. Second only to Karachi, the major city and base complex at Bombay is of strategic value, and should be defended even if most of the rest of India is lost. Third after Karachi and Bombay, Dheli is of strategic value, and not to be surrendered without a fight. There are many other vital locations in India, North, Central and South. All warrant defenses if forces are available. But Karachi, Bombay and Dehli form a strategic triangle which outweighs all the rest and form the foundation from which an Allied counteroffensive should become possible later in the war. The loss of too much of India also facilitates an Axis auto victory. India is too important to surrender and must be fought for – regardless of cost – if invaded.
Burma Policy and Strategy

Burma was gradually being organized as a territory in its own right with considerable development of its own military and paramilitary (BMP or Burma Military Police) forces. In spite of this, the Burma campaign was commanded from the cantonment at Comilla (an RHS added location SE of Dacca, one that starts the game with several Indian Army units). Burma is yet another territory with its own local opposition to Allied rule. The early defection of at least 12,000 Burmese to what became the Burma Independence Army is not, at this time, modeled in RHS – but eventually the BIA fielded 7 battalions with 18,000 men allied to Japan. Unhappy with IJA policy and treatment, INA eventually defected to the Allies and helped clear Burma of IJA units in 1945. This complex situation is difficult to model so it has been ignored. It remains that Burma was politically divided when it was invaded, with significant anti-colonial sympathy aiding the Axis cause.

Page 9
In RHS the ‘Road to Mandalay’ (the Irrawaddy) river is an important LOC. On it the Allies have most of the important vessels of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company, the largest ferry fleet in the world. It operates small tankers, coastal transports and other craft, not just ferries. The upper Irrawaddy above Mandalay is seasonally closes, counter-intuitively, during the Monsoon season (May – August – dates set by code). There is too much water flow through narrow canyons, so the river is closed to marine traffic. But the rest of the year, the Irrawaddy offers the potential for fast movement of troops, supplies, resources and oil (which Burma produces). Roughly parallel to this river route runs the Burma RR. Together they form the vital LOC corridor which dominates economic and military operations in the territory. Most campaigns in Burma focus on control of this corridor.
The frontier between Burma and India is entirely jungle and crossed by just two trails (except during Monsoon, when the trails disappear entirely) when the game starts. However, by Monsoon 1944, the Ledo Road is built, upgrading the more Northern of the trails from Ledo to Myitkynia to a secondary road which is not seasonal. By Winter, 1944, this secondary road is extended to Lashio, meeting the Burma Road to China. In strictly historical scenarios, in Winter 1945 the Allies may elect to build the Burma-Yunnan RR, a project abandoned in 1941. In Japan Enhanced Scenarios, the Ledo road upgrades to primary road to Myitkynia by Winter 1944, and to Lashio by Spring, 1945.
The frontier between Burma and Thailand is similarly to the one in the NW. It is crossed by a single secondary road in the center, and by one trail over Three Pagoda’s Pass in the South. There is also a point in the North where secondary roads from Burma and Thailand almost meet. In RHS the Burma-Siam RR is built along the Southern trail connection, first upgrading it to a secondary road, then adding a minor RR. In Japan enhanced scenarios this is upgraded to primary road in Spring, 1945. This rough country is a significant logistical and military obstacle which often significantly delays a Japanese invasion.
Burma was invaded initially mainly to cut the Burma Road to China in order to hamper Allied military aid to the Chinese. Eventually Japan decided to occupy Burma as a whole, and to use it as a base of operations for invasions of China and India. [One IJA Division, whose communications code name and popular nickname was Dragon Division, was entirely wiped out in a Chinese town whose name in Chinese means Dragon Mausoleum.] In games, most Axis players invade Burma even sooner than history. This is facilitated if airborne troops are committed to the operation (which was not done historically). Airborne can seize undefended or poorly defended airheads, and then other units and supplies can be airlifted into them. Because most IJA units have some squads that do not airlift, these units will be below strength until the rest can slowly “walk in” or can come by sea – after the fall of Singapore as a rule. These weak forces are generally enough to route any force they meet, particularly if the defenders are not supported by the AVG (which did support them for a while, but was withdrawn).
Because of air support in particular, Burma can be a trap for Allied (CW and Chinese) forces. Even if historically planned reinforcements are sent, and even if they can be sent earlier than in history, unless the Allies can concentrate fighters in numbers in Burma, the IJA should prevail early in 1942. For this reason it may be unwise policy to send any reinforcements to Burma at all – except possibly Chinese reinforcements – which can withdraw the way they came – down a secondary road from China. Most of the many small ships on the Irrawaddy were historically trapped and scuttled at Mandalay. It may be better policy to evacuate it to the Indus-Bhrmaputra river system of India before the complex lower delta region is entirely captured by the Japanese.

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Malaya Policy and Strategy

Malaya is the place where the War in the Pacific Began. Landings at Kota Bahru, although dated 8 December, began a few minutes before the attack on Pearl Harbor did. Similarly, regardless of what Axis strategy is used, it is certain that Malaya will the subject to active invasion from the very start of every game. While Malaya has much more development in RHS than in stock, in particular adding locations and the changing of land unit data so most units do not begin “pre-defeated” with terrible rates of exhaustion, disruption and planning, it is facing Japan’s best offensive force led by the best iJA commander. [Yamashita is probably the only IJA great captain in WWII.] He has a true combined arms force, with unusually good naval relations, and the best division in the entire Pacific (if not the world) when the war begins. [IJA 5th Division was the only Class A Semi-motorized division. Originally conceived to engage the Russians, it was the only division in WWII on either side to allocate two primarly weapons to every line infantryman – both an LMG and a rifle. At the start of every engagement, each squad would decide how many teams to form, and what mix of LMG and rifles were optimum for that particular tactical situation!] Also part of the force were two more strong divisions, and Yamashita turned down two others as both not needed and not able to be properly supported logistically – showing his logistic orientation. In Japan enhanced scenarios (105 and 99) we get to see Japan’s small armor formations reorganized as he proposed in 1941 (and eventually formed by him when he went to Kwangtung Army). Initial IJA forces include three “tank divisions” – perhaps more properly glorified tank brigades – one of them committed to Kwangtung Army, one to China, and one to the SRA. That one is at Cam Rahn Bay and assigned to 25th Army for operations in Malaya. [Each replaces about four tank regiments, two infantry regiments which have been motorized, a motorized artillery regiment and a motorized engineer regiment, plus minor attachments. Woefully small by the scale of other tank divisions in history, they are demi-gods in the PTO in late 1941 and early 1942. By the time one fights the US on Luzon late in the war, it looks pathetic. But when designed, in 1941, it was nearly ideal for Japanese requirements. And Yamashita is the officer who proposed it, after witnessing the Eastern Front.]
Compounding the problem of defending Malaya in real life, the Japanese had unusually detailed and accurate intelligence about it written by a former governor, captured by a German raider WITHOUT the knowledge of the Alllies (see HMS Amdromedon.] They also had daily reports about RAF operations from an Irish traitor serving in the RAF in Malaya. He broadcast the plans daily until detected and shot. [See Bloody Shambles, Vol. 1] A compounding issue, which is present in the game by default, is lack of command competence. However, a player IS permitted to change the theater commander, and should if better combat performance is desired.
The problem in Malaya is that Yamashita used combined arms warfare against units generally not equipped to deal with modern “tanks” (or perhaps “tracked armored cars” in the case of IJA). Regardless of details, a tank totally changes a tactical situation when there are no opposing tanks or AT weapons, and that results in a psychological advantage for the attacker. In Malaya, British and CW units sometimes ran at the mere sound of Japanese soldiers riding bikes - their tires were not up to the job so they road on rims only on paved roads. Defenders, hearing the noise, would abandon their positions! The operations officer of 25th Army, Col Tsuji, observing at the front, ordered troops NOT to use standard IJA doctrine and take the time to flank a roadblock. Instead, a simple frontal attack was sufficient to take the position in less time. For these reasons, the TO&Es of many Allied units in Malaya are justified, as is their relatively low skill level. Facing the very best units of the IJA, the results are predictable.

Page 10
Defense In Malaya is sometimes practical. As with other theaters, at the start of the game the initiative lies with the Japanese. Their choices determine the specific locations of landings and speed with which supplies and units can land, and also if there are good roads which permit rapid movement after landing, or not? An astute Allied player will observe where the enemy lands, and with what, before deciding where to make his primary defensive positions? In addition to what is faced where, there is also the matter of air power. Allied air forces in Malaya are sometimes wiped out in two or three days, but sometimes remain effective for longer periods. The primary problem is the lack of replacements and the dire need for reinforcements early in the game. All modern military operations depend on air power, and a choice not to have it in Malaya is tantamount to a decision to abandon the ground army to its fate. Yet the opposite choice, to commit and fight in the air, usually leads to the loss of the air force by combat attrition, even if it is successful – followed by a similar disaster for the ground army after that occurs. It may be wise to decide not to fight for control of the air, and not to send air or ground units to Malaya as was historically done and historically planned and promised on a still larger scale. In that case, the question becomes one of lesser bad options: how much can fighting for a location delay the enemy? Can It buy even one day? How much more utility might a base force be in another territory than it is in Malaya? If more, can it be moved or not? RHS generally does not prevent movement of units between territories, although failure to assign them to the proper command lessens efficiency – and often prevents loading on ships or aircraft. Also, enemy policy varies greatly: some Axis teams elect to try to kill the Malaya Army writ large – others are content to let it escape in exchange for rapid control of undamaged bases. That is, the options an Allied player has depend critically on the attitude and policy of the specific Allied player he faces. It is neither always possible nor impossible to move out much of the Malay Army in all games – some are very much one way, others the reverse. The skilled Allied player must evaluate what the options are in this specific campaign in the context of the specific situation and the kind of tactics the present enemy player is using?
Malaya has a primary RR LOC corridor on its Westward side. The Eastern RR LOC is not as well developed, nor as often followed by proper roads (which land units need to move rapidly when they do not “control” the next RR station on the line). In the far North, even the Westward RR does not have a good road network. The historical and most common landing sites tend to cause the IJA to need considerable time to reach the Western corridor because they are using secondary roads to get there. As well, the Eastern RR corridor does not deliver as many supplies to the front line if it is used as an axis of advance. For these reasons, skilled Axis players may not land in historical places, and may also attempt to outflank defensive positions by landing farther South, hoping the enemy will withdraw rather than try to defeat in a coup de main. Regardless of details, generally the final major battle is that for Singapore itself, at the very end of the RR LOC. The longer this battle can be delayed, provided fortifications are being built, the longer it will last. Also, there are pre existing fortifications at Lahore Bahru just North of Singapore. A good defense will turn both locations into fortified battles. The fight for Johore Bahru can delay the battle of Singapore. Enemy landings at Kuantan, connected to the Eastern RR corridor by Secondary road, and even worse, at Mersing, connected to the Western RR corridor after it has combined with the Eastern one just NE of Jahore Bahru, create a risk that Allied forces might be cut off from their retreat toward Singapore, preventing a combined defense. These can be made more expensive by planting mines and locating submarines at these ports.
An unusual feature in Malaya in RHS is the addition of the historically correct and important RR spur to Port Swettinham. This permits Allied units to move rapidly to or from the port when reinforcing or evacuating if for any reason Singapore is not the ideal port to use.

Page 11
Although the British considered invading Thailand to delay enemy forces advancing into Malaya from the Singora area, and although Thai history says this actually happened (see Operation Matador) but was defeated by Thai Provincial police (!!), it is probably unwise to attempt a major defense North of Taiping. The Eastern RR/Trail corridor South from Kota Bahru will take the Japanese a long time merely because of the need to "walk" down a trail. But the Western corridor, once they reach and take Taiping, permits rapid movement Southward. The only reason to contest farther North is to delay enemy use of Georgetown and Alor Star as air bases and/or to damage those base infrastructures (if you can do so effectively with engineers in the defensive team). Large enemy air bases on the peninsula permits more concentrated air support for enemy ground troops, and this is to be delayed as long as possible. The next major defensive position to the South should probably be at Kuala Lumpar, a fair air base and important road/RR junction. Units stationed there should build fortifications - but not the airfield (which will too soon be used by the enemy). Malacca, where the Eastern and Western RR join, can also be defended if it will delay the enemy, but the final strong point North of Singapore should be Jahore Bahru. Because fortifications were built here in preparation for the campaign, RHS starts with them in place. The player should build them up still more.
NW North America Policy and Strategy

Northwest North America refers to Alaska Command plus Canada Command. This theater is perhaps the least well known one of the Pacific War. For those unfamiliar with it, it may seem strange to combine Canada and mainland Alaska, but to exclude the North Pacific Command. This was done for both logistical and political/historical reasons. This theater was kept so secret during the war that when men returned home and said they had been fighting in Alaska, people thought they were making it up!
The North Pacific Command is NOT part of either Alaska command or of Canada Command. [In RHS, at game start, what becomes North Pacific Command in 1942 is called Naval Forces Alaska, and it has a small fraction of the squads it eventually will control]. This command controls all the offshore islands of Alaska, and the bases on them. [Even B-17 detachments on Kodiak Island are formally assigned to the US Navy]. That command, unless relinquished, is held by Chair One. Alaska Command is the part of Alaska on the North American Continent itself. In contrast, Canada Command is ALL Canadian territory, on the Continent as well as offshore islands. Key locations in this area are serviced by land lines of communications, including primary and secondary roads as well as railroads. In RHS, this infrastructure is augmented by the construction of the ALCAN highway. In strictly historical scenarios, the CANOL road (and pipeline) are also built. If the war extends past its historical end, the Allies may elect to use the ENH series of pwhexe.dat files: if they do, the ALCAN is upgraded to primary road. In Japan Enhanced Scenarios, a different pwhexe file series is used. The greater Japanese threat gives greater priority to the ALCAN highway, cancels the CANOL Road and pipeline, and connects a series of RR all the way from Alberta to Fairbanks. In addition, the ALCAN is extended to Nome, the originally planned destination.
In addition to the usual land LOC infrastructures, this area also has seasonal river LOC in the form of the Yukon River and the MacKenzie River. These are frozen in Winter, although there are ice trails in some places. Both are open to water navigation in Monsoon and Fall. The Yukon opens to the Bering Sea in Monsoon and Fall. The MacKenzie opens to the Arctic Ocean only in Fall. Neither river navigation nor ice trails exist in Spring (which is called “breakup” in this part of the world). The MacKenzie River also has an Eastern Map Edge supply source at Fort Smith (Northwest Territories). Besides land and naval LOC, this area also has a series of airfields, called The Northwest Staging Route. Build before WWII by Canadian and Alaska Territory governments, these are supported by the mobilization of virtually all Canadian and US airliners (which appear in 1942, after regular airline service is ended).
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The reason Japan invaded the Aleutians historically was to prevent the US from building bomber bases in range of the Home Islands. Indeed, when the war ended, surrender instructions were broadcast from Adak, because it was the closest land base to Japan. A different idea, utterly rejected by Stalin, was to build US bases In the Komandorskie Islands and on Kamchatka. However, that idea might be feasible if war breaks out between the USSR and Japan – for example if Japan starts such a war. Yet another reason for war in Alaska would be if Japan invaded to use it, and the offshore islands, as a base area to support an invasion of Canada and the US Pacific Northwest. For example, the biggest building in the world is the Boeing aircraft plant at the South end of Lake Washington, at Renton – in the Tacoma hex – where B-29s are eventually built in numbers. These factories can be bombed from Alaska, or they can be seized (and used to build Japanese planes). In game terms, an invasion of North America may well result in enough victory points to achieve an auto victory. Such an invasion might be facilitated by amphibious operations deep into North America, as far as Whitehorse Yukon Territory along the Yukon River, and as far as the Great Lakes of NW Canada along the MacKenzie River (but only in the seasons in which they are navigable). Because of the latter threat, the US Army built a radar station at Point Barrow, Alaska – hoping to give early warning of such an invasion. In RHS, such an invasion is feasible, so the Allies should develop contingency plans to deal with it.
Both Alaska and Canada have several undeveloped locations which can be turned into places of productive significance, at a price in supply points and the deployment of engineers. In theory, that could be done by either side. There are many places with medium and large size port and airfield potential. Again, in theory, these could be developed by either side. There are also potential pitfalls – ships may be trapped by ice when the rapid onset of Winter occurs. [This mirrors the harsh reality of climate in the North country, which is as savage as any jungle]. RHS neither requires nor prevents the NW North America operational area from becoming a minor or major combat theater. Note that fuel is produced on the MacKenzie river at Normal Wells – which has an oilfield as well as a small refinery. Players also may develop a small oil industry with a small refinery at Whitehorse, Yukon Territory or at Kenai, Alaska Territory (but should not do both for reasons of funding).
When the game starts, there are few fully developed base locations and few units in the area. Numbers of reinforcements appear throughout the game – many in the USA and Southern Canada requiring transportation to forward bases. But Alaska also features the creation of the Alaska Territorial Guard, which in fact included an astonishing portion of the population (because, in part, native women turned out for muster: they often were better at field craft and better shots than the men, so everyone pretended they didn’t notice). RHS features the three line battalions plus a few of the more important detachments, intended to relieve front line troops so they could move to areas of more active fighting later in the war. While there are eventually many land and air units available, just as in other theaters, early in the war there are very few indeed. This creates a situation in which there is potential to reward an Axis invasion, followed by a situation in which that is feasible but likely not cost justifiable, followed by a period in which it is wholly impractical to consider. The best policy is to build a network of key air bases and to defend them with significant ground forces and fortifications. More than most places, the NW North American operational area is an air theater. The large number of civil air transports (which should not leave North America) and the many airfields create some potential for a considerable Allied defense even in remote areas. These operations can be supplemented by naval forces near coastlines and navigable rivers unless the enemy has dominance of the Northeast Pacific area itself. Even in that case, units on land, if they can be supplied and supported with air power, may be able to function adequately for immediate operational purposes. Also, consider deploying medium range S Boats from Kodiak against Northern Japan early in the war (because their torpedoes are effective and they have enough range.












(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 311
RE: RHS: RHS Start of Game Considerations - 7/26/2013 4:58:05 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
RHS Stat of Game Conventions

Since WITP days, RHS has attempted to empower players, rather than restrict them. There are different scenarios, and more in the works, so that players are not forced into a single mold. Most scenarios start in 1941, but in spite of the massive work required, we are working on a 1945 start (Downfall Scenarios) so that it does not take years to use lat war ships and planes, or examine the strategies that might have applied then. There are simplified scenarios with less to manage, and Russian active scenarios for those who don’t want to manage the Russians during “peacetime” in addition to more complex ones and Russian active ones. Most scenarios assume a strictly historical series of events leading to war, but there also is a Japan enhanced scenario, with another working up. Instead of one size fits all, RHS tries o accommodate a wide variety of player preferences.
One of these preferences is that game start need not be always precisely the same. For one thing, this is intended to create uncertainty – which we regard as an important element in simulating wartime operations. For lots of reasons it is impractical to deviate radically from how the war began. Further, doing so carries operational risks. A simple standard KB approach to Hawaii on turn one will surely finding the US aircraft carriers. Consider, for example, RHS Test Series 9. The Japanese decided to approach Hawaii from the West in a spit pair of task forces on parallel tracks – derived from pre war proposals by Vice Admiral Ozawa – author if Japanese carrier doctrine. In the control test, 9C, where the Allies changed almost nothing from initial settings, they managed to find, and eventually fatally damage USS Enterprise – although it technically was still floating when the turn ended. The very same moves in Test 9A, faced by a different but also rather standard Allied start move, they found but did not sink one of the carriers, and only half the air strikes went home on Pearl Harbor, leaving no battleships sunk or severely damaged, and air bases only minimally damaged, with most Allied air units substantially in tact and operational. What the Allies did was pretty simple: (a) few ships left port or even formed up into task forces staying in the hex; (b) most flying boats, recon aircraft and bombers were put on naval search; (c) USMC SBD-1 dive bombers and A-26 horizontal bombers were put on naval attack, and USMC F4F-3s were put on escort; and (d) all the remaining fighters were put on 50% CAP and 50% LRCAP with a range setting of one, at altitudes appropriate to the performance of each type. One ASW TF of 1 destroyer was augmented by adding 3 more; one ad hoc ASW TF of two USCG cutters was formed; one group of fast warships broke out headed to escort USS Saratoga inbound from San Diego. The fleet substantially remained at anchor, but the Army and Navy air forces were engaged mainly in searching, much of it range limited to increase detection chances. The few strike aircraft, chosen from units with numbers not damaged, were able to find two targets and hit them repeatedly, sinking them – without interference from Japanese fighters. None of the air units became exhausted and the exchange rate was remarkably even, and the largest loss on the ground was aircraft lost when Wake fell, not when Hawaii bases were attacked. The Japanese DID deviate from the standard attack in a way that WORKED when the enemy “cooperated” and did as expected. The very same plan failed to produce a decisive victory similar to history. While the Japanese have not yet left the area and might yet find and sink the carriers, the chance to hit the battle fleet with the advantage of first turn code rules is now gone, and the fleet is not crippled. The Hawiian Air Force is not only operational, it probably has air dominance over Oahu. Neither side broke any rules or RHS conventions.

Page 2

RHS has no rule that says the Allies may no fly CAP, nor leave port, nor form up into task groups that do not leave port. Commanders theater wide were on alert, and directed to take “such precautionary measures” as they deemed prudent. There IS an RHS Primary House Rule that DOES restrict the players, not just on turn one, but at all times. “If you do not believe historical commanders would do it, do not do it.” This works surprisingly well, yet a player cannot be certain precisely how a different payer will make the call about any specific unit assignment? That creates a range of possibilities which in turn creates uncertainty – and RHS design objective. Some commanders had more information than others did. And the choices each made about what to do or what to inform others might, theoretically, have been different than the choices made. The commander of the Naval District might have informed Admiral Kimmel of the attack on a Japanese submarine. A minesweeper in the South China Sea might have had a distress call picked up directly, or it might have been relayed by a Navy Communications Station on Luzon – so that other commanders would know almost at once that war had begun. The invasion at Kota Bahru, which began before the Pearl Harbor attack, might have been reported sooner. Players may interpret the war alert order directive to take “prudent measures” differently than Gen Short or Admiral Kimmel did. And it is perfectly reasonable to make different assumptions about who is in command, particularly in a non-strictly historical scenario. In such a scenario the Allies face a stronger Japan with better policy choices about what to produce. They also might have made better commander choices. Vice Admiral Ozawa would be a better choice to lead the Kiddo Butai than Admiral Nagumo was, for example. In that case, the news the “primary objectives” had left Pearl Harbor might have led to an effort to find them. There are real risks in deviating from the plan too. These risks are the primary deterrent to making such choices. RHS lets players examine how different possible choices might have interacted?

While RHs does not impose restrictions on players (beyond their own individual belief of what might be realistically ordered), players MAY agree to starting restrictions of some kind in a particular game. For example, one suggestion is that the Japanese may declare they will make an initial attack on Oahu using the NE approach. If they do, the Allies might then be restricted to leaving the battleships docked in port at Pearl Harbor. Even in the absence of such an agreement, a sortie by battleships beyond the range of land based fighter cover might be very risky in the presence of the Kiddo Butai. There is also a large number of submarines near Oahu, and the combination of up 4 to 8 battleships near two dozen submarines raises the risk of a torpedo attack to near certainty. In general, the game code is pretty good at analysis of what happens in various situations? For this reason players need to accept the way the moves by both sides, combined with luck (die rolls), produces a particular outcome. Discussion of starting conditions, if any, should not be allowed to become too intense and “good” or “bad” outcomes should not be allowed the cause of major problems. Just as the Allies usually lose up to eight battleships as effective fighting units, and more than 100 combat aircraft, in the attack on Pearl Harbor, it is possible the Japanese may have carriers or other ships damaged or sunk. Test 6, which restarted, twice had two Japanese carriers sunk. This would have been impossible if the Japanese had not come in too close to their target. The responsibility for what happened was joint – caused in part by the moves both sides elected to make they were not required to make. There only conditions are those you impose.



(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 312
RE: RHS: RHS Economic Theory - 8/3/2013 9:29:35 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
AE (Stock and RHS) Economic Theory

1. General: I find few players, even those with economics degrees, actually manage the economy when playing AE. Instead of managing the economy, they tend to ignore it until some crisis shuts down something critical, at which point they try to address that. This article is an attempt to provide a theoretical framework to use to proactively manage the economy with a minimum of effort. Since most mods use the stock system, and since RHS and mods based on it use a significantly modified system, I will try to explain where and how and why these differ? Since they are broadly similar, the basic ideas are the same. Essentially, both the stock system and the RHS system attempt to simplify the amount of player management required using very different approaches to the problem.

The manual section 13.0 (The Production System, page 225) says "The economic system in war in the Pacific Admiral's Edition is similar to, but modified from, the original War in the Pacific game. There are several new types of industries, and the inputs and outputs of the industry centers have been changed. These changes have been made to allow a more detailed and accurate simulation of the wartime economies of the combatants in the war."

I am glad to see the use of the term "accurate simulation" in this description. Sometimes forum commentaries say "AE is a game, not a simulation." Yet it only works when a reasonable effort is made to simulate the fundamental economic situation that serves as context, as well as means for prosecuting the war. Japan is unusually dependent on imports for its industry: domestic resources are more limited than for any other significant nation. The Allied attempt to force Japan to submit to its will by threatening to cut off imports of oil, iron ore and rubber backfired: Japan was unwilling to be dictated to, not merely over China, but over any issue that might arise from then on. So instead, it attempted to create an autarky - a self sufficient local economy - at the expense of resources and oil from Allied colonial areas. The game war is ultimately about whether Japan can establish, and then defend, such an autarky? For this reason, the Japanese need a clear sense of what is needed, and how to manage it. Similarly, the Allies need a clear sense of what Japan needs to do, to interfere with it, in addition to being able to optimize on map production so they have more to fight with sooner.

The manual goes on to explain the Production System is not identical for both sides. "When the Production System is on, Japan can control all elements of their industry...The Japanese can expand and convert their factories whereas the Allies cannot." It goes on to explain that most Allied production is off map, and also that most Allied production is allocated for other theaters of war - so a total Allied management of their economy exceeds the scope of the Pacific War. Japan and the places it may control are entirely on the map, and all their production is used in the game. Andrew Brown also writes that the Allied theater commanders are not in charge of what gets built: that is decided by others and not under their control. Japan was actually controlled by its military services, and they substantially do get to decide what to build? As well, the Allies eventually have a vast number of units to manage, and a simplified economic system helps avoid bogging the player down with too much detail.

Page 2 Economic Theory

Some aspects of the economy are automated. Certain locations can generate "free supplies" - that is, supplies, fuel, oil and/or resources can automatically appear at the location every turn. As well, land lines of communcation, and adjacent ports when level 3 or above, will automatically "ship" supplies, fuel, oil and/or resources as required, within code defined limits of the capacity of the particular connection. When resource centers or oil wells are connected by road or rail or adjacent major ports, SOME of the management of shipping between various points is removed from the player. Unfortunately, this often is not completely the case, or players may wish to modify what is sent where in some operational situations. It is possible to influence what a given location tries to import by using the location display to say "yes" or "no" to stockpiling supplies, fuel, oil or resources. As well, the amount of supplies requested can be modified on the same display. When locations are connected by lines of communication, turning on stockpiling at one and off for the other will tend to maximize the movement of what is wanted in the specified direction.

As always, the devil is in the details. And there are real differences between the way stock AE and RHS work with respect to the production system. Because stock had to have a playable game in order to issue the program, it developed relatively few locations economically: many locations have no local industry at all and many problems exist trying to feed major industrial centers from the few places that generate what they need. As an expedient mechanism, many places were given "free supplies" (which might be resources, fuel or oil) to facilitate production. Thus, resource poor Japan has several gigantic resource producing locations, simply because neither AI nor human players would import enough resources for the huge industrial centers in Japan. With years more time available for research, RHS adopted a more detailed approach, doing a microeconomic analysis of every location, on about twice as many locations. This process included discovering things like oil fields or certain kinds of industries which are not modeled at all in stock. Precisely what is needed, and where, and in what quantity, is significantly different depending if the mod uses the stock or RHS production system. In general, "free supplies" in RHS are at map edge entry points, or are very limited modeling something very specific about a location. As well, HI in RHS is much more demanding of resources, as a deliberate attempt to require the use of shipping to support the economy. While the same principles apply regardless, they apply more in RHS than in the stock system. In RHS, you MUST import the resources used by Tokyo industry, or shut down production, or it will automatically shut down when they are consumed. The amount needed EXCEEDS what can be imported by railroad or road, so much MUST come by ship. RHS generally provides players with more ships, but requires most of the shipping be used to support the economy - or production will be dramatically lower than it could in theory be.

Finally, note that much industry in RHS starts the game "damaged" - particularly for the Allies. This permits a measure of player control over "growth" of the economy - at the price of supply points used to "repair" the industry. It is not intended that everything be repaired at once, in most cases. In particular, aircraft factories for types not yet in production should NOT be repaired - so production will "ramp up" and also so that excessive drain on available supplies will not occur at game start. This mechanism, using "damaged" industry, means that Allied production grows significantly over time.

Page 3 Economics Theory

2. Primary Industry: In the most basic sense, there are three kinds of economic inputs in the game: resources, oil and manpower. These are used by secondary industries to produce fuel, supplies and HI (Heavy Industry) points. These in turn are used by tirtiary industries to produce various weapons systems as well as being consumed by ships and land units and construction activities to facilitate operations. However, in the case of the Allies, much (probably most) production of supplies, fuel, and weapons is done automatically and off map or at the map edge in the form of "free supplies" rather than industry generated - so the Allied player(s) responsibility is restricted to the fraction which is on map. However, the Allies have several medium sized and many small economic zones, and these will better support operations if actively managed than if ignored. In RHS a fraction of off map production is industry generated - in part so production can grow during the war rather than force a constant rate for the entire period.

The ratios of production inputs and outputs may differ between the stock system and the RHS system, although only in degree, not in kind:

1) A Resource Center in stock produces 20 (tons) or resources per day. In RHS it produces 24 (tons). As an input to Heavy Industry, Recourses are (by weight) mostly coal. The largest single non-coal component by weight is iron ore. After that, in order, is copper, aluminum, tin and trace materials/ As an input to Light Industry, Resources are (by weight) mostly timber (logs), gravel, and agricultural crops (both to make food and fabric, and to make gun-cotton). After that, they include various chemical minerals, such as sulphur, used to make things not made by Heavy Industry.

2) An Oil Center in stock is identical in output to an Oilwell/Rubber Plantation in RHS: each produces 10 (tons) of oil (or rubber) per day. When a location has less than 10 "oilwells" RHS considers them to be "rubber plantations" instead. When a location has ZERO "oilwells" it is considered to be a known oilfield that is not developed which players are permitted to develop with the technology of the time (see Kenai, Alaska for example). One case is exceptional: "oilwells" at Whitehorse, Yukon Territory represent the end of a pipeline from Norman Wells, Northwest Territories - and they cannot be "repaired" until the pipeline is completed (in Spring 1945). A similar case is the wholly undeveloped Ramree Island, which has no port or airfield, but which can have both infrastructure built and "oilwells repaired" if a player wishes to invest in them.

3) A Manpower Center in stock produces 5 manpower per day. In RHS it is only one. Manpower is not generally a limitation in game terms. For this reason, RHS has reduced production to the minimum level, in the hope that sometimes it will be a limitation. RHS also has many more Manpower Centers because it has added so many locations, so the attempt to limit manpower production requires very little manpower per center. RHS defines Manpower Centers as 100,000 population in an urban area. In RHS, a city with 4 to 9 Manpower Centers is defined as Urban Light, while a city with 10 plus Manpower Centers is defined as Urban Heavy.

Page 4 Economics Theory

3. Secondary Industry: The ratios of production inputs and outputs may differ between the stock system and the RHS system, although only in degree, not in kind:

1) A Light Industry Center in Stock requires 15 (tons of) resources in and generates one (ton of) supply out. In RHS, each LI Center requires 12 (tons of resources) in and generates two (tons of) supply out. Thus there is a fundamental difference in the ratio of resources to supplies: when LI is used to make them, the ratio is 15:1 in stock but only 6:1 in RHS. This is because there are few industries which are so horribly inefficient as to require 15 tons of input for every ton produced. A typical Light Industry might be a sawmill or a cannery or a cotton mill or a sulpheric acid plant: RHS assumes that Light Industry is 250% more efficient in terms of weight of output compared to weight of input than stock does. Light industry is "powered" by the resources it consumes: if an energy source is required, it is assumed that coal, or even wood, is burned to get it, and both are part of the "resources" consumed.

2) A Heavy Industry Center in stock requires 20 (tons of) resources in. As well, it requires 2 (tons of) fuel as input. It makes 2 supply points and 2 HI points for a ratio of 5 resource points and half a fuel point per ton of output. In RHS, HI Centers are more demanding: they need 48 (tons of) resources plus 4 (tons of) fuel in, and produce 4 supply points and 4 HI points out. The RHS radio is 6 resource points and half a fuel point per ton of output. RHS assumes that HI is slightly less efficient in terms of needing resources as well just as efficient in terms of needing fuel per ton of output. But the important difference isn't in the ratio change, which is similar: each HI center demands 240 % more resources and 200% more fuel. For this reason, locations with many HI centers often require vastly more shipping to get what they need to stay productive all the time. For players who make that happen, these centers also are able to generate a 200% more supplies and 200% more HI points. This makes HI Centers even more important than in stock. As well, it permits Japan to produce somewhere near its historical quantity of ships, aircraft and armaments, and occasionally to consider expanding industry - none of which is seems practical in stock. Nominally, the Allies don't use HI points. But it appears that Allied aircraft production either does use them, or it has been coded so that some day it can use them: the HI required field is active on the Allied economic display. One reason to think this is the case is that if HI shuts down at an Allied location, all aircraft production turns OFF at the same location. Heavy industry is substantially coal powered, and about 2/3 of the resources consumed are coal for power or for coking in steelmaking. However, since fuel is consumed, one point should be considered to be lubricants and the rest as petroleum fuels required to power certain processes. The typical HI Center is a Steelmill combined with an Iron Smelter. Steel is the second most important strategic material, after oil, used by a WWII era industrial economy. HI Points and supply points made by HI Centers substantially represent steel production.


Page 5 Economics Theory

3) An Oil Refinery in stock requires 10 (tons of) oil in and produces 9 (tons of) fuel plus one (ton of) supply out. In RHS, it requires 15 (tons of) oil in and produces 12 (tons of) fuel plus two (tons of) supply out. This means that RHS refineries are not perfectly efficient: 1/15th of the oil is "consumed" to power the refinery itself. Also, each refinery demands 50% more oil, and produces 33% more fuel and 100% more supplies than in stock. This is the biggest difference between RHS and stock industries (where as Oil Centers are the only case the two systems are identical). This was done for a variety of reasons, mainly to make it easier to model historical production rates and somewhat more realistic industry modeling. The effect is to increase the demand for tankers to ship oil to Refineries as well as to move fuel from them.

Note there are three different ways to make supply points, each with a different primary "cost" to make them. LI Centers, HI Centers and Refineries ALL make supply points - but each demands a different input to do so. Thus it is not possible to say what a supply point costs in terms of resource points? It is either 15 (for LI), 5 (for HI), or 0 (for Refineries) in stock OR it is 6 (for LI), 6 (for HI), or 0 (for Refineries) in RHS. These ratios are further complicated by the requirement for oil or fuel: LI Centers demand none of either, HI Centers demand fuel and Refineries demand oil in order to make supply points. [Here HI centers measure resources required per ton of output by dividing the total of supply points out PLUS HI points out into the resources or fuel in.] This is not very different from real life and is good modeling: the cost to produce the things we consume is not identical - it varies from one case to the next.

4. Tertiary Industry: Tirtiary industry produces aircraft engines (Japanese only), aircraft, ships, armaments and motor vehicles. All of these are featured in the player displays and in most cases have control switches permitting production to be turned on and off. In addition, there are a few special cases where devices are produced by name. For example, at Batavia the KNIL Heavy Improvised AFV and the KNIL Obervalwagan are produced. These industries can have repair turned on or off, but lack production buttons. This system was introduced by stock for production of certain Japanese weapons, like missiles, and has been considerably expanded by RHS. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and several cities in India produce various kinds of vehicles - and these usually upgrade to better vehicles over time. If they are captured by the enemy, they can be repaired and will produce - but dump their products into the pools of the "wrong side" - so generally a player who captures a location with such an industry should not repair it!

Page 6 Economics Theory

Tirtiary industry management can be very complicated, particularly for Japan with respect to aircraft and the different engine types needed to produce them. In RHS, some effort has been made to simplify this. Simplified RHS Scenarios all have even numbers (92, 102, 104 and 106). For both sides, in Simplified RHS, aircraft production "ramp up" is crudely simulated, so there is less need to "repair factories" - simply turn on production when the date arrives a type enters production. Except in cases of very low production, the starting date will be a month later in time, and production will start at the full rate for the factory. Stock does not use training aircraft as trainers: such trainers as exist either are used for recon, or in Downfall Scenarios, as suicide attack aircraft by Japan. RHS does use trainers as such (Japan only), implementing code permitting training air units - which works fine. However, while a player MAY produce trainers, much trainer production is wholly automated and does not require player management (and also cannot be diverted from trainer production to warplane production). The Japanese may produce EXTRA trainers if for some reason they wish to, but they cannot prevent the basic trainer production of history and divert that to producing something like Zero fighters. Similarly, and on both sides, RHS has automated some air transport production, particularly for types which players would not elect to make but which are available for operations. Note that Japanese training air units are NOT able to perform normal missions - only training missions. The rare Allied training air units (see Liuchow China for example) are cases where an air academy fielded squadrons of trainers for OPERATIONAL use, generally for recon or bomber missions. Other Allied units using trainers - common in IAF and USMC for example - also permit operational missions - and the units eventually upgrade to combat types. In addition to aircraft management, ship conversion is under player control. Japan also may suspend, stop, or accelerate ship production. Leaving production set to on for everything, or accelerating all production, will mean that too many HI points are required, eventually limiting production of aircraft, ships, vehicles and armaments (when the pools run out, production does not happen). Trying to understand what one can produce and if acceleration or halting is a good idea can be very complicated indeed. Some attempt to help with this is made below under management tips.

Theoretically, Tirtiary Industry (as well as construction and production of units) requires HI Points for Japan. [They also appear to be used by aircraft factories for the Allies.] While HI Points are dumped into a global pool for each side, and can be used by industry anywhere, it appears the chances of production by a given industry are better if the HI Points required are produced in the same hex. When HI Centers are turned off in a hex, often tirtiary industry in that hex is turned off automatically, or remains on but does not happen. Try to keep HI Centers working in tirtiary industry locations you want to produce.

5. Economic Management Tips: The fundamental principle of player management in the AE game economy is to decide what is needed by a major industrial location and where it should come from? If you are lucky, what is needed may be nearby, and may be able to move by road or rail line. More often, some, much or all of what is needed must be moved by ship. The amount of what is required for production may vary over time (for example, industry can be built, damaged or repaired). Also, players may decide to reduce demand for something by curtailment of production of the industry which demands it. The economic mini game is a constantly changing re-evaluation of these matters, location by location, on a regular basis (ideally daily for every location).

Page 7 Economics Theory

Each time a player examines a location, it is a good idea to review the production data for that location? First, click on the left side of the industry row, and get a list of the kinds of industries at that location.

1. LI Case: Most locations have Resource Centers and Light Industry Centers. In the standard case, decide if the number of Resource Centers is greater than required to "feed" the Light Industry Centers? This is easy in RHS: a single Resource Center can supply the needs of TWO LI Centers. If the number of Resource Centers is half (or more) of the number of LI Centers, turn Stockpiling Resources to OFF and export the surplus, to the degree possible. For stock, every three Resource Centers can feed FOUR LI Centers.

2. Special Cases: if there is no LI or HI in the hex, turn the Stockpiling of Resources to NO and the location will then export to the maximum degree possible. The same for Oilwells: if there is no refinery in the hex, say NO to Stockpiling Oil and it will export, is possible.

3. HI Case: if there are HI Centers in the hex, generally there are also LI Centers as well. In this case, usually Stockpiling Resources should be turned ON, so the hex will try to import them to feed the industry. However, you can take the time to decide if that is the case if there are many Resource Centers in the hex. In RHS, it takes two Resource Centers to feed an HI Center: if the number of Resource centers is not more than twice the HI, set the Stockpile switch to ON. If the number is bigger, subtract twice the number of HI from Resource Centers: what is left can feed the LI Centers. If the number of LI is less than twice as large, the hex supplies ALL the resources it needs, and Stockpiling can be turned OFF, so it will export the surplus. If you turn Stockpiling Resources to ON, look at the current amount of resources in the hex: if it is less than needed by both HI and LI, turn HI off in RHS, or turn LI off in stock due to the relative efficiency of production when you cannot afford both.

4. HI Complication: HI Centers ALSO demand fuel to produce. Look at the fuel stockpile in a hex with HI centers: if it is not FOUR times the number of HI Centers (in RHS, TWO times in Stock), the HI will not produce. If the location is also a port hex, consider if the location needs to fuel ships, or worse, to load tankers with fuel? If it does, and if that has priority over HI production, turn the HI off - so the HI will not consume the fuel. In RHS this is a particular problem at Capetown: many ships go there and need fuel. Local fuel production is not much larger than needed by local HI. If you have not imported enough fuel, turn HI off to be able to fuel more ships. When you import enough, turn HI back on and get more supply points as your reward.
5. Oil Refinery Case: If a location has an Oil Refinery, see if there is a local oil supply in the form of Oilwells or free oil? If there is, and if it is greater than needed by the refinery, turn Stockpile Oil to OFF. Otherwise, turn Stockpile Oil to ON and try to import it automatically. Stockpile Fuel may be set to either off or on depending on if the location needs to build large fuel stocks or if it can export the fuel it produces to other locations over roads and/or railroads. It takes one oilwell to feed one refinery in stock, and 3 oilwells to feed 2 refineries in RHS. 

Page 8 Economics Theory

6. Shipping Management Tips: One fundamental truism is that there is never enough shipping. Aside from getting what is needed from where it is to where it is needed, doing so in a more efficient way will pay dividends for the player operationally. If ships take one thing one direction, and return with nothing, it is not as an efficient use of shipping as taking things in both directions, or in setting up a triangle route with something carried on two legs of the triangle. Since the total shipping available does not usually permit full production, using it more efficiently means more can be shipped, resulting in more production at more locations.

A general principle is that ships should not be kept idle except when part of a reserve to commit in an emergency contingency. In general, AKs and tankers should be moving, carrying cargo to support the economy or directly assigned to military operations. Even APs can be used to haul supplies or, less efficiently, fuel.
Another general principle is that long range ships belong on long range sea lines of communications, as far as possible from enemy units, and not used for short range sealift nor, even worse, in places where the danger of sinking by enemy forces is high. A good rule of thumb is that ships with five digit ranges, in excess of 10,000 nautical miles, should be limited to use on long range SLOC.

Some locations have sufficient local sources for only part of their industry: player who ignore this will find industry periodically shuts down until enough is present to permit production again. The more industry you keep working, the more that industry will produce. In most cases, it is ships that permit moving more than otherwise moves automatically under AI control down rail lines and roads, or between adjacent ports (Level 3 and above). The game has a system for automated convoys which does work. Generally, however, optimum efficiency requires constant player evaluation of what to ship on what ship, to what destination, on a case by case basis, every time.









< Message edited by el cid again -- 8/3/2013 9:58:40 PM >

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 313
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Invisible Guerillas! - 8/12/2013 9:13:42 AM   
el cid again

 

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Joined: 10/10/2005
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Of course, since Matrix doesn't have guerillas, this is only an accident.
But there is a guerilla unit in Test Nine which cannot be seen on the
Japanese display!

What that means is that ANY small unit, perhaps any unit at all, has
a chance being unobserved in its hex - and if there is no naval search
over the hex - it won't appear on the enemy display.

In this case, the hex is a RR and road hex, and the LOC is cut - but
three Japanese brigades don't know it - and are proceeding to move
instead of attacking as they would do if they knew.

I had no idea this was possible.

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 314
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Ground Attack Bomb Devices - 10/18/2013 8:47:23 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
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There is a view that aircraft attacks on ground units (from medium and low altitudes) cause too many casualties to such an extent that it distorts the game and prevents historical outcomes.

RHS was founded on the principle of getting data right, aircraft data in particular. In relative terms,
aircraft should be correct with respect to each other: they have the weapons, range, speed etc
that were typical for normal and extended range targets. Performance in attacks on airfields, ports
and ships in task forces is also within reasonable bounds. Two issues remain - strategic (city) bombing
and ground attacks. By going over to using actual typical bomb loads, which involve generally more bombs (and often smaller bombs, particularly early in the war) than stock, we have made the ground combat effects worse, city bombing slightly better than it was, and airfield, port and ship bombing fairly reasonable.

The Beta programs - which RHS uses and requires - permit designation of the weapon on a mission type basis. We have created numerous specialist weapons and assigned them to appropriate missions. For example an anti-ship smart bomb or missile is only used on a naval attack mission. This suggests that it should be possible to create special weapon devices for use in ground attack missions only.

The basic problem is that apparently ground attack code equates one bomb to one target device and ignores effect altogether - so in the basic sense any bomb of any size is equally good, and wether it disables or destroys the target device depends on (a) accuracy and (b) other factors including luck. [It may be that certain squads - classified as AFVs - have a test to see if the bomb penetrates the armor as well] Going over to a historically accurate model involving larger numbers of bombs per aircraft means we take out more squads. This also may explain why stock data has so much smaller bomb loads, and also tends to have bigger bombs resulting in lower bomb counts: it may have been a crude attempt to compensate for the problem.

One thing impossible to evaluate in stock and mods using stock device data (or similar) is that actual statistical evaluation of bomb effects was rendered meaningless by the wide variation in bomb accuracy values. They have a tendency for bigger bombs to be ore accurate. Consider


40 lb bomb 2
30 kg (66 lb) GP bomb 3
100 lb GP bomb 6
100 lb iCB Cluster 1
60 kg (132 lb) GP bomb 6
100 kg (220 lb) SAP bomb 11
250 lb GP bomb 12
250 lb SAP bomb 12
400 lb ICB Cluster 1
500 lb GP bomb 25
500 lb SAP bomb 25
250 kg (551 lb) SAP bomb 26
600 lb SAP bomb 28
300 kg (661 lb) GP bomb 31
300 kg (661 lb) GP bomb 31
1000 lb SAP bomb 50
1000 lb GP bomb 50
500 kg (1102 lb) SAP bomb 55
800 kg (1763 lb) bomb 75
2000 lb GP bomb 80
2000 lb AP bomb 80
4000 lb GP bomb 90
atomic bomb 100

This is technical nonsense. Bomb accuracy tends to be constant. [There are slight variations for bomb shape in still air. If winds are present, there is a very slight tendency for larger bombs to be deflected less. However, the basic problem of strong winds, particularly crosswinds when drops occur at high altitude, render all bombs unable to hit their aim points, regardless of size.] Lacking proving ground data collected to a uniform standard for all bombs, it is safer to use a constant value for bomb accuracy. Using such a value, RHS now has a statistical foundation permitting interpretation of bombing effects.

Historical data notably does NOT tie accuracy to bomb size:

In the aviation enthusiasm of the 1930s, it was popular to claim that Air Corps bombardiers could drop a bomb into a pickle barrel from high altitude. In 1940, Theodore H. Barth, president of Carl L. Norden Inc., said that "we do not regard a 15-foot square ... as being a very difficult target to hit from an altitude of 30,000 feet," provided the bombardier was using that company’s new M-4 bombsight connected to an autopilot.
That was stretching it considerably. In everyday practice in 1940, the average score for an Air Corps bombardier was a circular error of 400 feet, and that was from the relatively forgiving altitude of 15,000 feet instead of 30,000.

The planners were not misled by pickle barrel assumptions. According to data from training and practice bombing, a heavy bomber at 20,000 feet had a 1.2 percent probability of hitting a 100-foot-square target. About 220 bombers would be required for 90 percent probability of destroying the target.

The best accuracy I am aware of was that achieved by Kiddo Butai Kate's training for the attack on Pearl Harbor. Operating in 5 plane V formation, they achieved a 60% chance of a hit on a stationary target of battleship size (which is 12% per bomb dropped) - using 800 kg bombs. The best accuracy of the war may have been achieved in the raid on Clark on the first day of the war. Operating just above the fuse settings of the 3 inch AA guns, about 27,000 feet, in 27 plane V formations dropping 54 242 kg HE bombs, a hit rate on the order of half the Kate value was achieved. These are extreme cases and typical bomb accuracy was consistently lower. After experimentation RHS has settled on a value of 5% for ordinary bombs, with greater values (10, 12 and 15) for smart bombs and 8 % for cluster bombs (assumed to be 3 bomb clusters). This results in rather good outcomes for most target types - ground combat excepted. The penalty for high altitude bombing built into code seems to be excessive - but it is in the right ball park - high altitude bombing is notoriously inaccurate.

I propose to create special packages of 4 bombs used only for ground attacks. These bombs will have the penetration of a single bomb of their type. They will have the effect of two bombs of their type (square root of four equals two - assuming area effects due to pressure and fragmentation on any given point target). They will reduce the number of squads disabled or hit by a factor of four.


(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 315
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Economic Theory (Revision... - 11/18/2013 9:51:48 PM   
el cid again

 

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Moved to page 11

< Message edited by el cid again -- 2/8/2014 7:28:13 AM >

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 316
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Economic Theory (Revision... - 11/23/2013 6:41:44 PM   
Mac Linehan

 

Posts: 1251
Joined: 12/19/2004
From: Denver Colorado
Status: offline
Cid!

Always enjoy your history behind the RHS concepts. Have been away for quite a long time, it is time to check in and see what you and the Team have been doing.

Where would I download the current RHS build?

Thanks in advance.

And hello to Mifune (m7!) - I have missed him.

Mac

_____________________________

LAV-25 2147

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 317
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Aircraft Maneuverability ... - 12/2/2013 10:21:13 PM   
el cid again

 

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Re: RHS Aircraft Maneuverability

Aircraft Maneuverability:

RHS has a defined standard for maneuverability of aircraft. This permits an objective value derived from data, at the price of time to look up that data and perform the calculation. It was developed and "calibrated" in WITP days and involved a protracted technical debate on the forums, in particular to correctly model twin engine
fighters like the P-38. It is just one part of the package of an aircraft's ratings, and not the only factor which matters in air combat.

The basic formula has a 'constant' in front of it. At the present time the value of the constant is one. This constant is the value to change if for some reason the formula needs to be adjusted. The formula itself is intended to help model the relative performance of aircraft correctly. Its basic
elements should not be changed except for clearly demonstrated cause.

The formula is:

Constant times [Base Formula] divided by Number of Engines (round off)

The Base Formula is

Max Speed (in knots) / 20

Plus Initial Rate of Climb (in FPM) / 200

Minus [Empty Equipped Weight (in thousands of pounds) / Wing Area (in sq ft)]
divided by 25

Minus [Normal Loaded Weight (in thousands of pounds) / Total Horsepower]
divided by 25.

Special Cases:

If the engines are all centerline, treat as if one engine.

If the aircraft has butterfly flaps, add two to the result.

To get horsepower for use in this formula for jet or rocket engines,
use 41.3% of the engine rating in terms of pounds static thrust.




< Message edited by el cid again -- 12/2/2013 11:25:27 PM >

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 318
Aircraft Durability Formula - 12/2/2013 10:38:07 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online



Aircraft Durrability:

RHS has a defined standard for maneuverability of aircraft. This permits an objective value derived from data, at the price of time to look up that data and perform the calculation. It was developed and "calibrated" in WITP days and involved a protracted technical debate on the forums, in particular to correctly model twin engine
fighters like the P-38. It is just one part of the package of an aircraft's ratings, and not the only factor which matters in air combat.

The basic formula has a 'constant' in front of it. At the present time the value of the constant is two. That means all results are doubled. This constant is the value to change if for some reason the formula needs to be adjusted. The formula itself is intended to help model the relative performance of aircraft correctly. Its basic
elements should not be changed except for clearly demonstrated cause.

The formula is:

Constant times [Size Formula times Structure Formula]
The Size Formula is:

Square Root of Empty Equipped Weight (in short tons of 2000 pounds)

plus Number of Engines

plus Number of Pilots on flight deck (one or two)

The Structure Formula is:

Armor Rating (may be zero, usually is one, rarely is two, special case may be three)

plus Structure Rating

The Structure Rating is

1.00 for Non-Metal Structure

1.25 for Metal Frame with Fabric or non-metal coverings and/or control surfaces

1.50 for All Metal

2.00 for Geodesic Structure




(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 319
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Ki-72 - 12/7/2013 7:34:42 PM   
el cid again

 

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A plane added by RHS and probably never, ever built in any game
is the Ki-72. It is a late war Tachikawa project - an 'advanced' form
of the Ki-36. It has just come up in my appreciation, to the point it
might be worth putting into production in some game, although it
would be even more likely in a "rerun" of reality - where the cost
of a plane is not in terms of HI points. AE game terms oversimplify
cost - and so you can have any 2 HI point plane for the same cost.
A light bomber with a modest engine would IRL be far cheaper than
a high performance fighter bomber or even a high performance
light bomber/recon plane.

The obvious improvement of the plane is its increased power has
a marginal impact on speed, rate of climb and maneuverability
ratings. Also contributing to maneuverability in the air is the
change to retractable wheels. The increase in maneuverability
is small - but enough to be worth a point in the RHS maneuverabilty
formula (from 16 to 17).

Less obvious is a change I did not previously appreciate,
going from 5 tiny hard points to 6 on each wing (for 15 kg anti-
personnel bombs). That increases normal bomb-load by 20% -
and the ground support value in RHS by 50% - since you now
can carry 3 "packages" of 4 x 15 kg bombs - vice 2 on the Ki-36.

But the most important improvement, which I also did not previously
appreciate or include, is the addition of basic armor protection in
the form of 13 mm plates (for example behind the pilot). The
added weight from engine, undercarriage, additional weapons
and armor all contribute marginally to an increase in durability.
Here the change is significant in terms of the RHS durability
formula - from 8 to 15. This makes the aircraft significantly less
prone to all forms of attrition - including air combat losses, AAA
losses and general operational attrition.

A maneuverability rating of 17 is in the same league of many two
engine fighters, fighter bombers and light bombers. It isn't good
enough to permit the plane to do well against late war, single
engine fighters when unescorted, but all cooperation bombers
and most light bombers suffer from this same flaw. If a Japanese
player expected to be able to have air control and need ground
support and camera recon support for ground combat, and still
had enough HI points and pilots to field a specialist aircraft,
this design might be worth putting into production.

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 320
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: RHS PWHEXE Theory - 12/13/2013 9:38:15 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
I need to find someone to write - or figure out how to script - a "switcher" for pwhexe - so you can do it from a menu. We had one in WITP days.

For now - until we install a switcher -

you do it by hand.

There is ONLY ONE pwhexe.dat file in use at any given time. it is in the top level AE folder and it must be called pwhexe.dat.

The PWHEXE RHS folder is simply a storage location for ALL the DIFFERENT seasons, years and special scenarios in RHS. This does not matter during the start of any game (except for Scenario 106 and a possible future May 42 Scenario). All scenarios presently in use (101 to 105) as well as the about to be released 99 (which
is being released only for feedback just now) start with the single start of game pwhexe.dat file. Its alternate name is 41WINTERpwhexe.dat.

In RHS a pwhexe file has two names - its name with year and season and sometimes a special prefix - and its form after being renamed to pwhexe.dat so you can use it.
In the PWHEXE RHS folder the one file called pwhexe.dat is a renamed 41WINTERpwhexe.dat - so you can quickly find it to use with any game in the first season of the war.

When you play a game in any other season, you must rename the appropriate file (which has that season as a prefix) and move it to the top level AE folder:

Case 1: IF a file has just a year and season, it is for use in strictly historical scenarios BEFORE the end of the historical war (which is to say 45MONSOON).
This applies to all games until 42MONSOON, and to strictly historical scenarios 101-104 as well as the (future) 92 and 106 until 45MONSOON. Notes 1 & 2.

Case 2: IF a file has ENH in front of the year (3 cases - ENH45FALL, ENH46SPRING and ENH46MONSOON) these are ALLIED OPTION ONLY special case files. ENH = enhanced. At the end of the 45 Monsoon season, the Allied player decides if certain strictly historical construction projects are ended, as really happened, or if they continue? If not, use the standard files with the same year and date (i.e. 45FALL, 46SPRING and 46MONSOON). [These are listed in the Seasonal Construction document, attached] It is a package deal - either you want the package - or you want all construction suspended as really happened.] This applies to strictly historical scenarios 101-104, 92 and 106 AFTER the end of 45MONSOON. Note 1.

Case 3: If a file has JES in front of the year (11 cases - from 42WINTER on) - they must be used in Scenarios 99 and 105. JES = Japan Enhanced Scenario. UNTIL 42MONSOON there is only one set of pwhexe.dat files and every game must use them, including JES scenarios. FROM 42WINTER on, JES scenarios 99 and 105 use files with the prefix JES - no exceptions. These files include additional and historical wartime construction of roads and rail lines on both sides. For various reasons, these projects were not completed. It is assumed that in a "stronger Japan" situation the imperatives driving their historical planning cause them to be completed. It does not matter which side controls any given area either. Just as Chinese construction Westward of its main East West RR during the entire war risked the line being captured - and even completed - by the Japanese - so it is in JES scenarios. All these project are listed in the Seasonal Construction document. Note the Allies have many more projects, and generally longer and more expensive projects, than the Japanese - who tended mainly to link existing lines. Note 1.

Note 1: All MONSOON pwhexe.dat files until and including 1943 have a break along the foothills of the Himalayas on the Bengal & Assam Line. This is due to seasonal flooding effects only corrected by wartime engineering.

Note 2: In strictly historical scenarios only, the Eastern Malaya line is DECONSTRUCTED from 42WINTER on. This is because, rather than rolling new rails, the Burma-Siam RR project used the rails ripped up from this line. This applies to both standard and ENH files, but not to JES files - where new rails are used instead.



(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 321
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: RHS PWHEXE Theory - 12/13/2013 9:38:50 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
Spring 1942

Monsoon 1942
Reactivation of minor RR on New Caledonia (1 hex NW from Noumea) by the US Army.
Fall 1942

Winter 1942
Completion of Iranian National RR spur (2 hexes E from Abadan/Khorramshahr) [Not yet executed]
Completion of ALCAN highway as pioneer road (segments of 10 trail hexes, 8 trail hexes, and upgrading of 4 winter tail hexes to year around trail in 3 segments between existing road and rail lines in Canada and Alaska); Deconstruction of the Eastern Malaya RR.

Spring 1943
Upgrading of Whitehorse & Yukon RR to main line completed (2 hexes NW from Skagway)

Monsoon 1943
Road along Burma-Siam RR line completed (5 hexes SE from Ye)
Hunan-Guanzi RR [73/55 Monsoon 1943]

Winter 1943
Completion of Burma-Siam RR (5 hexes SE from Ye)
Completion of ALCAN highway as secondary road (segments of 10, 8 & 4 trail hexes upgraded to minor road)

Spring 1944

Monsoon 1944
Upgrading of Bengal & Assam RR to main line completed (15 hexes from existing line near Jessore to Ledo including major river bridging; 8 hex spur to Chittagong) [Takeover 1 March 1944; 59/34 & 59/35 washout in Monsoon until 1944; Entire line upgrades during Spring 1944! Before this year, 59/34 SE & 59/34 are destroyed every Monsoon season by flooding from the Himalayas!]
Ledo Road completed to Myitkyina [upgrading 4 trail hexes to minor road) [Hex 64/39 Winter 1943; 64/40 Spring 1944; 63/41 & 64/42 Monsoon 1944].

Winter 1944
Completion of the Yellowhead Highway to Prince Rupert (as a Minor Road)
Ledo Road completed to existing Burma Road near Lashio (upgrading 3 more trail hexes between Myitkyina and Lashio). [63/43 & 63/44 Fall 1944; 62/45 & 63/46 Winter 1944]

Spring 1945
Completion of the CANOL road from Camp Canol, Northwest Territory to Whitehorse, Yukon. [188/23 trail Fall 42, SRD Winter 42; 189/24 trail Winter 42, SRD Spring 43; 189/25 trail Spring 43, SRD Monsoon 43; 190/26 trail Spring 43, SRD Fall 43; 189/27 SW, E trail Winter 43, SRD Monsoon 44; 190/27 NW,W trail Monsoon 44, SRD Spring 45; 189/28 SE, NE trail Monsoon 44, SRD Spring 45; 189/29 trail Monsoon 43, SRD Spring 44; 190/30 trail Monsoon 43, SRD Fall 43; 190/31 trail Winter/42, SRD Spring 43; 191/32 trail Fall 42; SRD Spring 43]
Completion of the Longhai Railway to Tanshui. [82/38 SE Fall 1943; 82/38 W Winter 1944; 81/38 Spring 1945]
Completion of Sovietskaya Gavan Railway (from Komsomolsk na Amur) [121/39 SE Spring 1944; 122/40 Monsoon 1944; 123/40 Fall 1944; 123/41 Winter 1944; 124/42 Spring 1945]

Fall 1945
Completion of Sumatra RR (aka 'the second death railway') [46/83 W & 45/84 NE Spring 1945; 45/83 E Monsoon 1945; 45/83 SW Fall 1945; Trail 46/83 W & 45/84 NE Monsoon 1944; 45/83 Fall 1944; SRD 46/83 & 45/84 Winter 1944; 45/83 Spring 1945]

ENH Series: Winter 1945, Spring 1946 and Monsoon 1946 (OPTIONAL)

Completion of Burma-Yunnan RR [62/46 E, 63/46, 63/45 SW, 68/46 NW Fall 1945; 63/45 E, 64/45, 65/45, 67/45, Winter 1945, 66/44, 67/44 Spring 1946] This RR was surveyed and begun in 1941. It generally follows the main road route of the area. It is metric gage and is easier to build through mountains than standard gage would be. This is also the gage of the RR connecting at both ends. This includes extending the primary road from Kunming NW all the way to the mountains as well.

Partial repair of the Kunming-Haiphong RR [68/50 SE Fall 1945; 68/51 NW Winter, 1945; 68/51 SW Spring 1945, 68/52 Monsoon 1945]

Completion of the Liuchow-Kweiyang RR [75/50 SW Fall 1945, 75/50 NW Winter 1945, 74/49 SE Spring 1946]
Early construction of the Kweiyang-Kunming RR. [71/48 NE, 74/49 SW Fall 1945; 71/47, 74/50 Winter 1945; 72/47, 73/50 Spring 1945; 72/48, 72/49 Monsoon 1945]

Upgrading ALCAN to primary road (25 minor road hexes upgraded IF construction not suspended as IRL) [182/30, 183/30, 184/30, 190/32 W, 191/33 E, 192/33, 197/31, 198/31, 199/31 W, 200/31, 201/31, 202/32 Winter 1944; 184/31, 185/32, 189/32, 193/32, 195/31, 196/31 Winter 1945; 185/32, 186/32, 187/32, 194/32, 194/31 Spring 1945]
Completion of the Longhai Railway to Lanzhou [81/34 SE, 81/38 NE Fall 1945; 81/37 SW, 81/35, 81/37 Winter 1945; 81/36 Monsoon 1946]

Completion of the Northern Alberta RR to Fort St John [204/35 W Fall 1945; 205/35 Winter 1945; 203/34 SE Spring 1946]

Completion of the Alice Springs to Birdum RR. This was surveyed from 1939 to 1942 by the Australian Army but never built. Entire line completes by Winter 1945.

Completion of the Mt Isa to Tenant Creek RR. This was surveyed in 1943 by the Australian Army but never built. Entire line completes by Winter 1945. Tenant Creek is on the Alice Springs to Birdum RR listed immediately above.

Partial Completion of the BAM: The Baikal Amur Mainline was not completed until 1991. The first two segments are on the map - Taishet to Bratsk and then to Ust Kut. The last segment is added in 1944-45 - Komsomolsk to Sovietskaya-Gavan. But MOST of the work on the rest was done in 1944-1946 - just not rendered usable in that era. This was a classic "death railway" - about 90% of the 150,000 German and Japanese POWs working on it (until 1954) died. This option shows what a maximum effort could have completed from Fall 1945 through the end of Monsoon 1946. RR Fall 45 107/12 SE & 107/13 NW/SE; Winter 45 108/14 NW/SW; Spring 46 107/15 NE/SE; Monsoon 46 108/16 NW/SE; Fall 45 121/39 NW; 121/38 SE/NW; Winter 45 120/37 SE,NW; 120/36 SE/W; Spring 46 119/36 E/NW; 118/35 SE/NE; Monsoon 46 118/34 SW/NW; 118/33 SW/NW]

House Rule: Do not repair the oil wells and refinery at Whitehorse, Yukon until May, 1945. These model the Canol pipeline and a refinery moved from Texas and it took until June, 1945 to get them fully operational. An ALTERNATE option is to repair the oilfields and oil refinery at Kenai, Alaska. This is probably not feasible in Winter (how could you move enough supplies to even begin?) - but it was a known option not taken (due to greater risk of Japanese capture). In strictly historical scenarios, there is not enough money to do both. If you fix Kenai, do not fix Whitehorse. In Scenario 105, it is an Allied option whether to allocate additional funds and do both?

Special Case: The Copper River RR is present in ALL versions of the pwhex files. It runs from Cordova, Alaska to Kennicot, a wholly undeveloped dot location. This RR was abandoned in 1938 when the copper mines were closed due to low copper prices. Other copper mines were reopened in WWII (for example in Michigan and in Montana). This copper mine can be reopened IF an Allied player moves engineer to the dot location along with lots of supplies – in which case the RR will function. The Million Dollar Bridge remained in tact until the 1964 earthquake. This location and RR may be ignore by any player who does not want to use them – and NOTHING will move along it – since there will be no production unless the damaged resources are repaired.

Special Case: The RR tunnel to Whittier Alaska is considered completed if you repair the port (it starts at zero). Because there is no way to have the rail line incomplete and still run its route - we simply have the Whittier hex not function as a port unless you fix it. There is an engineer unit in the hex to do that.
Special Rule: At the start of Fall, 1945 (i.e. after the historical end of WWII), the ALLIED player gets to decide if standard seasonal pwhexe.dat files will be used from then on? Standard files contain strictly historical construction data. The alternative is to use pwhexe.dat files with enhanced construction. The projects are indicated above. All were either contemplated and/or actually completed in time. They are a package deal - take all or none. Most of these projects are in or near China. The exception is the paving of the ALCAN highway.

Rejected historical case: The Haines "Highway" - if we blocked it in Winter and Monsoon, it is hardly worth having! The highway was built by the U.S. Army in 1943 as an alternate route from the Pacific Ocean to the Alaska Highway, in case the White Pass and Yukon Route railway from Skagway should be blocked. The total cost of the construction was US$13 million. In the first decades after the war, maintenance was spotty at best; the road was plagued with blizzards in winter and mudslides in summer, and for a time in the 1960s and 1970s, all vehicles traveling the highway were monitored on radio. Year-round access was not achieved until 1963.

Japan Enhanced Scenario [From Winter 1942] Optional Files

Eastern Malaya RR: Not deconstructed from Winter 1942. Instead, the Burma Siam RR is built with new rails.
North Borneo Road & Railroad Extension: Upgrading of trail to secondary road: 66/87 W, 65/87, 64/87E Winter 1942; 66/87 E, 67/87 Spring 1943; 69/86 SE, 69/87 NW Monsoon 1943; 70/88 NW Fall 1943; 70/88 SW 69/90 NE Spring 1944; 69/89 NE, SW Monsoon 1944; Minor RR 66/87 W Spring 1943; 65/87 E Monsoon 1943; 65/87 W Fall 1943; 64/87 E Winter 1943; 68/86 E Spring 1944; 69/86 W Monsoon 1944, 69/86 SE Fall 1944; 69/87 NW Winter 1944; 69/87 SE Spring 1945; 70/88 NW Monsoon 1945; 70/88 SE, 69/90 NE Fall 1945; 69/89 Winter 1945.

Indochina-Siam RR: Minor RR: 60/71 NW, 60/70, 59/69, 59/68 Entire Line Winter 1942.

Vientiane-Siam RR Extension: Minor RR 62/57 SW, 62/58 NE Entire extension Winter 1942.

South Sumatra RR West Extension: Minor RR 45/91 E, 46/91 W Entire extension Spring 1942.

South Samatra RR North Extension: Minor RR 48/91 NW Spring 1944; 48/90 NW, SE Monsoon 1944, 47/89 SE Fall 1944; 47/89 NE, 48/88 SW Winter 1944

Early Completion of Sumatra RR (aka 'the second death railway') [46/83 W & 45/84 NE Winter 1943; 45/83 Spring 1944; Trail 46/83 W & 45/84 NE Monsoon 1943; 45/83 Fall 1943; SRD 46/83 & 45/84 Fall 1943; 45/83 Winter 1943]
Completion of Nanning-Liuchow RR: Major RR 73/55 Winter 1942.

Huangchow-Ningpo RR: Minor RR 90/55 SE, 91/56 NW Spring 1943; 91/56 E, 92/56 W Monsoon 1943.

Shou-Hsein RR: Minor RR: 88/49 SW, 88/50 NE Fall 1943.

Nanping RR: Minor RR: 87/56 SW, 86/57 NE Winter 1943.

Ichang RR: Minor RR: 84/49 NW, 84/48 Spring 1944, 83/48, 82/47 Monsoon 1944

Nanyang RR: Minor RR: 85/45 E, 86/45, 87/45 W Fall, 1944

Bohei Gulf RR: Minor RR 95/46 E, 96/46 Spring 1945; 96/45, 97/45 W Monsoon 1945; 97/45 SE, 98/46 NW Fall 1945.
Formosa RR: 87/64 NE, 87/63 SW Winter 1942.

Hainan RR: 69/61 E, 70/61, 71/61 W Spring 1943.

Chifoo Road: Major Road: 98/46 NW Winter 1942.

Kaiyang Road: Major Road: 82/60 E, 83/60 W Spring 1943.

Haichow Road: Major Road 93/48 W, 92/48 E Monsoon 1943

Sakhalin Road: Major Road 126/43 W, 125/43, 124/46 NE, 124/45 Winter, 1942; 125/44 Spring 1943.

Hokkaido Road: Major Road 122/50 Winter 1942; 122/49, 122/48 Spring 1943.

Yinkow Road: Major Road 101/43 E, 102/43 W Winter 1942

Fushun Road: Major Road 104/42 E, 105/42, 106/42 W Spring 1943.

Harbin Road: Major Road 107/41 NE, 108/40, 109/40 W Monsoon 1943.

Taonan Road Link: Major Road 107/39 SE, 108/40 NW Fall 1943.

Konan Road: Major Road 105/47 NW, 105/46 Winter, 1943; 105/45, 106/44 SW Spring 1944.

Tsitsihar Road Link: Major Road 109/38 NW, 108/37 SE Monsoon 1944.

Kuching Road: Minor Road 58/88 SW, 57/89 NE Winter 1943

Burma-Siam Highway: Upgrading to primary road along Burma-Siam RR: Spring 1944.

Early Completion of Glenn Highway: Major Road 181/35 NE, 182/34 SW Winter 1942

Northern Alberta RR: Major RR: 204/35, 203/35 Winter 1942; 203/34 Spring, 1943; 202/33 Monsoon 1943; 202/32 Fall 1943; 201/31 Winter 1943, 200/31, 199/31 E Spring 1944.

BC & Yukon RR: Major RR: 199/31 W, 198/31 Monsoon 1944; 197/31, 196/31 Fall 1944; 195/31 E Winter 1944; 195/31 W, 194/31 E & SW, 194/32, 190/33 E, 191/33 Spring 1945; 192/33, 193/33 W & NE Monsoon 1945.

Seward Highway: Secondary Road 181/36, 182/36 Winter 1942; 181/37 Spring 1943; 182/38 Monsoon 1943; Primary Road 181/36, 182/36 W Spring 1943; 181/37 Monsoon 1943; 182/38 Fall 1943.

Kenai Highway: Secondary Road 181/37 W Monsoon, 1943; 180/37 Fall 1943; Primary Road 181/37 Winter, 1943; Primary Road 180/37 Monsoon 1944. CANOL ROAD cancelled. Do NOT repair refinery or oilwells at Whitehorse. DO repair refinery and oilwells at Kenai.

Kenai RR: Major RR 181/37 W Winter 1943 1943; 180/37 E Spring 1944

Alaska RR Copper River RR Link: 181/35 NE Winter 1943; 182/34, 183/34, 184/34 W Spring 1944.

Copper River & Northwestern RR: Trail 186/34 NE, 186/33 SW NE, 187/32 SW Winter 1943; Major RR 186/34 NE Spring 1944; 186/33 SW Monsoon 1944; 186/33 NE, 187/32 SW & E Fall 1944; 188/32 E & W Monsoon 1944; 189/32 E & W Spring 1944; 190/32 W & SE, 190/33 NW Winter 1943.

Upgrading ALCAN to primary road (25 minor road hexes upgraded IF construction not suspended as IRL) [182/30, 183/30, 184/30, 190/32 W, 191/33 E, 192/33, 197/31, 198/31, 199/31 W, 200/31, 201/31, 202/32 Monsoon 1944; 184/31, 185/32 NW, 189/32, 193/33, 195/31, 196/31 Winter 1944; 185/32 E, 186/32, 187/32, 194/32, 194/31 Spring 1945]

Completion of the Yellowhead Highway to Prince Rupert: Secondary Road 200/41 SW, 200/42, 199/43 Winter 1942

Restoration of Anyox Tramway: Minor RR 199/42 SE, 199/43 NW Winter, 1942.

Completion of the Alice Springs to Birdum RR. This was surveyed from 1939 to 1942 by the Australian Army but never built. Entire line completes Winter 1942.

Completion of the Mt Isa to Tenant Creek RR. This was surveyed in 1943 by the Australian Army but never built. Entire line completes by Spring 1943. Tenant Creek is on the Alice Springs to Birdum RR listed immediately above.

Upgrading of Bengal & Assam RR to main line completed (15 hexes from existing line near Jessore to Ledo including major river bridging; 8 hex spur to Chittagong) [Takeover 1 March 1943; 59/34 & 59/35 washout in Monsoon until 1943; Entire line upgrades during Spring 1943! Before this year, 59/34 SE & 59/34 are destroyed every Monsoon season!]

Ledo Road upgraded to primary road to Myitkyina: Winter 1944.

Ledo Road upgraded to primary road to Lashio: Spring 1945.

Ledo Road extension to Lao Wing: Monsoon 1945.

Ledo Road extension to Paoshan: Fall 1945.

Ledo Road extension to Tsuyung: Winter 1945.

Dimapur-Ledo Road: Spring 1945.

Modified Partial Completion of the BAM: The Baikal Amur Mainline was not completed until 1991. The first two segments are on the map - Taishet to Bratsk and then to Ust Kut. This option assumes a modified plan and maximum effort to work on the Northern segments of the line due to increased concerns about the Japanese in the Far East. RR Winter 1942 107/12 SE & 107/13 NW/SE; Spring 1943 108/14 NW/SW; Monsoon 1943 107/15 NE/SE; 108/16 NW/SE; Fall 1943 108/17 NW/SE; Winter 1943 109/18 NE/SW; Spring 1944 109/19 NW/SE; Monsoon 1944 110/20 NW/SE, 110/21 NW/E; Fall 1944 111/21 W/E; Winter 1944 112/21 W/E; Spring 1945 113/21 W/SE; Monsoon 1945 114/22 NW/E, 115/22 W/SE; Fall 1945 114/23 NW/SE; Winter 1945 116/24 NW/SE, 116/25 NW/SE; 114/27 E, 115/27 W/NE; Spring 1946 117/26 NW/SE/W, 116/26 SW/E; Monsoon 1946 117/27 NW/SW, 118/28 NW/SW, 117/29 NE. The farthest segment of the line to Sovietskaya Gavan is NOT build when this option is in play.

Extension of ALCAN to Nome: Pioneer Road (trail) 171/30 SW, E to 179/30 W, 169/30 NE, 169/31 SW, E, 170/31 W/NE Spring 1944; Secondary Road 179/29 SW, 179/30 NE, 169/30 NE, 169/31 SW Spring 1944; 176/30 to 179/30 W, 169/31 E, 170/31 W/NE, 171/30 SW/E Monsoon, 1944; 172/30 to 175/30 Winter 1944; Primary Road Spring 1945.






< Message edited by el cid again -- 12/13/2013 10:44:17 PM >

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 322
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Seasons Defined - 12/13/2013 11:36:04 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
Tacitus asks:

If I am understanding you correctly, then whichever file applies to the in game current date should be renamed pwehxe.dat, then copied and pasted into the top level folder of WITP?

Which leads to this question: On what calendar dates (month and day) are each of these files replaced? The year is already listed in the file name, but I would need to know the month and day on which to replace the seasonal files.

ANSWER: Monsoon and Winter are defined by hard code (and the player manual). Spring and Fall lie between their definitions.

Winter - November to February
Spring - March and April
Monsoon - May to August
Fall - September and October

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 323
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: RHS Ju-88 Theory - 12/16/2013 6:09:47 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
RHS Ju-88 Logic

Reworking aircraft data for RHS/AE, in part due to new materials on wartime Japanese aircraft development, I have become aware of a greater level of cooperation between the Axis powers than previously I had understood. Having reached the point of working out the details of the Ju-88 "family" of sub-types (there are no less than ten in RHS, two strictly historical P1Y1 and P1Y2 types for the JNAF and eight Ki-50 variants found only in Japan Enhanced Scenarios for the JAAF), I decided to write an article explaining the logic involved.

The Allies were aware of close cooperation between Junkers and Mitsubishi. It seemed so logical the Japanese would adopt and adapt the Ju-88 that a code name was assigned (Janice). Ironically, when a Ju-88 variant was spotted, it was not recognized as such, never mind the unique shape of the type, a completely different code name was assigned (Lorna)! I managed to miss this for decades myself, only discovering reading German materials that the P1Y series was in fact an adapted Ju-88. A dive bomber already, it was fitted with radar and MAD gear, and relatively low powered engines suitable for long ASW patrols. A mid-war aircraft, it was hopelessly unable to deal with high performance Allied fighters then entering service.

Less well known is that the JAAF had decided on building a "Ki-90" variant of the Ju-90 - but as a bomber instead of as a transport. The Ju-90 itself was a development of the Ju-89 bomber, so this was probably more feasible than the JNAF project to convert the FW-200 Condor to a maritime patrol bomber. However, the account of a Mitsubishi engineer who worked with Junkers indicates the project ended when the war in Europe began, with apologies from Junkers, whose limited resources were entirely required for German developments. He then describes how Mitsubishi turned to a different Ki-90 design, based on the Condor, but to JAAF specifications rather than as a naval patrol plane. [This is the Ki-90 option presented in Japan Enhanced Scenarios of RHS.] The point of this paragraph is that, had the JAAF wished to acquire a by then relatively old twin engine bomber, its early work with Junkers would have got farther than trying to develop a bomber from the Ju-90 transport did, by the same date.

The Ju-88 was a remarkable aircraft. Designed as a specialist "fast bomber" because the KLM decided a multi-purpose specification was a mistake (!!), it became the basis for important night fighter and recon variants. It is significantly better protected and has better offensive and defensive armament than early war IJA bombers do. The dive bomber A1 version, already years old, could have been licensed in 1938. The later A4 variant, capable of mounting torpedoes, would have been possible to develop from it, using more powerful engines. The A4 was the basis for early night fighter and recon developments. The recon variant has slightly more range than the Ki-46 II, and has twice as many cameras. The night fighter is at least available early (if without radar in both Germany and Japan and without upward firing guns developed later). Later in the war, increased engine power would permit better performing versions of all three - bomber, night fighter and recon. At the very end of the war the night fighter could be armed with the first operational AAMs in the world - the Ha-298 radio controlled weapon. Unsuitable for day use, when simple jammers would defeat its command link, it was effective at night. All of these are presented as options in the Japan Enhanced Scenarios 99 and 105. Any version not considered realistic should simply not be built by players.

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 324
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Q2M1 Taiyo (Peggy) ASW Ai... - 12/17/2013 12:19:16 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
Working on integrating Mifune's Scenario 99 (RHSGAP = Greater Asian Prosperity), I came across a reference to a Q2W aircraft. Integrating internet materials with an extensive technical library, I was able to determine this referred to the Q2M1 variant of the Ki-67 Peggy which indeed had the nickname Taiyo. Still in design when WWII ended, I didn't include it in RHS, and I had no clear understanding of its armament or performance. I was able to do remarkably better with today's resources, which include a great deal of new information about Japanese aircraft than even was available at the Mitsubishi Aviation Museum when I visited it in 1968. Having worked in aviation in the 1980s, I was able to estimate the slightly confused data I found into a reasonable package.

The aircraft had lower performance engines than the original Ki-67 did, rated at 1840 hp for take off. This resulted in a service ceiling of 12,156 feet. From this I calculated an RHS altitude of 9,722 feet (a value halfway between optimum operating altitude and service ceiling so players cannot fly so high they cannot maneuver). For aircraft with piston engines without superchargers, we estimate this as 80% of service ceiling.

Its defensive armament was 3 Type 2 13.2 mm machine guns. Its offensive armament was 4 large Type 19 ASW Bombs when hunting submarines, or 4 551 kg SAP bombs for naval surface targets, or 10 100 kg HE bombs for land targets. The maximum load is the same as for the Ki-67, 2360 pounds - which is only slightly greater than all the armament options listed.

Its detection suite includes a Type 3 Ku 6 Mod 4 airborne surface search radar,
a Type MAD set, and an unspecified ESM set.

Its full speed 265 knots and its cruising speed probably 200 knots yielding a flight duration of 391 minutes. Its maximum range was 1304 nautical miles yielding an extended range (57%) of 743 and a normal range (48%) of 626.

Since it was a paper design when the war ended in August 1945, it would have taken until at least February 1946 to reach production assuming it tied with the best performance ever by the Japanese aviation industry. Even then it could not enter production unless the specific factories for its engines and airframe were undamaged and able to get sufficient HI points to make them.



< Message edited by el cid again -- 12/17/2013 1:19:54 AM >

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 325
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Modeling the Frank - 12/19/2013 7:13:56 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
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It is surprisingly hard to define the Frank.

There were no less than four engines used on production Ki-84 Is,
and three on the Ki-84 IIs - with 2 used by both! In addition, there
were additional models, including several Ki-84s, Ki-113s, Ki-117s
and Ki-116s, which used both these engines and at least two others.
If that isn't confusing enough, the Ki-113 variant used a much lower
powered engine (1500 hp vs 1800 to 2500), yet shaving more than
a thousand pounds off its airframe meant little difference in performance.

There is also a difference between company designations and service ones,
and the Ki-84 II models were always classified as Ki-84 Is. Unlike the norm
in JAAF designations, the II did not refer to a different engine, but rather
to a different structure (much less aluminum). There was also a III model
which was a specialized high altitude design using a highly supercharged
but otherwise lower powered engine which seems very similar in performance
to the Ki-117 (designated Ki-84N in company terminology). And there was a
less ambitious Ki-84R which was similar, which no doubt would have been
made under a still different, but unknown Ki number.

A different issue is quantity production. In December 1944 no less than 373 Ki-84s came off the line - the highest production of any aircraft in Japan in the entire war.
Reaching such numbers is utterly impossible in game terms. And, in spite of building ever more plants for the type, destruction of an engine plant in particular and other kinds of bombing caused shortages prevented sustaining that level of production.

I have elected to simplify the number of models (from around a dozen) to five (and am thinking about adding a sixth). These will include

the Ki-84 Ia (2 x 12.7 mm plus 2 x 20 mm). Modeling early production these use a 1800 hp engine and the player gets 14 a month for free (= 84, modeling the 85 pre production machines which gradually entered service alongside the production type, and which were identical).

That upgrades to the Ki-84 Ib (4 x 20 mm). Modeling the middle production series, it has an 1800 hp engine (we use the actual hp as a factor in calculating maneuverability, never mind in game terms it looks like the same engine). This is the main production model and it includes 120 per month for "free" - to provide a temporary surge in the period from late 1944 through early 1945.

At the same time as the Ib the Ic is in production. (2 x 30 mm, 2 x 20 mm) This plane has an 1825 hp engine that more or less perfectly offsets the slight gain in weight. 12 of these are made per month for "free" - insuring a small number of bomber destroyer models achieve service.

Both the Ib and Ic upgrade to what I am calling the Ki-84 II (4 x 20 mm). This has a 2000 hp engine and slightly better performance. It represents late model production and 60 of these are produced for 'free' to provide a floor below which you cannot go - modeling late war underground and dispersed factories - and various recycling projects providing a limited amount of aluminum and referbished engines. In fact, once again there would be different engines (some are 1990 hp) - so close as not to warrant separate models. However, this model represents the first time the problems with turbo supercharged engines was overcome - so maintenance time is reduced. Oddly the increased power is so offset by increased weight performance remains very close to other models.

After the end of the historical war, a Ki-117 model enters production. This is a high altitude version with a three stage turbo supercharger and a 2500 hp engine. It is also very similar in performance to other models at normal altitudes, but much better at high altitude. [Increase in weight offsets increased power almost perfectly - but increased wing area helps maneuverability up high and a better supercharger system maintains power at higher levels at altitude.]

We could add a Ki-113. This is a Mansyu development with a view to weight reduction and use of alternative materials, and lower powered engines. It was very successful - but too late to see service. Using the smallest engine of the entire set,
it was also able to achieve nearly identical performance with other models. It reverted to the original 2 x 12.7 mm and 2 x 20 mm offensive armament. It would become available in late 1945.

(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 326
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Economic Theory - 2/8/2014 6:26:44 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
Stock and RHS) Economic Theory

1. General: I find few players, even those with economics degrees, actually manage the economy when playing AE. Instead of managing the economy, they tend to ignore it until some crisis shuts down something critical, at which point they try to address that. This article is an attempt to provide a theoretical framework to use to proactively manage the economy with a minimum of effort. Since most mods use the stock system, and since RHS and mods based on it use a significantly modified system, I will try to explain where and how and why these differ? Since they are broadly similar, the basic ideas are the same. Essentially, both the stock system and the RHS system attempt to simplify the amount of player management required using very different approaches to the problem.
The manual section 13.0 (The Production System, page 225) says "The economic system in war in the Pacific Admiral's Edition is similar to, but modified from, the original War in the Pacific game. There are several new types of industries, and the inputs and outputs of the industry centers have been changed. These changes have been made to allow a more detailed and accurate simulation of the wartime economies of the combatants in the war."

I am glad to see the use of the term "accurate simulation" in this description. Sometimes forum commentaries say "AE is a game, not a simulation." Yet it only works when a reasonable effort is made to simulate the fundamental economic situation that serves as context, as well as the means for prosecuting the war. Japan is unusually dependent on imports for its industry: domestic resources are more limited than for any other significant nation. The Allied attempt to force Japan to submit to its will by threatening to cut off imports of oil, iron ore and rubber backfired: Japan was unwilling to be dictated to, not merely over China, but over any issue that might arise from then on. So instead, it attempted to create an autarky - a self sufficient local economy - at the expense of resources and oil from Allied colonial areas. The game war is ultimately about whether Japan can establish, and then defend, such an autarky? For this reason, the Japanese need a clear sense of what is needed, and how to manage it? Similarly, the Allies need a clear sense of what Japan needs to do, to interfere with it, in addition to being able to optimize Allied on map production so they have more to fight with sooner.
The manual goes on to explain the Production System is not identical for both sides. "When the Production System is on, Japan can control all elements of their industry...The Japanese can expand and convert their factories whereas the Allies cannot." It goes on to explain that most Allied production is off map, and also that most Allied production is allocated for other theaters of war - so a total Allied management of their economy exceeds the scope of the Pacific War. Japan and the places it may control are entirely on the map, and all their production is used in the game. Andrew Brown also writes that the Allied theater commanders are not in charge of what gets built: that is decided by others and not under their control. Japan was actually controlled by its military services, and they substantially do get to decide what to build? As well, the Allies eventually have a vast number of units to manage, and a simplified economic system helps avoid bogging the player down with too much detail. There is a problem with 1945 (and later) Allied production: obviously the Allies can send more to the Pacific than they could have done early in the war; they also have vastly more units to "feed" in PTO.

Page 2 Economic Theory

Some aspects of the economy are automated. Certain locations can generate "free supplies" - that is, supplies, fuel, oil and/or resources can automatically appear at the location every turn. As well, roads and rail lines, and adjacent ports when level 3 or above, will automatically "ship" supplies, fuel, oil and/or resources as required, within code defined limits of the capacity of the particular connection. When resource centers or oil wells are connected by road or rail or adjacent major ports, SOME of the management of shipping between various points is removed from the player. Unfortunately, this often is not completely the case, or players may wish to modify what is sent where in some operational situations. It is possible to influence what a given location tries to import by using the location display to say "yes" or "no" to stockpiling supplies, fuel, oil or resources. As well, the amount of supplies requested can be modified on the same display. When locations are connected by lines of communication, turning on stockpiling at one and off for the other will tend to maximize the movement of what is wanted in the specified direction.
As always, the devil is in the details. And there are real differences between the way stock AE and RHS work with respect to the production system. Because stock had to have a playable game in order to issue the program, it developed relatively few locations economically: many locations have no local industry at all and many problems exist trying to feed major industrial centers from the few places that generate what they need. As an expedient mechanism, many places were given "free supplies" (which might be resources, fuel or oil) to facilitate production. Thus, resource poor Japan has several gigantic resource producing locations, simply because neither AI nor human players would import enough resources for the huge industrial centers in Japan. With years more time available for research, RHS adopted a more detailed approach, doing a microeconomic analysis of every location, on about twice as many locations. This process included discovering things like oil fields or certain kinds of industries which are not modeled at all in stock. Precisely what is needed, and where, and in what quantity, is significantly different depending if the mod uses the stock or RHS production system. In general, "free supplies" in RHS are at map edge entry points, or are very limited modeling something very specific about a location. As well, HI in RHS is much more demanding of resources, as a deliberate attempt to require the use of shipping to support the economy. While the same principles apply regardless, they apply more in RHS than in the stock system. In RHS, you MUST import the resources used by Tokyo industry, or shut down production, or it will automatically shut down when they are consumed. The amount needed EXCEEDS what can be imported by railroad or road, so much MUST come by ship. RHS generally provides players with more ships, but requires most of the shipping be used to support the economy - or production will be dramatically lower than it could in theory be.
Finally, note that much industry in RHS starts the game "damaged" - particularly for the Allies. This permits a measure of player control over "growth" of the economy - at the price of supply points used to "repair" the industry. It is not intended that everything be repaired at once, in most cases. In particular, aircraft factories for types not yet in production should NOT be repaired in odd numbered scenarios - so production will "ramp up" and also so that excessive drain on available supplies will not occur at game start. [Even numbered scenarios have a simplified system for aircraft production.]

Page 3 Economics Theory

2. Primary Industry: In the most basic sense, there are three kinds of economic inputs in the game: resources, oil and manpower. These are used by secondary industries to produce fuel, supplies and HI (Heavy Industry) points. These in turn are used by tirtiary industries to produce various weapons systems as well as being consumed by ships and land units and construction activities to facilitate operations. However, in the case of the Allies, much (probably most) production of supplies, fuel, and weapons is done automatically and off map or at the map edge in the form of "free supplies" rather than industry generated - so the Allied player(s) responsibility is restricted to the fraction which is on map. However, the Allies have several medium sized and many small economic zones, and these will better support operations if actively managed than if ignored. In RHS a fraction of off map production is industry generated - in part so production can grow during the war rather than force a constant rate for the entire period. Also the Allies generally don't use HI points, aircraft factories possibly excepted.
The ratios of production inputs and outputs may differ between the stock system and the RHS system, although only in degree, not in kind:
1) A Resource Center in stock produces 20 (tons) of resources per day. In RHS they care called Resource Stations or Mines and produce 36 (tons) per day. As an input to Heavy Industry, Recourses are (by weight) mostly coal. The largest single non-coal component by weight is iron ore. After that, in order, is copper, aluminum, tin and trace materials. As an input to Light Industry, Resources are (by weight) mostly timber (logs), gravel, and agricultural crops (both to make food and fabric, and to make gun-cotton). After that, they include various chemical minerals, such as sulphur, used to make things not made by Heavy Industry. When a location has ONLY "damaged resource centers" it is considered to be a location where resources are not developed which players are permitted to develop with the technology of the time. One case is the wholly undeveloped Ramree Island (hex 54, 48), which has no port or resource centers, but which can have both infrastructure built and "resource centers repaired" if a player wishes to invest in them.
2) An Oil Center in stock is identical in output to an Oilwell/Rubber Plantation in RHS: each produces 10 (tons) of oil (or rubber) per day. When a location has less than 5 "oilwells" RHS considers them to be "rubber plantations" instead. When a location has ONLY "damaged oilwells" it is considered to be a known oilfield that is not developed which players are permitted to develop with the technology of the time. One case is the wholly undeveloped Ramree Island (hex 54, 48), which has no port or airfield, but which can have both infrastructure built and "oilwells repaired" if a player wishes to invest in them. One case is exceptional: "oilwells" at Whitehorse, Yukon Territory represent the end of a pipeline from Norman Wells, Northwest Territories - and they should NOT be "repaired" until the pipeline was completed (in Spring 1945).

Page 4 Economics Theory

3) A Manpower Center in stock produces 5 manpower per day. In RHS it is only one. Manpower is not generally a limitation in game terms. For this reason, RHS has reduced production to the minimum level, in the hope that sometimes it will be a limitation. RHS also has many more locations with manpower centers because it has added so many locations and because it redefined existing locations which had massive populations to have manpower centers. RHS defines Manpower Centers as 100,000 population in an urban area. In RHS, a city with 4 to 9 Manpower Centers is defined as Urban Light, while a city with 10 plus Manpower Centers is defined as Urban Heavy. These definitions are reflected in the RHS pwhexe.dat files. Manpower Centers are also a factor in defining the victory points and garrison requirements associated with a location in RHS.
3. Secondary Industry: The ratios of production inputs and outputs differ between the stock system and the RHS system, although only in degree, not in kind:
1) A Light Industry Center in Stock requires 15 (tons of) resources in and generates one (ton of) supply out. In RHS, each LI Center requires 18 (tons of resources) in and generates three (tons of) supply out. Thus there is a fundamental difference in the ratio of resources to supplies: when LI is used to make them, the ratio is 15:1 in stock but only 6:1 in RHS. This is because there are few industries which are so horribly inefficient as to require 15 tons of input for every ton produced. A typical Light Industry might be a sawmill or a cannery or a cotton mill or a sulpheric acid plant: RHS assumes that Light Industry is 250% more efficient in terms of weight of output compared to weight of input than stock does. Also that each light industry center is 300% as productive. Light industry is "powered" by the resources it consumes: if an energy source is required, it is assumed that low grade coal or wood is burned to get it, and both are part of the "resources" consumed to make a supply point.
2) A Heavy Industry Center in stock requires 20 (tons of) resources in. As well, it requires 2 (tons of) fuel as input. It makes 2 supply points and 2 HI points for a ratio of 5.5 tons of input per ton of output. In RHS, HI Centers are more productive but also more efficient: they need 36 (tons of) resources plus 4 (tons of) fuel in, and produce 5 supply points and 5 HI points out. The RHS radio is 4 tons of input per ton of output. But the important difference isn't in the ratio change: each HI center demands 180 % more resources and 100% more fuel. For this reason, locations with many HI centers often require vastly more shipping to get what they need to stay productive all the time. For players who make that happen, these centers also are able to generate a 250% more supplies and 250% more HI points. This makes HI Centers even more important than in stock. As well, it permits Japan to produce somewhere near its historical quantity of ships, aircraft and armaments, and occasionally to consider expanding industry - none of which is practical in stock. Nominally, the Allies don't use HI points. But it appears that Allied aircraft production either does use them, or it has been coded so that some day it can use them: the HI required field is active on the Allied economic display. One reason to think this is the case is that if HI shuts down at an Allied location, all aircraft production turns OFF at the same location. Heavy industry is substantially coal powered, and about 2/3 of the resources (by weight) consumed are coal for power or for coking in steelmaking. However, since fuel is consumed, 10% of the input should be considered to be lubricants and petroleum derived chemicals, or rubber required by certain products.

Page 5 Economics Theory

The typical HI Center is an Iron Smelter combined with a Steelmill. Steel is the second most important strategic material, after oil, used by a WWII era industrial economy. HI Points made by HI Centers substantially represent steel production.
3) An Oil Refinery in stock requires 10 (tons of) oil in and produces 9 (tons of) fuel plus one (ton of) supply out. In RHS, it requires 20 (tons of) oil in and produces 16 (tons of) fuel plus 3 (tons of) supply out. This means that RHS refineries are not perfectly efficient: 1/20th of the oil is "consumed" to power the refinery itself. Also, each refinery demands 100% more oil, and produces 177% more fuel and 300% more supplies than in stock. This was done mainly to make it easier to model historical production rates. The effect is to increase the demand for tankers to ship oil to Refineries as well as to move fuel from them. Note that there are some local sources of fuel other than refineries: these represent industrially exploited coal gas, natural gas and hydro electric dams. Notes (i.e. [Coal Gas] [Nat Gas] [Hydro]) in a location name indicate the presence of such a fuel source. It is considered to be used by HI in the same hex.
Note there are three different ways to make supply points, each with a different primary "cost" to make them. LI Centers, HI Centers and Refineries ALL make supply points - but each demands a different input to do so. Thus it is not possible to say what a supply point costs in terms of resource and oil points? It is either 15 (for LI), 5 (for HI), or 1 (for Refineries) in stock OR it is 6 (for LI), 4 (for HI), or 1.0526 (for Refineries) in RHS. [Here HI centers measure resources required per ton of output by dividing the total of supply points out PLUS HI points out into the resources or fuel in.] This is not very different from real life and is good modeling: the cost to produce the things we consume is not identical - it varies from one case to the next. But it is never, ever perfectly efficient.

4. Tertiary Industry: Tertiary industry produces aircraft engines (Japanese only), aircraft, ships, armaments and motor vehicles. All of these are featured in the player displays and in most cases have control switches permitting production to be turned on and off. In addition, there are a few special cases where devices are produced by name. For example, at Batavia the KNIL Heavy Improvised AFV and the KNIL Obervalwagan are produced. These industries can have repair turned on or off, but lack production buttons. This system was introduced by stock for production of certain Japanese weapons, like missiles, and has been considerably expanded by RHS. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and several cities in India produce various kinds of vehicles - and these usually upgrade to better vehicles over time. If they are captured by the enemy, they can be repaired and will produce - but dump their products into the pools of the "wrong side" - so generally a player who captures a location with such an industry should not repair it!

Page 6 Economics Theory

Tirtiary industry management can be very complicated, particularly for Japan with respect to aircraft and the different engine types needed to produce them. In RHS, some effort has been made to simplify this. Simplified RHS Scenarios all have even numbers (92, 102, 104 and 106). For both sides, in Simplified RHS, aircraft production "ramp up" is crudely simulated, so there is less need to "repair factories" - simply turn on production when the date arrives a type enters production. Except in cases of very low production, the starting date will be a month later in time, and production will start at the full rate for the factory. Stock does not use training aircraft as trainers: such trainers as exist either are used for recon, or in Downfall Scenarios, as suicide attack aircraft by Japan. RHS does use trainers as such (Japan only), implementing code permitting training air units - which works fine. However, while a player MAY produce trainers, much trainer production is wholly automated and does not require player management (and also cannot be diverted from trainer production to warplane production). The Japanese may produce EXTRA trainers if for some reason they wish to, but they cannot prevent the basic trainer production of history and divert that to producing something like Zero fighters. Similarly, and on both sides, RHS has automated some air transport production, particularly for types which players would not elect to make but which are available for operations. Note that Japanese training air units are NOT able to perform normal missions - only training missions. The rare Allied training air units (see Liuchow China for example) are cases where an air academy fielded squadrons of trainers for OPERATIONAL use, generally for recon or bomber missions. Other Allied units using trainers - common in IAF and USMC for example - also permit operational missions - and the units eventually upgrade to combat types. In addition to aircraft management, ship conversion is under player control. Japan also may suspend, stop, or accelerate ship production. Leaving production set to on for everything, or accelerating all production, will mean that too many HI points are required, eventually limiting production of aircraft, ships, vehicles and armaments (when the pools run out, production does not happen). Trying to understand what one can produce and if acceleration or halting is a good idea can be very complicated indeed. Some attempt to help with this is made below under management tips.
Theoretically, Tertiary Industry (as well as construction and production of units) requires HI Points for Japan. [They also appear to be used by aircraft factories for the Allies.] While HI Points are dumped into a global pool for each side, and can be used by industry anywhere, it appears the chances of production by a given industry are better if the HI Points required are produced in the same hex. When HI Centers are turned off in a hex, often tirtiary industry in that hex is turned off automatically, or remains on but does not happen. Try to keep HI Centers working in tirtiary industry locations you want to produce.
5. Economic Management Tips: The fundamental principle of player management in the AE game economy is to decide what is needed by a major industrial location and where it should come from? If you are lucky, what is needed may be nearby, and may be able to move by road or rail line. More often, some, much or all of what is needed must be moved by ship. The amount of what is required for production may vary over time (for example, industry can be built, damaged or repaired). Also, players may decide to reduce demand for something by curtailment of production of the industry which demands it. The economic mini game is a constantly changing re-evaluation of these matters, location by location, on a regular basis (ideally daily for every location).

Page 6 Economics Theory

Each time a player examines a location, it is a good idea to review the production data for that location? First, click on the left side of the industry row, and get a list of the kinds of industries at that location.
1. LI Case: Most locations have Resource Centers and Light Industry Centers. In the standard case, decide if the number of Resource Centers is greater than required to "feed" the Light Industry Centers? This is easy in RHS: a single Resource Center can supply the needs of TWO LI Centers. If the number of Resource Centers is half (or more) of the number of LI Centers, turn Stockpiling Resources to OFF and export the surplus, to the degree possible, automatically. For stock, every three Resource Centers can feed four LI Centers.
2. Special Cases: if there is no LI or HI in the hex, turn the Stockpiling of Resources to NO and the location will then export to the maximum degree possible. The same for locations with Oilwells: if there is no refinery in the hex, say NO to Stockpiling Oil and it will export, if possible.
3. HI Case: if there are HI Centers in the hex, generally there are also LI Centers as well. In this case, usually Stockpiling Resources should be turned ON, so the hex will try to import to feed the industry. However, you can take the time to decide if that is the case if there are many Resource Centers in the hex. In RHS, it takes one Resource Centers to feed an HI Center: if the number of Resource centers is NOT more than the HI, set the Stockpile switch to ON. If the number is bigger, determine if the number of Resource Centers is greater than HI plus 50% of LI. If so, the hex supplies ALL the resources it needs, and Stockpiling can be turned OFF, so it will export the surplus. If you turn Stockpiling Resources to ON, look at the current amount of resources in the hex: if it is less than needed by both HI and LI, turn HI off due until stocks of resources are large enough to support both.
4. HI Complication: HI Centers ALSO demand fuel to produce. Look at the fuel stockpile in a hex with HI centers: if it is not FOUR times the number of HI Centers in RHS or TWO times in Stock, the HI will not produce. If the location is also a port hex, consider if the location needs to fuel ships, or worse, to load tankers with fuel? If it does, and if that has priority over HI production, turn the HI off - so the HI will not consume the fuel. In RHS this is a particular problem at Capetown: many ships go there and need fuel. Local fuel production is not much larger than needed by local HI. If you have not imported enough fuel, turn HI off to be able to fuel more ships. When you import enough, turn HI back on and get more supply points as your reward. In both stock and RHS each HI center can be "fed" by one Resource Center. Subtract the number of HI from the number of Recourse Centers; divide the remainder by 2: if the result is less than the number of LI Centers, set Stockpile Resources to NO.
5. Oil Refinery Case: If a location has an Oil Refinery, see if there is a local oil supply in the form of Oilwells or free oil? If there is, and if it is greater than needed by the refinery, turn Stockpile Oil to OFF. Otherwise, turn Stockpile Oil to ON and try to import it automatically. Stockpile Fuel may be set to either off or on depending on if the location needs to build large fuel stocks or if it can export the fuel it produces to other locations over roads and/or railroads. It takes ONE oilwell to feed one refinery in stock, and TWO oilwells to feed one refinery in RHS. 

Page 7 Economics Theory

6. Shipping Management Tips: One fundamental truism is that there is never enough shipping. Aside from getting what is needed from where it is to where it is needed, doing so in a more efficient way will pay dividends for the player operationally. If ships take one thing one direction, and return with nothing, it is not as an efficient use of shipping as taking things in both directions, or in setting up a triangle route with something carried on two legs of the triangle. Since the total shipping available does not usually permit full production, using it more efficiently means more can be shipped, resulting in more production at more locations.
A general principle is that ships should not be kept idle except when part of a reserve to commit in an emergency contingency. In general, AKs and tankers should be moving, carrying cargo to support the economy or directly assigned to military operations. Even APs can be used to haul supplies or, less efficiently, fuel.
Another general principle is that long range ships belong on long range sea lines of communications, as far as possible from enemy units, and not used for short range sealift nor, even worse, in places where the danger of sinking by enemy forces is high. A good rule of thumb is that ships with five digit ranges, in excess of 10,000 nautical miles, should be limited to use on long range SLOC.
Some locations have sufficient local sources for only part of their industry: player who ignore this will find industry periodically shuts down until enough is present to permit production again. The more industry you keep working, the more that industry will produce. In most cases, it is ships that permit moving more than otherwise moves automatically under AI control down rail lines and roads, or between adjacent ports (Level 3 and above). The game has a system for automated convoys which does work. Generally, however, optimum efficiency requires constant player evaluation of what to ship on what ship, to what destination, on a case by case basis, every time.







(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 327
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Economic Theory (Revision... - 2/8/2014 6:28:24 AM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online

quote:

ORIGINAL: el cid again

Moved to page 11 when updated


(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 328
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: Politial Points - 5/1/2014 7:04:40 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
We are contemplating ending tests eight and nine.

For the very first time, tests are ending their useful runs not
because of primary problems with the RHS mod itself, but
because of political points.

Although Test 8 issues the Allies 4 times the number of pp per day
as stock, and test 9 6 times more, neither is even close to enough
to permit realistic Allied play.

The political point concept is fundamentally flawed and the only
reason not to issue unlimited numbers of them is that it might crash
the game if a field collected too many. Determining what the maximum
number would be used by AI isn't easy - and we need to be able to run
AI if only for testing purposes (as well as for Scenario 102, designed for it) -
is not easy - but it appears that around 20 times more than stock is a
reasonably safe number.

Political points serve several functions, and are vital for coordination
in addition to allowing restricted units to move or change commanders.
Units that should not move - or change command - can be rigidly forced
not to move by making them static - or forced never to change command
by a setting that does not allow it. There is no reason that a strategic
decision involving a single division should require more than a day or two
of planning. This is not an unreasonable number.


(in reply to el cid again)
Post #: 329
RE: RHS: RHS Design Thread: RAN Bungaree CM - 6/6/2014 10:36:50 PM   
el cid again

 

Posts: 15032
Joined: 10/10/2005
Status: online
This vessel was present in RHS as 9727 (except in 99 which seems not to have it) -
but pointed at a coastal minesweeper class instead of a minelayer (CM) class.
New class 856 was created for it. It is using the same art as the Yarrow CM Kung Wo - which class needs to be slightly modified (for example it is faster than as presently defined (class 765).

HMAS
Bungaree
HMAS Bungaree
Type Auxiliary Minelayer
Builder Caledon Shipbuilding and Engineering Co Ltd, Dundee, Scotland
Commissioned 9 June 1941
Decommissioned 7 August 1946
Fate Returned to her owners 5 November 1947. Struck a mine and sank in the Saigon River 26 May 1966.
Dimensions & Displacement
Displacement 3043 tonnes
Length 357 feet 2 inches
Beam 48 feet 8 inches
Draught 20 feet 6 inches
Performance
Speed 10.5 knots
Complement
Crew 179
Propulsion
Machinery Triple expansion and low-pressure geared turbine
Fuel: Coal

Horsepower 2500 hp
Armament
Guns 2 x 4-inch guns aft
1 x 12-pdr HA/LA gun forward
8 Oerlikons
2 Bofors
6 Vickers machine guns

Mines 467 moored contact sea-mines
Awards
Battle Honours PACIFIC 1942–43

In September 1940, the War Cabinet approved a naval mining policy which would provide for defensive minefields to prepare for the possibility of Japan entering the war. An agreement had already been reached with the Ford Manufacturing Company of Australia in October 1939 for the production of complete mine units, shells and sinkers at the company’s annexe in Geelong. The policy included the acquisition of a 3,000 tonne merchant vessel as a minelayer. The coastal cargo ship Bungaree was requisitioned for this task on 10 October 1940 and immediately began conversion in Sydney. Bungaree was named for the indigenous guide, interpreter and Aboriginal community leader who is believed to be the first indigenous Australian to circumnavigate his homeland when he accompanied Commander Matthew Flinders, RN, in HMS Investigator during Flinders’ cartographic exploration of the Australian coastline in 1801-03.

Contact mines aboard HMAS Bungaree

Contact mines aboard HMAS Bungaree
Bungaree’s conversion involved turning her cargo holds into huge mine magazines. A mining control office was installed with a maze of communications lines to the bridge, the mining deck and all other parts of the ships involved in minelaying operations. Two sets of rails were installed on the mining deck to transport the mines, which were all moored contact mines, to the stern of the ship to be deployed into the water.

HMAS Bungaree commissioned at Garden Island, Sydney, under the command of Commander Norman Calder, RAN, on 9 June 1941 as she approached the end of her conversion. She departed Sydney on 19 June and arrived in Geelong four days later. With dummy mines embarked, she recommenced trials and exercises in Port Phillip Bay in company with the mine recovery vessel, HMAS Toorie. She embarked her first load of live mines, 254 in all, on 30 July and departed Geelong the next day in company with HMAS Sydney (II).

She arrived in Sydney on 3 August where she had a 12 pdr HA/LA gun mounted for’d and embarked a 28 foot survey motor boat before departing for Port Moresby that evening, escorted by HMAS Adelaide (I) and, later, HMAS Manoora (I). She laid her first defensive minefield near Port Moresby on 15 August before heading back to Australian waters. She went on to lay minefields in the Torres Strait north and west of Prince of Wales Island, and the Great Barrier Reef near Cook’s Passage and Trinity Opening before the end of the year.

She underwent further alterations and additions in Sydney in December 1941 and January 1942 before returning to Geelong on 27 January to embark more mines. She laid minefields in New Caledonian waters in February and in New Zealand waters off Auckland in March. Minelaying operations continued in Palm Passage, Queensland, in April, and back in New Caledonian waters in May. She returned to Sydney at the end of May and was present when three Japanese midget submarines launched an attack in Sydney Harbour which resulted in the loss of HMAS Kuttabul in the early hours of 1 June. Bungaree’s crew went to action stations at the first alarm at 2230 on 31 May but saw no sign of the enemy and the ship survived the night unscathed.

She departed Sydney on 9 June and rendezvoused with Convoy CO1 from Newcastle to act as an additional anti-submarine escort for the voyage to Port Phillip. She launched an attack on a possible submarine contact on 11 June and dropped four depth charges without a result. The convoy arrived in Port Phillip the next day. Bungaree departed Geelong on 16 June to return to New Caledonia and once again acted as an additional anti-submarine escort for part of the voyage for Convoy OC3. Convoy escort duties became a regular additional duty for Bungaree, often acting as an additional escort for convoys between Sydney, Melbourne, Auckland, Noumea and Port Moresby.

HMAS Bungaree was the RAN’s only minelayer

HMAS Bungaree was the RAN’s only minelayer
She was back in New Guinea in July and, upon completion of minelaying operations there, returned to Australian waters and launched another attack on a suspected submarine contact off the Queensland coast north of Brisbane which was later classified as a non-submarine.

She continued with minelaying operations in September laying mines in Magnetic Passage north-east of Townsville before returning to Sydney on 19 September for a short refit. She was back at sea on 5 October and, after embarking mines at Geelong, sailed for New Zealand on 10 October for minelaying operations around the Bay of Islands, and again in Queensland waters near Cairns in November, Mackay in December and Townsville in January 1943.

She arrived back in Sydney on 5 February and commenced a refit. She was back at sea on 4 March and recommenced mining operations off the Queensland coast at the end of the month, and again in April and June. She visited New Caledonia twice in July and August to conduct mining operations and on both occasions she embarked mines at Auckland rather than Geelong. She returned to mining the waters of far north Queensland in October and November. She damaged her hull-mounted Anti-submarine dome when she touched the bottom north of Cockburn Reef on 23 November but continued mining operations. The dome was repaired in Melbourne in December and finished the year conducting mining operations in New Guinea waters.

HMAS Bungaree in February 1944 following her conversion to a survey vessel

HMAS Bungaree in February 1944 following her conversion to a survey vessel
She arrived back in Sydney on 6 January 1944 and commenced a self-refit on 10 January. With the tide of the Pacific War turning in the Allies favour, the need for defensive minefields diminished and, on 18 February, Bungaree was officially re-tasked to surveying operations having laid a total of 9289 defensive mines. She was back at sea on 21 February and proceeded to Brisbane to embark surveying equipment. She continued northward and commenced hydrographic surveys in the Torres Strait from March through to July 1944. Later in the year she began transporting personnel and cargo to and from New Guinea, a task with which she was occupied until the end of the war on 15 August 1945. At the conclusion of hostilities, Bungaree continued to transport stores and equipment and was involved in the repatriation of Allied servicemen and the dumping of ammunition. Bungaree decommissioned on 7 August 1946 and returned to her owners on 5 November 1947.

The conclusion of the war also meant that the mines laid by Bungaree now had to be cleared. That task fell to the 20th Minesweeping Flotilla, a collection of corvettes, general purpose vessels and motor launches led by the sloop, HMAS Swan (II). Tragically, on 13 September 1947, the corvette HMAS Warrnambool (I) p struck a mine whilst conducting sweeping operations near Cockburn Reef off the north Queensland coast. Four sailors lost their lives.

Bungaree was subsequently on-sold twice and in 1960 was re-named Eastern Mariner. Whilst operating in South Vietnamese waters, she ironically struck a mine in the Saigon River and was wrecked on 26 May 1966.

Eastern Mariner, ex-HMAS Bungaree, in the Saigon River after she struck a mine in 1966

Eastern Mariner, ex-HMAS Bungaree, in the Saigon River after she struck a mine in 1966



(in reply to el cid again)
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