From: Lorane, Pennsylvania, USA
Effect and Penetration. Good question. If you look at the database on ground radars, they have values for Range, Effect, Penetration, and Accuracy. I suspect that these variables are used in a probability model that determines 1 - if you detect something, and 2 - how accurate is your detection. Couldn't find anything in the documentation or forum, so I really don't know.
I have been inputting my orders for the campaign game first turn since July 4, 2009. I'm getting close. In another month or two, I might be able to run the turn!