I have been in two drydocks and one ARD. All took only a few hours to dock.
Yes. There are two conditions; initial setup and final positioning, even back then. If you had the BuShips hardpoint plans, setup took a few hours (4 to maybe 10, depending on size) in 1942. Final positioning depended on your dockyard technology, but a good bunch of divers would have everything set for pump-out for a CV in about 6 to 8 hours after the gates closed in 1942. Given hydraulics in 1943 and on, this went to 3 to 6 hours. You could setup, dock, position, drain, and start welding on a BB or a CV in about 24 hours in 1944. If the BB or CV radios ahead for setup, you could dock, position, drain, and start welding on a BB or a CV in about 16 hours in 1944.