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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land

 
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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 7/29/2011 1:39:54 PM   
Red Prince


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Post 5 of 5




Attachment (1)

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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 7/29/2011 4:00:52 PM   
Shannon V. OKeets

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Red Prince

Post 5 of 5




Which spelling is correct: Amedeo or Amendeo?

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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 7/29/2011 4:20:42 PM   
fogg

 

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Principe Amedeo, Duca d'Aosta

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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 7/29/2011 4:30:07 PM   
fogg

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Red Prince

Post 2 of 5






Nizza is the italian name of Nice, city that belongs to France from 1860.
By the way it is the city in which was born Giuseppe Garibaldi. He never forgave Vittorio Emanuele II (former king of Piedmont and later king of Italy) for having exchanged the city of Nice and the Savoy (treaty of Plombieres) with the permission of France (Emperor Napoleon III) to the unification of Italy .

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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 7/29/2011 4:35:33 PM   
Blind Sniper


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Exactly it was:
Principe Amedeo Duca d'Aosta (P.A.D.A.), not just Principe Amedeo and without point.


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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 7/29/2011 4:37:12 PM   
Red Prince


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quote:

ORIGINAL: fogg

Principe Amedeo, Duca d'Aosta

I'll double-check this, and add a line explaining the typo (as Jimm did for the 'Mizza' CAV).
-----
Edit: Corrected.

< Message edited by Red Prince -- 7/30/2011 4:24:57 PM >


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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/7/2011 1:19:33 PM   
Red Prince


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Here's the latest from Jimm:




Attachment (1)

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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/9/2011 3:22:31 PM   
Extraneous

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Red Prince

Post 4 of 5



It doesn't represent the “Corpo d'Armata di Roma” (Army Corps of Rome)?




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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/11/2011 7:36:08 PM   
Extraneous

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Red Prince

Here's the latest from Jimm:






The role of the forces defending Rome was not quite so passive. The nucleus of this body of troops had begun to form on 20 July to protect the government against a possible Fascist reaction to Mussolini's imminent overthrow. Since 29 July the troops had been alerted to act against the possibility of a German stroke against the capital. Under the immediate command of Roatta, chief of the Army General Staff, the force consisted of three corps.

The Corpo d'Armata di Roma, controlling the Sassari Division, carabinieri, and service and school troops, was within Rome and had as its task the internal defense of the city against SS agents and other special German troops stationed there.

The XVII Corps had small detachments of the 220th and 221st Coastal Divisions distributed along the coast from Tarquinia to the Volturno River--a distance of 125 miles--and the Piacenza Division interspersed among units of the German 2d Parachute Division.

General Carboni's Motorized Corps controlled the Ariete Armored and Piave Motorized Divisions north of Rome, the Centauro Armored Division east of the capital, and the Granatieri Division south of the city.



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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/12/2011 3:46:24 AM   
paulderynck


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The 5-4 Roma Motorized Corps unit arrives in the WiF game in 1939. The actual Corpo d'Armata di Roma, from the narrative cited, appears to be an ad hoc formation that came into existence in 1943.

From this I'd conclude that the WiF unit is not based on the real life Corpo d'Armata di Roma.

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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/12/2011 3:25:03 PM   
Extraneous

 

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Sicialian, Domenico, conte

Siciliani, Domenico, conte. - Generale (Cirò 1879 - Roma 1938); partecipò alla guerra italo-turca (1911-12) e alla prima guerra mondiale (1915-18). Dopo Caporetto diresse l'Ufficio stampa e propaganda, e compilò il 4 nov. 1918 lo storico bollettino della vittoria. Nel dopoguerra fu addetto militare a Rio de Janeiro (1924) e governatore della Cirenaica (1929-31). Nel 1935 prese parte alla guerra d'Etiopia, e nel 1936 comandò il Corpo d'Armata di Roma.



Sicialian, Domenico, conte ~ Translated

Sicialian, Domenico, conte. - General (Cirò 1879 - Rome 1938); Italian-Turk (1911-12 participated to the war) and to first world war (1915-18). After Caporetto he directed the Office he prints and propaganda, and he compiled the 4 nov. 1918 the historical bulletin of the Victoria. In the post-war period he was military attache to River de Janeiro (1924) and governor of Cirenaica (1929-31). In the 1935 taken part to the war of Ethiopia, and in 1936 commant the Army corps with Rome.



LE SEDI DEI REPARTI NEL 1940

Corpo d'Armata di Torino (I Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Alessandria (II Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Milano (III Corps)
Corpo d’Armata Alpino (IV Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Trieste (V Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Bologna (VI Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Ancona (VII Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Roma (VIII Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Bari (IX Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Napoli (X Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Lubiana (XI Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Palermo (XII Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Cagliari (XIII Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Treviso (XIV Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Genova (XV Corps)
Corpo D'Armata di Manovra (XX Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Udine (XXIV Corps)
Corpo d'Armata di Bolzano (XXXV Corps)

I got tired of looking them up there are more.

< Message edited by Extraneous -- 8/14/2011 8:41:04 PM >


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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/15/2011 1:02:14 PM   
Jimm


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This is interesting, thanks for the comments.

What I would say is that there is rather limited information on the Italian Army on a corps level available in english- either web based or in written material that I have been able to find. I have never seen the list of corps -with associated names- that you show here!

Usually commentary I have found is on a divisional or regimental basis. There are of course references to specific corps formations in certain circumstances and of course in orders of battle etc in snapshots of time- but the flavour of the units is not evident for the most part and this has to be sought on a smaller formation level. Italian corps were generally administrative rather than operational (with exceptions) and covered specific theatres while their actual divisional components swapped about on a fairly regular basis.

With the greatest of respects to ADG, the WIF unit list for the Italian army needs taking with a serious pinch of salt- there are typos (eg "Mizza", "Amendeo"), hypothetical and fictional units, and various examples of divisions or even smaller units being represented as corps (San Marco Marines "corps" for example). In writing them up for the most part I have tried to impart flavour to the units while taking the opportunity to give the Italians a bit more balanced (ie more positive!) coverage than they get from the usual sources. Since I could find no reference to any significant unit which matched the description of a "Roma" Motorised corps, especially from the start of the war, I thought I would use the opportunity to provide some generic info on the limitations of the Italian Army's inadequate attempts to motorise.



I think you could make a case for utilising the description you provide here, however the motorised corps referred in your referecne to is not the Corpo D'armato "Roma" which as Paul comments below is a fairly cobbled-together bunch of infantry and reserves. I can see VIII corps in the 1940 order of battle as part of 7th Army and it is an infantry formation, and not ever motorised. It is difficult to argue this as a unit consistent with the one in Rome in 1943.
(VIII: reserve 6/40 greek-albanian front 11/40-4/41 occupation of peloponnesos 5/41-/43).

Carboni's "Motocorazzato" corps referred to in the article (comprising Ariete II,, Centauro, Piave, and some grenadiers) and heavily involved in the defence of Rome is, I think, better covered under the "Motor" Mot Corps (1942)- which is still to be completed. The reference material you provide is very welcome.

I think its swings and roundabouts to be honest but it is good that people take an interest!



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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/15/2011 5:20:00 PM   
Extraneous

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Jim

This is interesting, thanks for the comments.

What I would say is that there is rather limited information on the Italian Army on a corps level available in english- either web based or in written material that I have been able to find. I have never seen the list of corps -with associated names- that you show here!

Usually commentary I have found is on a divisional or regimental basis. There are of course references to specific corps formations in certain circumstances and of course in orders of battle etc in snapshots of time- but the flavour of the units is not evident for the most part and this has to be sought on a smaller formation level. Italian corps were generally administrative rather than operational (with exceptions) and covered specific theatres while their actual divisional components swapped about on a fairly regular basis.

With the greatest of respects to ADG, the WIF unit list for the Italian army needs taking with a serious pinch of salt- there are typos (eg "Mizza", "Amendeo"), hypothetical and fictional units, and various examples of divisions or even smaller units being represented as corps (San Marco Marines "corps" for example). In writing them up for the most part I have tried to impart flavour to the units while taking the opportunity to give the Italians a bit more balanced (ie more positive!) coverage than they get from the usual sources. Since I could find no reference to any significant unit which matched the description of a "Roma" Motorised corps, especially from the start of the war, I thought I would use the opportunity to provide some generic info on the limitations of the Italian Army's inadequate attempts to motorise.



I think you could make a case for utilising the description you provide here, however the motorised corps referred in your referecne to is not the Corpo D'armato "Roma" which as Paul comments below is a fairly cobbled-together bunch of infantry and reserves. I can see VIII corps in the 1940 order of battle as part of 7th Army and it is an infantry formation, and not ever motorised. It is difficult to argue this as a unit consistent with the one in Rome in 1943.
(VIII: reserve 6/40 Greek-Albanian front 11/40-4/41 occupation of Peloponnesos 5/41-/43).

Carboni's "Motocorazzato" corps referred to in the article (comprising Ariete II, Centauro, Piave, and some grenadiers) and heavily involved in the defence of Rome is, I think, better covered under the "Motor" Mot Corps (1942)- which is still to be completed. The reference material you provide is very welcome.

I think its swings and roundabouts to be honest but it is good that people take an interest!



quote:

In reference to your VIII: reserve 6/40 Greek-Albanian front 11/40-4/41

La Campagna di Grecia 1940-1941

The Campaign of Greece 1940-1941



The reserve takes 5,000 casualties?


quote:

In reference to your occupation of Peloponnesos 5/41-/43
Italienische Einheiten auf den Ionischen Inseln

On August 15, 1943 'Acqui' forces in Kerkyra remained under XXVI corpo d'armata, but the ones in Kefalonia were under VIII corpo d'armata (HQ at Agrinion; this corps moved from the Peloponnese to Aetolia in Italian Forces in the Ionian Islands August 6, 1943 it was supposed to form with the 'Acqui' and 'Casale' divisions and the German 104 Jäger Division).




Lets look at the units in WiF (RE: PionsWiF-AiF-PatiF Excel Worksheet).

quote:

Relating to the Italian VIII Corps or Rome:

INF Militia Rome 6/2 AiF/PatiF (1948)
INF Militia Rome 5/3 WiFC (1948)
INF MOT Roma 5/3 WiFC (1939)
INF MOT Roma 7/4 AiF/PatiF (1944)
INF GARR VIII 5/1 AiF (Res)
INF INF VIII (Gds) 6/3 WiFC (1947)
INF INF VIII (Gds) 8/3 AiF/PatiF (1947)



I would assume that the “INF GARR VIII 5/1 AiF (Res)” or “INF Militia Rome 5/3 WiFC (1948)” would represent units Paul (AKA paulderynck) is referring to.

While “INF MOT Roma 5/3 WiFC (1939)” would represent an actual field “VIII Corpo d'Armata”.


quote:

Relating to the Italian XX Corps, Libia, or Africa:


INF MECH Libia 5/5 WiFC (1936)
INF MECH Africa 5/5 WiFC (1940)
INF GARR XX 4/1 WiFC (1937)
INF GARR XX 4/1 AiF/PatiF (1945)
INF MOT Motor 8/4 AiF/PatiF (1946)



“Corpo D'Armata di Manovra (XX Corps)” was the Italian mechanized force in North Africa.

Orbat gives 2 orders of battle for VIII Corpo d'armata:

VIII Corpo d'armata
Divisione fanteria (Infantry Division) Siena
Divisione fanteria (Infantry Division) Granatieri di Sardegna


VIII Corpo d'armata (these units actually made up Corpo D'Armata di Manovra (XX Corps). Orbat doesn’t show a XX Corps this could be the error.)
Divisione autotrasportabile AS (Trasportable Divisions for North Africa) Pavia
Divisione autotrasportabile AS (Trasportable Divisions for North Africa) Brescia
Divisione autotrasportabile AS (Trasportable Divisions for North Africa) Sirte



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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/16/2011 11:03:25 AM   
Jimm


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As you say, Orbat is incorrect here.

The Neihorster Orbat http://niehorster.orbat.com/019_italy/40-06-10_army/army_05.html correctly shows this as XX corps.

In my opinion I dont think it appropriate to represent Roma MOT as VIII corps because VIII corps was never motorised. What I would propose is that I add a by-line to the description to refer to the Corpo d'armata Roma (ie VIII corps) in passing.


quote:

ORIGINAL: Extraneous


Lets look at the units in WiF (RE: PionsWiF-AiF-PatiF Excel Worksheet).

Relating to the Italian VIII Corps or Rome:

INF Militia Rome 6/2 AiF/PatiF (1948)
INF Militia Rome 5/3 WiFC (1948)
INF MOT Roma 5/3 WiFC (1939)
INF MOT Roma 7/4 AiF/PatiF (1944)
INF GARR VIII 5/1 AiF (Res)
INF INF VIII (Gds) 6/3 WiFC (1947)
INF INF VIII (Gds) 8/3 AiF/PatiF (1947)



I would assume that the “INF GARR VIII 5/1 AiF (Res)” or “INF Militia Rome 5/3 WiFC (1948)” would represent units Paul (AKA paulderynck) is referring to.

While “INF MOT Roma 5/3 WiFC (1939)” would represent an actual field “VIII Corpo d'Armata”.


quote:

Relating to the Italian XX Corps, Libia, or Africa:


INF MECH Libia 5/5 WiFC (1936)
INF MECH Africa 5/5 WiFC (1940)
INF GARR XX 4/1 WiFC (1937)
INF GARR XX 4/1 AiF/PatiF (1945)
INF MOT Motor 8/4 AiF/PatiF (1946)



We have a specific unit list to write for, this excludes the AiF/PatiF expansions which are not in the scope of the game. In terms of XX corps this gives a good example of the juggling required between reality and game-creator's licence.





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RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/20/2011 8:56:20 AM   
warspite1


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Please see example of a German submarine counter.

[4834 Submarine]
.P These write-ups give a brief history of one or more vessels from each of the
main classes of submarine used by the Kriegsmarine during World War II. World In
Flames submarine counters represent a number of submarines rather than any
specific individual boat. The dates printed on the back of the counters do not
tie up in any meaningful way with build dates for the various classes of German
submarine, and therefore the counter date in most cases should be ignored.
.P During the First World War the submarines of the Kaiser's navy came close to
starving the United Kingdom into surrender. Following Germany's defeat, their
entire submarine fleet was handed over to the Allies and the German navy was
forbidden to use submarines in future.
.P Secretly however, the Germans continued to work on new designs - and indeed in
the late twenties, German designed submarines were sold to Turkey and Finland via
a "Dutch" company operating in Holland.
.P Development of designs and ideas continued until, in March 1935, Adolf Hitler
formally repudiated the Treaty of Versailles. Germany then openly set about
re-arming their armed forces, including the Kriegsmarine.
.P Shortly after this announcement, the German and British Governments signed the
Anglo-German Naval Agreement. Under the terms of this treaty, the German navy was
allowed to build a fleet no greater than 35% of the Royal Navy's total tonnage.
Subject to this limitation, the Kriegsmarine's submarine service was allowed to
equal that of the Royal Navy.
.P Thus at the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, the Kriegsmarine's
submarines (in German Unterseeboot or simply U-boat) numbered a mere fifty-seven
boats - the same as the Royal Navy. Of these, only twenty-six were suitable for
Atlantic operations. However, the Germans embarked upon a huge expansion program
and during the war, well over 1,000 boats were constructed.
.P There were some spectacular early successes; the sinking of the battleship
Royal Oak and the aircraft carrier Courageous ranking high amongst them. Later,
when U-boats were deployed in the Mediterranean, further success was achieved
against the Royal Navy; the carrier Ark Royal and the battleship Barham were high
profile victims to the power of the U-boat.
.P But it was the outcome of the Battle of the Atlantic upon which the U-boat arm
would be ultimately judged, and early in the war, successful attacks on Allied
merchant shipping proved a severe problem for the British. With the conquest of
Norway, and in particular, France by June 1940, the U-boats were able to operate
from ports that gave much easier access to the Atlantic and extended the time the
U-boats could be operational against enemy shipping.
.P Winston Churchill said that the Battle of the Atlantic - and in particular the
U-boat menace - was the only thing that scared him during World War II; with the
serious merchant ship losses incurred from mid 1940 until early 1941 (known by
the U-boat crews as the first "Happy Time") it is easy to see why. There was to
be a second, albeit brief, "Happy Time" after the United States entered the war
in December 1941, but by then, the tide had already begun to turn.
.P Ultimately the Allies were able to beat the U-boats for a number of reasons:
there was the convoy system and the sheer number of escorts that the Allies were
able to field; the Allies were able to maintain the pace of technological
advances to improve their ability to conduct anti-submarine warfare; conventional
escort ships, such as destroyers and corvettes, were later supplemented by escort
aircraft carriers that could provide a measure of air protection to a convoy; and
last but not least, aircraft - which were the U-boats greatest enemy - were able
to fly from the United Kingdom, Iceland and later the United States meaning that
the entire convoy route could be covered by aircraft.
.P By late 1942, although the U-boats were still sinking Allied shipping, the
cost to the Kriegsmarine in terms of men and boats, was becoming critical. With
Germany not geared up to fight a long war, the resources available to counter the
Allies simply were not available and the Kriegsmarine's response to the ever
growing Allied threat proved simply too little, too late.
.P The U-boat service suffered more losses per head than any branch of any
service of any country in World War II. Of the 40,000 men that served in U-boats
during the conflict, no less than 28,000 were killed and a further 8,000 were
taken prisoner.
.P This write-up looks at the Type VIIB U-boats, and in particular the U-47.
.B
.B Name: U-47
.B Engine(s) output: 2 x 1400 bhp (Surfaced) 2 x 375 shp (Submerged)
.B Top Speed: 17.2 knots (Surfaced), 8 knots (Submerged)
.B Main armament: 5 x 21-inch torpedo tubes and 1 x 3.5-inch (88mm) gun
.B Displacement (Fully Submerged): 857 tons
.B Diving Depth: 720 ft
.P The Type VII U-boat became the backbone of the U-boat fleet in World War
II. A total of 709 boats were built, spread over seven variants. These boats were
real all-rounders; they were not necessarily the biggest, fastest or the most
powerfully armed boats, but the package proved a formidable weapon. They were
capable of being built relatively quickly, cheaply and in large numbers. In the
important areas: range, speed, manoeuvrability and armament, they were more than
adequate for the key role they were asked to play; that of merchant killer.
.P The second variant was the Type VIIB. Twenty-four boats of this type were
constructed between 1937 and 1941. They were a significant improvement over the
preceding Type A.
.P The armament package was the same as for the earlier boats, with four bow and
one stern mounted torpedo tubes. The stern tube was brought within the hull, thus
allowing re-loading. The larger size of this variant enabled an increase in the
number of torpedoes carried from eleven to fourteen.
.P They were two metres longer than the older type, and this allowed increased
fuel to be carried; thus increasing their range.
.P U-47 was completed in December 1938. She was commanded by Oberleutnant Zur See
Günther Prien; he was to be her only commander from the time of her commissioning
until her demise in March 1941.
.P Part of the 7th Unterseebootsflottille, U-47 was one of the fourteen U-boats
that sailed for the North Atlantic in mid-August 1939 in order to take up station
there pending the possible outbreak of war.
.P When war came on the 3rd September, U-47 was patrolling west of the Bay of
Biscay and Prien was to quickly make his presence felt. Starting on the 5th
September, U-47 sank three British merchant vessels, totalling just over 8,000
tons, before returning to Germany in mid-September.
.P U-47's next patrol would turn Günther Prien into a national hero. Leaving
Kiel on the 8th October, his target was the Royal Navy's main fleet anchorage at
Scapa Flow. German submarines had tried to infiltrate Scapa Flow during World War
I, but without success, and two boats had been lost in the process. However,
aerial reconnaissance had confirmed to the Germans that there were gaps in the
British defences there that could be exploited. Commodore Dönitz picked Prien for
the mission and asked him to formulate a plan of attack. The name given to this
audacious raid was Operation P.
.P On the night of the 13th/14th October Prien skilfully navigated U-47 through
Kirk Sound over the course of six hours. At one point the U-boat got caught on a
cable from one of the block ships, but U-47 managed to break free. Once Prien was
inside the main anchorage however, he was horrified to see barely any targets;
the Home Fleet was not there. Finally he managed to make out the silhouette of a
capital ship and he prepared to attack.
.P Prien had come across the old battleship HMS Royal Oak. He fired two salvoes,
the first made little impact; the second was devastating. Three torpedoes holed
the battleship amidships and she sank within ten minutes in 100 feet of water.
833 men were killed in the attack. But with no further targets available, Prien
had no choice but to set sail for home.
.P The attack could have been so much more successful had the rest of the Home
Fleet not been absent, but even so, the loss of a battleship so close to home
was a major embarrassment to the Royal Navy and Prien returned home a hero to
receive the Iron Cross 1st Class and the Knights Cross.
.P U-47 put to sea again on the 16th November for her 3rd patrol. Like her first,
this patrol netted another three merchant victims, although on this occasion,
U-47 found herself under attack for the first time. The depth charge attack was
beaten off and U-47 returned to Germany in mid-December.
.P U-47 underwent a refit and her next patrol was not until March 1940. She was
ordered to patrol off the north coast of Scotland in order to try and intercept
Royal Navy warships, and she was to sink just one small freighter on this patrol.
.P During April U-47 was ordered to support the invasion of Norway. This campaign
proved a huge disappointment for the U-boats. Problems with their torpedoes meant
that time and again British warships and troop carriers sailed away from
potentially fatal attacks, and U-47 suffered her share of torpedo failures,
including one during an attack on the battleship HMS Warspite.
.P In June U-47 was back in the Atlantic and eight merchant ships were sunk
between the 14th June and the 2nd July. This haul included the 15,000 ton
Arandora Star which, unbeknown to Prien, was carrying German and Italian
Prisoners of War; over 700 of which were lost in the attack.
.P Now operating from Lorient on the west coast of France, September was to prove
almost as successful as Prien continued to add to his tally of Allied ships sunk.
In that month another seven merchants were sent to the bottom of the sea,
totalling over 40,000 tons.
.P There was to be no let up for the Allies the following month either. On her
8th patrol, operating north-west of Ireland, U-47 sank four ships and left two
damaged. Prien returned to France at the end of October to receive another award
from Dönitz, this time the Oak leaves to add to his Knights Cross.
.P U-47's penultimate patrol began on the 6th November and resulted in just one
sinking, although another three Allied merchant ships were damaged. But for Prien
and U-47, time had now run out. In February 1941 he and his crew left Lorient for
the last time. After previously sinking four ships and damaging one, U-47 then
located convoy OB293. On the 7th March Prien attacked, and damaged, the 20,000
ton Terje Viken, but then disappeared with all hands. It is not known what caused
her loss, but it is possible she was depth-charged by the destroyer HMS
Wolverine.
.P During an eighteen month spell, U-47 and Günther Prien sank thirty merchant
ships and one battleship as well as damaging a further eight merchant vessels.
The loss of Prien was a bitter pill to swallow for the U-boat arm.

_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to Jimm)
Post #: 2085
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/20/2011 11:23:33 AM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline

quote:

ORIGINAL: warspite1

Please see example of a German submarine counter.

[4834 Submarine]



[4834 Submarine]
.P These write-ups give a brief history of one or more vessels from each of the
main classes of submarine used by the Kriegsmarine during World War II. World In
Flames submarine counters represent a number of submarines rather than any
specific individual boat. The dates printed on the back of the counters do not
tie up in any meaningful way with build dates for the various classes of German
submarine, and therefore the counter date in most cases should be ignored.
.P During the First World War the submarines of the Kaiser's navy came close to
starving the United Kingdom into surrender. Following Germany's defeat, their
entire submarine fleet was handed over to the Allies and the German navy was
forbidden to use submarines in future.
.P Secretly however, the Germans continued to work on new designs - and indeed in
the late twenties, German designed submarines were sold to Turkey and Finland via
a "Dutch" company operating in Holland.
.P Development of designs and ideas continued until, in March 1935, Adolf Hitler
formally repudiated the Treaty of Versailles. Germany then openly set about
re-arming their armed forces, including the Kriegsmarine.
.P Shortly after this announcement, the German and British Governments signed the
Anglo-German Naval Agreement. Under the terms of this treaty, the German navy was
allowed to build a fleet no greater than 35% of the Royal Navy's total tonnage.
Subject to this limitation, the Kriegsmarine's submarine service was allowed to
equal that of the Royal Navy.
.P Thus at the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, the Kriegsmarine's
submarines (in German Unterseeboot or simply U-boat) numbered a mere fifty-seven
boats - the same as the Royal Navy. Of these, only twenty-six were suitable for
Atlantic operations. However, the Germans embarked upon a huge expansion program
and during the war, well over 1,000 boats were constructed.
.P There were some spectacular early successes; the sinking of the battleship
Royal Oak and the aircraft carrier Courageous ranking high amongst them. Later,
when U-boats were deployed in the Mediterranean, further success was achieved
against the Royal Navy; the carrier Ark Royal and the battleship Barham were high
profile victims to the power of the U-boat.
.P But it was the outcome of the Battle of the Atlantic upon which the U-boat arm
would be ultimately judged, and early in the war, successful attacks on Allied
merchant shipping proved a severe problem for the British. With the conquest of
Norway, and in particular, France by June 1940, the U-boats were able to operate
from ports that gave much easier access to the Atlantic and extended the time the
U-boats could be operational against enemy shipping.
.P Winston Churchill said that the Battle of the Atlantic - and in particular the
U-boat menace - was the only thing that scared him during World War II; with the
serious merchant ship losses incurred from mid 1940 until early 1941 (known by
the U-boat crews as the first "Happy Time") it is easy to see why. There was to
be a second, albeit brief, "Happy Time" after the United States entered the war
in December 1941, but by then, the tide had already begun to turn.
.P Ultimately the Allies were able to beat the U-boats for a number of reasons:
there was the convoy system and the sheer number of escorts that the Allies were
able to field; the Allies were able to maintain the pace of technological
advances to improve their ability to conduct anti-submarine warfare; conventional
escort ships, such as destroyers and corvettes, were later supplemented by escort
aircraft carriers that could provide a measure of air protection to a convoy; and
last but not least, aircraft - which were the U-boats greatest enemy - were able
to fly from the United Kingdom, Iceland and later the United States meaning that
the entire convoy route could be covered by aircraft.
.P By late 1942, although the U-boats were still sinking Allied shipping, the
cost to the Kriegsmarine in terms of men and boats, was becoming critical. With
Germany not geared up to fight a long war, the resources available to counter the
Allies simply were not available and the Kriegsmarine's response to the ever
growing Allied threat proved simply too little, too late.
.P The U-boat service suffered more losses per head than any branch of any
service of any country in World War II. Of the 40,000 men that served in U-boats
during the conflict, no less than 28,000 were killed and a further 8,000 were
taken prisoner.
.P This write-up looks at the Type VIIB U-boats, and in particular the U-47.
.B
.B Name: U-47
.B Engine(s) output: 2 x 1400 bhp (Surfaced) 2 x 375 shp (Submerged)
.B Top Speed: 17.2 knots (Surfaced), 8 knots (Submerged)
.B Main armament: 5 x 21-inch torpedo tubes and 1 x 3.5-inch (88mm) gun
.B Displacement (Fully Submerged): 857 tons
.B Diving Depth: 720 ft
.P The Type VII U-boat became the backbone of the U-boat fleet in World War
II. A total of 709 boats were built, spread over seven variants. These boats were
real all-rounders; they were not necessarily the biggest, fastest or the most
powerfully armed boats, but the package proved a formidable weapon. They were
capable of being built relatively quickly, cheaply and in large numbers. In the
important areas: range, speed, manoeuvrability and armament, they were more than
adequate for the key role they were asked to play; that of merchant killer.
.P The second variant was the Type VIIB. Twenty-four boats of this type were
constructed between 1937 and 1941. They were a significant improvement over the
preceding Type A.
.P The armament package was the same as for the earlier boats, with four bow and
one stern mounted torpedo tubes. The stern tube was brought within the hull, thus
allowing re-loading. The larger size of this variant enabled an increase in the
number of torpedoes carried from eleven to fourteen.
.P They were two metres longer than the older type, and this allowed increased
fuel to be carried; thus increasing their range.
.P Completed in December 1938 U-47 was commanded by Oberleutnant Zur See
Günther Prien her only commander from the time of her commissioning until her
demise in March 1941.

.P Part of the 7th Unterseebootsflottille, U-47 was one of the fourteen U-boats
that sailed for the North Atlantic in mid-August 1939 in order to take up station
there pending the possible outbreak of war.
.P When war came on the 3rd September, U-47 was patrolling west of the Bay of
Biscay and Prien was to quickly make his presence felt. Starting on the 5th
September, U-47 sank three British merchant vessels, totalling just over 8,000
tons, before returning to Germany in mid-September.
.P U-47's next patrol would turn Günther Prien into a national hero. Leaving
Kiel on the 8th October, his target was the Royal Navy's main fleet anchorage at
Scapa Flow. German submarines had tried to infiltrate Scapa Flow during World War
I, but without success, and two boats had been lost in the process. However,
aerial reconnaissance had confirmed to the Germans that there were gaps in the
British defences there that could be exploited. Commodore Dönitz picked Prien for
the mission and asked him to formulate a plan of attack. The name given to this
audacious raid was Operation P.
.P On the night of the 13th/14th October Prien skilfully navigated U-47 through
Kirk Sound over the course of six hours. At one point the U-boat got caught on a
cable from one of the block ships, but U-47 managed to break free. Once Prien was
inside the main anchorage however, he was horrified to see barely any targets;
the Home Fleet was not there. Finally he managed to make out the silhouette of a
capital ship and he prepared to attack.
.P Prien had come across the old battleship HMS Royal Oak. He fired two salvoes,
the first made little impact; the second was devastating. Three torpedoes holed
the battleship amidships and she sank within ten minutes in 100 feet of water.
833 men were killed in the attack. But with no further targets available, Prien
had no choice but to set sail for home.
.P The attack could have been so much more successful had the rest of the Home
Fleet not been absent, but even so, the loss of a battleship so close to home
was a major embarrassment to the Royal Navy and Prien returned home a hero to
receive the Iron Cross 1st Class and the Knights Cross.
.P U-47 put to sea again on the 16th November for her 3rd patrol. Like her first,
this patrol netted another three merchant victims, although on this occasion,
U-47 found herself under attack for the first time. The depth charge attack was
beaten off and U-47 returned to Germany in mid-December.
.P U-47 underwent a refit and her next patrol was not until March 1940. She was
ordered to patrol off the north coast of Scotland in order to try and intercept
Royal Navy warships, and she was to sink just one small freighter on this patrol.
.P During April U-47 was ordered to support the invasion of Norway. This campaign
proved a huge disappointment for the U-boats. Problems with their torpedoes meant
that time and again British warships and troop carriers sailed away from
potentially fatal attacks, and U-47 suffered her share of torpedo failures,
including one during an attack on the battleship HMS Warspite.
.P In June U-47 was back in the Atlantic and eight merchant ships were sunk
between the 14th June and the 2nd July. This haul included the 15,000-ton
Arandora Star that, unbeknown to Prien, was carrying German and Italian
Prisoners of War; over 700 of which were lost in the attack.

.P Now operating from Lorient on the west coast of France, September was to prove
almost as successful as Prien continued to add to his tally of Allied ships sunk.
In that month another seven merchants were sent to the bottom of the sea,
totalling over 40,000 tons.
.P There was to be no let up for the Allies the following month either. On her
8th patrol, operating northwest of Ireland, U-47 sank four ships and left two
damaged. Prien returned to France at the end of October to receive another award
from Dönitz, this time the Oak leaves to add to his Knights Cross.
.P U-47's penultimate patrol began on the 6th November and resulted in just one
sinking, although another three Allied merchant ships were damaged. But for Prien
and U-47, time had now run out. In February 1941 he and his crew left Lorient for
the last time. After previously sinking four ships and damaging one, U-47 then
located convoy OB293. On the 7th March Prien attacked, and damaged, the 20,000-
ton
Terje Viken, but then disappeared with all hands. It is not known what caused
her loss, but it is possible she was depth-charged by the destroyer HMS
Wolverine.
.P During an eighteen month spell, U-47 and Günther Prien sank thirty merchant
ships and one battleship as well as damaging a further eight merchant vessels.
The loss of Prien was a bitter pill to swallow for the U-boat arm.


_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to warspite1)
Post #: 2086
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/21/2011 10:21:48 PM   
warspite1


Posts: 18534
Joined: 2/2/2008
From: England
Status: offline
Please see a further example of a French battleship


[4894 Richelieu - by Robert Jenkins]
.B Engine(s) output: 150,000 hp
.B Top Speed: 32 knots
.B Main armament: 8 x 15-inch (380mm), 9 x 6-inch (152mm) guns
.B Displacement (full load): 49,850 tons
.B Thickest armour: 13.5-inch (belt)
.P The Richelieus were a class of four battleships planned for the Marine
Nationale (MN) prior to World War II. Two ships - Richelieu and Jean Bart - were
authorised in 1935, and a second pair - Clémenceau and Gascogne - followed three
years later.
.P By the mid-thirties the MN was in danger of being left behind; France's only
modern capital ships were the two, 13-inch gunned, Dunkerque-class battleships,
and when, in 1934, the Italians laid down two fast battleships of the Littorio-
class, the French realised they had to act.
.P The Richelieus were logical extensions of the successful Dunkerque-class, with
their main armament mounted forward. Two quadruple turrets housed eight 15-inch
guns and, like the Dunkerques, these turrets were spaced well apart to avoid one
lucky hit taking out the entire main armament. Clémenceau, the third ship, was
laid down in January 1939 and was to have been completed to a similar
specification as the first pair, but the fourth vessel, Gascogne, was to have
reverted to a more conventional layout, with one turret forward and one aft. She
had not been laid down before the German invasion of France in May 1940. For
their secondary armament, the Richelieus were designed with fifteen 6-inch guns
to be fitted in five triple turrets. Ultimately two of these turrets were
discarded, leaving a secondary battery of nine guns, all of which were mounted
aft. Gascogne would have had two 6-inch turrets mounted forward and one aft.
Without a dual-purpose gun available, anti-aircraft (AA) armament was provided
separately to the secondary guns. The AA package was sensible for the time, with
twelve 3.9-inch guns mounted in six twin turrets and for close-range AA defence,
eight 37mm and sixteen 13.2mm guns were fitted. The AA weaponry on Richelieu was
considerably strengthened after she was sent to the United States for a refit in
1943. Up to three aircraft could be carried.
.P The armament arrangement allowed considerable weight savings which meant that
the Richelieus armour protection was generous. This protection was designed to
withstand 15-inch shells, and the Richelieus compared favourably with the Italian
Littorios.
.P The Richelieus were fast battleships, and their top speed of 32 knots was
comparable with their Italian and German contemporaries.
.P The first three ships were named after famous Frenchmen: Richelieu was named
in honour of Cardinal Richelieu, the 17th century statesman; Jean Bart was a 17th
century naval hero; Georges Clémenceau was twice Prime Minister of France; whilst
the fourth ship would have been named after the historic French province of
Gascony.
.P Richelieu's construction was badly behind schedule when she was launched in
January 1939. She was the largest ship built for the MN at that time and she was
built and launched minus forty-three metres of bow and eight metres of stern,
which were constructed separately and attached after launching. Richelieu was at
the Atlantic port of Brest, being fitted out, when the Germans launched their
invasion in the west on the 10th May 1940.
.P Richelieu was not fully complete when, six weeks later, and with the Germans
about to overrun the French Atlantic ports, she was ordered to sail. With the
French government looking for an exit from the war, and knowing that they had an
important bargaining chip in the form of the MN, the original decision to sail
for Britain was changed and Richelieu was ordered to head instead for the port of
Dakar in West Africa.
.P Having survived an attack by German bombers, Richelieu reached Dakar on the
23rd June. However two days later, with France having signed an armistice with
the Germans, her captain ordered her to sail north to Casablanca; he feared that
British Royal Navy forces nearby would try and capture or sink the battleship.
.P The commander of the MN, Admiral Darlan, was unaware of the true situation and
over-ruled this order, fearing that Richelieu was about to surrender to the
British! By 28th June Richelieu was back at Dakar.
.P Fearing the French fleet would fall into German hands after the signing of the
armistice, the British gave the French an ultimatum. French ships in British and
Egyptian port were seized (see Paris and Submarine Counter 4937) while the ships
at Mers-El-Kebir in Algeria were attacked on the 3rd July, after the French
refused any of the options given to them by the British (see Bretagne).
.P As for Richelieu, she became the target for attack on the 8th July. The day
before, the British had presented the French with the same options as had been
delivered at Mers-El-Kebir; once again these options were flatly refused.
However, the British had only the old aircraft carrier Hermes and the heavy
cruiser Dorsetshire available to try and put the battleship out of action, and
so an air strike was their only option.
.P While at anchor just outside the port, Richelieu's captain had placed his
battleship behind a screen of merchant ships. Despite being desperately short of
ammunition, but aware that the British naval forces waiting off Dakar were so
light, the French plan was to sail at first light on the morning of the 8th and
try and sink Hermes before her aircraft could attack Richelieu.
.P Unfortunately for the French, six British Swordfish aircraft arrived at the
port before the battleship could get underway. Five of the torpedoes launched
missed, but one struck home on her starboard side. Although Richelieu remained
afloat, severe damage was incurred, and she sailed for port where temporary work
could be carried out to patch her up. Without specialist equipment at Dakar, and
with no possibility of reaching France, Richelieu was effectively imprisoned in
West Africa, where she was used as a floating gun battery when the next attack
came.
.P That next attack followed in September. Operation Menace was an Anglo-
Free French expedition designed to seize control of French West Africa from the
Vichy authorities. The Allied venture ended in defeat and Richelieu played a
large part in thwarting the Allied plans. However, further damage was inflicted
on her - both by shells from the Royal Navy, and self-inflicted wounds caused by
serious failures on three of her main guns - during the three-day battle (see
Georges Leygues).
.P Follwing Menace, Richelieu was left alone by the Allies. In November 1942
the Allies landed in French North Africa (see Jean Bart) and the Germans walked into Metropolitan
Vichy France (see Strasbourg). As a result, all Vichy territories became
pro-Allied and certain French ships sailed for American ports for modernisation
and repairs; Richelieu among them. She arrived in the United States in February
1943 and her refit took until August to complete. At completion, Richelieu had
lost her aircraft handling facilities and the space created was crammed with AA
weaponry.
.P After work-up, from November 1943 Richelieu was attached to the Royal Navy's
Home Fleet based at Scapa Flow. However, there was a shortage of operations at
that time for Richelieu to be deployed on. She took part only in Operation Bayleaf,
a carrier attack on German shipping off Norway, in February 1944. This operation
proved limited in its results and a follow-up operation was cancelled a few days
later due to poor weather.
.P The following month it was decided to transfer Richelieu to the Far East in
order to bolster the British Eastern Fleet. She arrived at Trincomalee, Ceylon, on the
10th March. While operating with the Eastern Fleet Richelieu took part in four
operations in the Indian Ocean as the Royal Navy by now had sufficient resources
to start taking the war back to the Japanese. The United States Navy lent the
carrier USS Saratoga to the Eastern Fleet and together the following diversionary
operations, designed to assist American operations in the Pacific, were carried
out:
.B
.B Operation Cockpit - April 1944 - an attack against Sabang, Sumatra
.B Operation Transom - May 1944 - an attack against Soerbaya, Java
.P With British carriers in place, Saratoga departed and the following operations
were launched:
.B Operation Pedal - June 1944 - an attack against the Andaman Islands
.B Operation Crimson - July 1944 - another attack against Sabang.
.B
.P Following these operations, Richelieu left the Eastern Fleet and sailed for
Casablanca where she underwent a much needed refit. She returned to the Far East
in March 1945 and re-joined the fleet - by now re-named the East Indies Fleet.
.P Richelieu was involved in Just three more operations in the Indian Ocean
before she was sent to South Africa for further refitting:
.B
.B Operation Sunfish - April 1945 - attacks against Sabang and Padang, Sumatra
.B Operation Bishop - April/May 1945 - attacks against the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
.B Operation Dukedom - May 1945 - attack on the Japanese cruiser Haguro (note:
Richelieu was not involved in the actual sinking)
.B
.P By the time she returned to the Indian Ocean the war was over.
.P Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945 Richelieu remained for a time
in the Far East in order to assist mopping up operations and the protection of
French interests in that region.
.P Richelieu was scrapped in 1968.

_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2087
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/22/2011 3:57:43 AM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline

quote:

ORIGINAL: warspite1

Please see a further example of a French battleship


[4894 Richelieu - by Robert Jenkins]
.B Engine(s) output: 150,000 hp
.B Top Speed: 32 knots
.B Main armament: 8 x 15-inch (380mm), 9 x 6-inch (152mm) guns
.B Displacement (full load): 49,850 tons
.B Thickest armour: 13.5-inch (belt)
.P The Richelieus were a class of four battleships planned for the Marine
Nationale (MN) prior to World War II. Two ships - Richelieu and Jean Bart - were
authorised in 1935, and a second pair - Clémenceau and Gascogne - followed three
years later.
.P By the mid-thirties the MN was in danger of being left behind; France's only
modern capital ships were the two, 13-inch gunned, Dunkerque-class battleships,
and when, in 1934, the Italians laid down two fast battleships of the Littorio-
class, the French realised they had to act.
.P The Richelieus were logical extensions of the successful Dunkerque-class, with
their main armament mounted forward. Two quadruple turrets housed eight 15-inch
guns and, like the Dunkerques, these turrets were spaced well apart to avoid one
lucky hit taking out the entire main armament. Clémenceau, the third ship, was
laid down in January 1939 and was to have been completed to a similar
specification as the first pair, but the fourth vessel, Gascogne, was to have
reverted to a more conventional layout, with one turret forward and one aft. She
had not been laid down before the German invasion of France in May 1940. For
their secondary armament, the Richelieus were designed with fifteen 6-inch guns
to be fitted in five triple turrets. Ultimately two of these turrets were
discarded, leaving a secondary battery of nine guns, all of which were mounted
aft. Gascogne would have had two 6-inch turrets mounted forward and one aft.
Without a dual-purpose gun available, anti-aircraft (AA) armament was provided
separately to the secondary guns. The AA package was sensible for the time, with
twelve 3.9-inch guns mounted in six twin turrets and for close-range AA defence,
eight 37mm and sixteen 13.2mm guns were fitted. The AA weaponry on Richelieu was
considerably strengthened after she was sent to the United States for a refit in
1943. Up to three aircraft could be carried.
.P The armament arrangement allowed considerable weight savings which meant that
the Richelieus armour protection was generous. This protection was designed to
withstand 15-inch shells, and the Richelieus compared favourably with the Italian
Littorios.
.P The Richelieus were fast battleships, and their top speed of 32 knots was
comparable with their Italian and German contemporaries.
.P The first three ships were named after famous Frenchmen: Richelieu was named
in honour of Cardinal Richelieu, the 17th century statesman; Jean Bart was a 17th
century naval hero; Georges Clémenceau was twice Prime Minister of France; whilst
the fourth ship would have been named after the historic French province of
Gascony.
.P Richelieu's construction was badly behind schedule when she was launched in
January 1939. She was the largest ship built for the MN at that time and she was
built and launched minus forty-three metres of bow and eight metres of stern,
which were constructed separately and attached after launching. Richelieu was at
the Atlantic port of Brest, being fitted out, when the Germans launched their
invasion in the west on the 10th May 1940.
.P Richelieu was not fully complete when, six weeks later, and with the Germans
about to overrun the French Atlantic ports, she was ordered to sail. With the
French government looking for an exit from the war, and knowing that they had an
important bargaining chip in the form of the MN, the original decision to sail
for Britain was changed and Richelieu was ordered to head instead for the port of
Dakar in West Africa.
.P Having survived an attack by German bombers, Richelieu reached Dakar on the
23rd June. However two days later, with France having signed an armistice with
the Germans, her captain ordered her to sail north to Casablanca; he feared that
British Royal Navy forces nearby would try and capture or sink the battleship.
.P The commander of the MN, Admiral Darlan, was unaware of the true situation and
over-ruled this order, fearing that Richelieu was about to surrender to the
British! By 28th June Richelieu was back at Dakar.
.P Fearing the French fleet would fall into German hands after the signing of the
armistice, the British gave the French an ultimatum. French ships in British and
Egyptian port were seized (see Paris and Submarine Counter 4937) while the ships
at Mers-El-Kebir in Algeria were attacked on the 3rd July, after the French
refused any of the options given to them by the British (see Bretagne).
.P As for Richelieu, she became the target for attack on the 8th July. The day
before, the British had presented the French with the same options as had been
delivered at Mers-El-Kebir; once again these options were flatly refused.
However, the British had only the old aircraft carrier Hermes and the heavy
cruiser Dorsetshire available to try and put the battleship out of action, and
so an air strike was their only option.
.P While at anchor just outside the port, Richelieu's captain had placed his
battleship behind a screen of merchant ships. Despite being desperately short of
ammunition, but aware that the British naval forces waiting off Dakar were so
light, the French plan was to sail at first light on the morning of the 8th and
try and sink Hermes before her aircraft could attack Richelieu.
.P Unfortunately for the French, six British Swordfish aircraft arrived at the
port before the battleship could get underway. Five of the torpedoes launched
missed, but one struck home on her starboard side. Although Richelieu remained
afloat, severe damage was incurred, and she sailed for port where temporary work
could be carried out to patch her up. Without specialist equipment at Dakar, and
with no possibility of reaching France, Richelieu was effectively imprisoned in
West Africa, where she was used as a floating gun battery when the next attack
came.
.P That next attack followed in September. Operation Menace was an Anglo-
Free French expedition designed to seize control of French West Africa from the
Vichy authorities. The Allied venture ended in defeat and Richelieu played a
large part in thwarting the Allied plans. However, further damage was inflicted
on her - both by shells from the Royal Navy, and self-inflicted wounds caused by
serious failures on three of her main guns - during the three-day battle (see
Georges Leygues).
.P Follwing Menace, Richelieu was left alone by the Allies. In November 1942
the Allies landed in French North Africa (see Jean Bart) and the Germans walked into Metropolitan
Vichy France (see Strasbourg). As a result, all Vichy territories became
pro-Allied and certain French ships sailed for American ports for modernisation
and repairs; Richelieu among them. She arrived in the United States in February
1943 and her refit took until August to complete. At completion, Richelieu had
lost her aircraft handling facilities and the space created was crammed with AA
weaponry.
.P After work-up, from November 1943 Richelieu was attached to the Royal Navy's
Home Fleet based at Scapa Flow. However, there was a shortage of operations at
that time for Richelieu to be deployed on. She took part only in Operation Bayleaf,
a carrier attack on German shipping off Norway, in February 1944. This operation
proved limited in its results and a follow-up operation was cancelled a few days
later due to poor weather.
.P The following month it was decided to transfer Richelieu to the Far East in
order to bolster the British Eastern Fleet. She arrived at Trincomalee, Ceylon, on the
10th March. While operating with the Eastern Fleet Richelieu took part in four
operations in the Indian Ocean as the Royal Navy by now had sufficient resources
to start taking the war back to the Japanese. The United States Navy lent the
carrier USS Saratoga to the Eastern Fleet and together the following diversionary
operations, designed to assist American operations in the Pacific, were carried
out:
.B
.B Operation Cockpit - April 1944 - an attack against Sabang, Sumatra
.B Operation Transom - May 1944 - an attack against Soerbaya, Java
.P With British carriers in place, Saratoga departed and the following operations
were launched:
.B Operation Pedal - June 1944 - an attack against the Andaman Islands
.B Operation Crimson - July 1944 - another attack against Sabang.
.B
.P Following these operations, Richelieu left the Eastern Fleet and sailed for
Casablanca where she underwent a much needed refit. She returned to the Far East
in March 1945 and re-joined the fleet - by now re-named the East Indies Fleet.
.P Richelieu was involved in Just three more operations in the Indian Ocean
before she was sent to South Africa for further refitting:
.B
.B Operation Sunfish - April 1945 - attacks against Sabang and Padang, Sumatra
.B Operation Bishop - April/May 1945 - attacks against the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
.B Operation Dukedom - May 1945 - attack on the Japanese cruiser Haguro (note:
Richelieu was not involved in the actual sinking)
.B
.P By the time she returned to the Indian Ocean the war was over.
.P Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945 Richelieu remained for a time
in the Far East in order to assist mopping up operations and the protection of
French interests in that region.
.P Richelieu was scrapped in 1968.


No changes

_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to warspite1)
Post #: 2088
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/22/2011 6:22:43 AM   
warspite1


Posts: 18534
Joined: 2/2/2008
From: England
Status: offline

quote:

ORIGINAL: Extraneous


quote:

ORIGINAL: warspite1

Please see a further example of a French battleship


[4894 Richelieu - by Robert Jenkins]
.B Engine(s) output: 150,000 hp
.B Top Speed: 32 knots
.B Main armament: 8 x 15-inch (380mm), 9 x 6-inch (152mm) guns
.B Displacement (full load): 49,850 tons
.B Thickest armour: 13.5-inch (belt)
.P The Richelieus were a class of four battleships planned for the Marine
Nationale (MN) prior to World War II. Two ships - Richelieu and Jean Bart - were
authorised in 1935, and a second pair - Clémenceau and Gascogne - followed three
years later.
.P By the mid-thirties the MN was in danger of being left behind; France's only
modern capital ships were the two, 13-inch gunned, Dunkerque-class battleships,
and when, in 1934, the Italians laid down two fast battleships of the Littorio-
class, the French realised they had to act.
.P The Richelieus were logical extensions of the successful Dunkerque-class, with
their main armament mounted forward. Two quadruple turrets housed eight 15-inch
guns and, like the Dunkerques, these turrets were spaced well apart to avoid one
lucky hit taking out the entire main armament. Clémenceau, the third ship, was
laid down in January 1939 and was to have been completed to a similar
specification as the first pair, but the fourth vessel, Gascogne, was to have
reverted to a more conventional layout, with one turret forward and one aft. She
had not been laid down before the German invasion of France in May 1940. For
their secondary armament, the Richelieus were designed with fifteen 6-inch guns
to be fitted in five triple turrets. Ultimately two of these turrets were
discarded, leaving a secondary battery of nine guns, all of which were mounted
aft. Gascogne would have had two 6-inch turrets mounted forward and one aft.
Without a dual-purpose gun available, anti-aircraft (AA) armament was provided
separately to the secondary guns. The AA package was sensible for the time, with
twelve 3.9-inch guns mounted in six twin turrets and for close-range AA defence,
eight 37mm and sixteen 13.2mm guns were fitted. The AA weaponry on Richelieu was
considerably strengthened after she was sent to the United States for a refit in
1943. Up to three aircraft could be carried.
.P The armament arrangement allowed considerable weight savings which meant that
the Richelieus armour protection was generous. This protection was designed to
withstand 15-inch shells, and the Richelieus compared favourably with the Italian
Littorios.
.P The Richelieus were fast battleships, and their top speed of 32 knots was
comparable with their Italian and German contemporaries.
.P The first three ships were named after famous Frenchmen: Richelieu was named
in honour of Cardinal Richelieu, the 17th century statesman; Jean Bart was a 17th
century naval hero; Georges Clémenceau was twice Prime Minister of France; whilst
the fourth ship would have been named after the historic French province of
Gascony.
.P Richelieu's construction was badly behind schedule when she was launched in
January 1939. She was the largest ship built for the MN at that time and she was
built and launched minus forty-three metres of bow and eight metres of stern,
which were constructed separately and attached after launching. Richelieu was at
the Atlantic port of Brest, being fitted out, when the Germans launched their
invasion in the west on the 10th May 1940.
.P Richelieu was not fully complete when, six weeks later, and with the Germans
about to overrun the French Atlantic ports, she was ordered to sail. With the
French government looking for an exit from the war, and knowing that they had an
important bargaining chip in the form of the MN, the original decision to sail
for Britain was changed and Richelieu was ordered to head instead for the port of
Dakar in West Africa.
.P Having survived an attack by German bombers, Richelieu reached Dakar on the
23rd June. However two days later, with France having signed an armistice with
the Germans, her captain ordered her to sail north to Casablanca; he feared that
British Royal Navy forces nearby would try and capture or sink the battleship.
.P The commander of the MN, Admiral Darlan, was unaware of the true situation and
over-ruled this order, fearing that Richelieu was about to surrender to the
British! By 28th June Richelieu was back at Dakar.
.P Fearing the French fleet would fall into German hands after the signing of the
armistice, the British gave the French an ultimatum. French ships in British and
Egyptian port were seized (see Paris and Submarine Counter 4937) while the ships
at Mers-El-Kebir in Algeria were attacked on the 3rd July, after the French
refused any of the options given to them by the British (see Bretagne).
.P As for Richelieu, she became the target for attack on the 8th July. The day
before, the British had presented the French with the same options as had been
delivered at Mers-El-Kebir; once again these options were flatly refused.
However, the British had only the old aircraft carrier Hermes and the heavy
cruiser Dorsetshire available to try and put the battleship out of action, and
so an air strike was their only option.
.P While at anchor just outside the port, Richelieu's captain had placed his
battleship behind a screen of merchant ships. Despite being desperately short of
ammunition, but aware that the British naval forces waiting off Dakar were so
light, the French plan was to sail at first light on the morning of the 8th and
try and sink Hermes before her aircraft could attack Richelieu.
.P Unfortunately for the French, six British Swordfish aircraft arrived at the
port before the battleship could get underway. Five of the torpedoes launched
missed, but one struck home on her starboard side. Although Richelieu remained
afloat, severe damage was incurred, and she sailed for port where temporary work
could be carried out to patch her up. Without specialist equipment at Dakar, and
with no possibility of reaching France, Richelieu was effectively imprisoned in
West Africa, where she was used as a floating gun battery when the next attack
came.
.P That next attack followed in September. Operation Menace was an Anglo-
Free French expedition designed to seize control of French West Africa from the
Vichy authorities. The Allied venture ended in defeat and Richelieu played a
large part in thwarting the Allied plans. However, further damage was inflicted
on her - both by shells from the Royal Navy, and self-inflicted wounds caused by
serious failures on three of her main guns - during the three-day battle (see
Georges Leygues).
.P Follwing Menace, Richelieu was left alone by the Allies. In November 1942
the Allies landed in French North Africa (see Jean Bart) and the Germans walked into Metropolitan
Vichy France (see Strasbourg). As a result, all Vichy territories became
pro-Allied and certain French ships sailed for American ports for modernisation
and repairs; Richelieu among them. She arrived in the United States in February
1943 and her refit took until August to complete. At completion, Richelieu had
lost her aircraft handling facilities and the space created was crammed with AA
weaponry.
.P After work-up, from November 1943 Richelieu was attached to the Royal Navy's
Home Fleet based at Scapa Flow. However, there was a shortage of operations at
that time for Richelieu to be deployed on. She took part only in Operation Bayleaf,
a carrier attack on German shipping off Norway, in February 1944. This operation
proved limited in its results and a follow-up operation was cancelled a few days
later due to poor weather.
.P The following month it was decided to transfer Richelieu to the Far East in
order to bolster the British Eastern Fleet. She arrived at Trincomalee, Ceylon, on the
10th March. While operating with the Eastern Fleet Richelieu took part in four
operations in the Indian Ocean as the Royal Navy by now had sufficient resources
to start taking the war back to the Japanese. The United States Navy lent the
carrier USS Saratoga to the Eastern Fleet and together the following diversionary
operations, designed to assist American operations in the Pacific, were carried
out:
.B
.B Operation Cockpit - April 1944 - an attack against Sabang, Sumatra
.B Operation Transom - May 1944 - an attack against Soerbaya, Java
.P With British carriers in place, Saratoga departed and the following operations
were launched:
.B Operation Pedal - June 1944 - an attack against the Andaman Islands
.B Operation Crimson - July 1944 - another attack against Sabang.
.B
.P Following these operations, Richelieu left the Eastern Fleet and sailed for
Casablanca where she underwent a much needed refit. She returned to the Far East
in March 1945 and re-joined the fleet - by now re-named the East Indies Fleet.
.P Richelieu was involved in Just three more operations in the Indian Ocean
before she was sent to South Africa for further refitting:
.B
.B Operation Sunfish - April 1945 - attacks against Sabang and Padang, Sumatra
.B Operation Bishop - April/May 1945 - attacks against the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
.B Operation Dukedom - May 1945 - attack on the Japanese cruiser Haguro (note:
Richelieu was not involved in the actual sinking)
.B
.P By the time she returned to the Indian Ocean the war was over.
.P Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945 Richelieu remained for a time
in the Far East in order to assist mopping up operations and the protection of
French interests in that region.
.P Richelieu was scrapped in 1968.


No changes

Warspite1

YESSSSSS!!!!!

_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2089
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/29/2011 10:12:16 AM   
warspite1


Posts: 18534
Joined: 2/2/2008
From: England
Status: offline
I'm having a blitz on the French at the moment; please see an example light cruiser:


[4919 Montcalm]
.B Engine(s) output: 84,000 hp
.B Top Speed: 31 knots
.B Main armament: 9 x 6-inch (152mm), 8 x 3.5-inch (90mm) guns
.B Displacement (full load): 9,100 tons
.B Thickest armour: 4-inch (belt)
.P The La Galissonnières were a class of six light cruisers that were built
for the Marine Nationale (MN) between 1931 and 1937. They were developed from the
single-ship Emile Bertin-class and, like many ships of the MN built in the
thirties, they were a successful attempt to equip the MN with a modern, effective
fighting force following years of serious under-funding.
.P The main armament used a 6-inch gun that was first fitted to Emile Bertin and
nine of these were mounted within three triple turrets. Anti-aircraft (AA)
defence was provided by eight 3.5-inch guns fitted in twin turrets, and supported
by eight 37mm and twelve 13.2mm guns for close-range defence. Two double torpedo
tubes were fitted. Up to four aircraft could be operated.
.P As with the heavy cruiser Algérie, that was laid down just before La
Galissonnière, these ships benefitted from the first attempt by the MN to build a
sensible level of armour protection into their light cruiser designs. Vertical
protection was provided by belt armour of 4-inches, while their main deck was
given an armoured deck 1.5-inches thick.
.P A couple of knots in top speed was sacrificed to allow for the increased
protection, but these ships could still comfortably reach 31 knots.
.P These cruisers were named after the following: Roland-Michel Barrin de La
Galissonnière, an 18th century naval commander famous for winning the Battle of
Minorca; Louis-Joseph de Montcalm was the commander of French forces in North
America during the Seven Years War; Georges Leygues was a politician and former
Minister of Marine; Jean de Vienne was an admiral during the Hundred Years War;
La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France; and last but not least, Gloire
is French for Glory and has been a popular name in the MN since the late 18th
century.
.P Montcalm was completed in December 1937 and at the outbreak of the Second
World War she was part of the 4th Division de croiseurs along with her sisters
Gloire and Georges Leygues. The 4th Division were based at the port of Brest and
were part of the Escadre D'Atlantique.
.P Just after the outbreak of war, the MN formed the Force de Raid. This force,
commanded by amiral Gensoul, consisted of fast and modern ships that were used
for countering German surface raiders.
.P In October, the Force de Raid was split into two as part of a reorganisation
of forces by the British and French navies. With at least two Kriegsmarine
surface raiders on the loose in the North and South Atlantic, the Allies formed
eight hunting groups to track them down. Montcalm was part of Force L, and she
remained at Brest with the fast battleship Dunkerque and her two sisters.
.P At the end of that month Force L sortied to escort an important convoy,
KJ.3, in view of the threat posed by the German ships. Then, a month later, the
ships of Force L were ordered to sail for Iceland. This was in response to the
sinking of the British armed merchant cruiser Rawalpindi by the German
battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. This proved to be a wild goose chase as
the German ships returned to port after the sinking; the German commander
correctly surmising that the Rawalpindi's sinking would have alerted every
available Allied ship.
.P For the rest of the year and into early 1940, life for the Force de Raid was
pretty routine. However, in late April, Montcalm was ordered to replace the cruiser
Emile Bertin off Norway. The ill-fated Allied campaign to assist Norway, following the
German invasion earlier that month, quickly started to unravel, and Montcalm
arrived in time to assist the evacuation of Allied troops from Namsos at the
beginning of May. Although she came under air attack,
she was not damaged during this operation (see Transport Counter (4931).
.P With Italy entering the war on the 10th June 1940, the Force de Raid was sent
to Mers-el-Kebir, the naval base in the French colony of Algeria. Here she was
re-united with her three other sisters, La Galissonnière, Jean de Vienne and
Marseillaise. The French fleet were almost immediately deployed in response to
an erroneous report that Axis ships were trying to venture through the Straits
of Gibraltar. On the return journey, the fleet came under attack from Italian
submarines, though without any success.
.P At the start of the following month the British carried out their attack on
the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir (see Bretagne). However the light cruisers of
the 3rd and 4th divisions were at Algiers at this time and were not attacked.
They were able to rendezvous with the battleship Strasbourg that had escaped
from the British attack, and together, they sailed for Toulon in Southern France.
.P In September 1940, the Vichy authorities were concerned that the African
colony of Gabon was going to switch allegiance to the Free French. The three
cruisers of the 4th Division were sent to restore order, accompanied by three
destroyers (see Transport Counter 4933). However, this operation coincided with
Free French and British efforts to capture the Vichy port of Dakar in West
Africa. The cruisers were unable to provide any assistance to the Vichy
government at Gabon (see Submarine Counter 4938) before being intercepted by a
British cruiser force; Montcalm and Georges Leygues were able to return to Dakar,
but Gloire suffered mechanical problems and was escorted by a British cruiser to
Casablanca.
.P Between the 23rd and 25th September, the Anglo-Free French attack on Dakar
took place. Montcalm and Georges Leygues played their part in ensuring that this
operation was to be a costly failure for the Allies (see ASW Escort Counter
4920). Montcalm received slight damage during the fighting.
.P Following this episode, Montcalm was largely inactive until the Allies
launched Operation Torch in November 1942. Torch was the invasion of French North
Africa and in the same month the Germans occupied Metropolitan Vichy France.
Vichy territories subsequently declared for the Allies and selected naval vessels
were sent to the United States for refitting and repair before entering service
with the Forces Navales Françaises Libres (FNFL).
.P Montcalm was one of the vessels chosen and she sailed for the United States in
February 1943. She had her aircraft facilities removed and was fitted with new
AA weaponry.
.P Upon entering service with the FNFL, Montcalm was initially sent to the
Mediterranean, and in September she assisted the successful invasion of Corsica
that was carried out by troops of the French 1st Corps.
.P Following this, Montcalm was re-united with her sister ship Georges Leygues
and, together with the Italian cruiser Duca degli Abruzzi, these three cruisers
formed one of the two forces that were then sent to the South Atlantic to search
for Axis blockade runners.
.P Then, in June, Montcalm took part in Operation Neptune, the naval component of
the D-Day landings against the beaches of Normandy (see Amphibious Counter 4927). For
this operation Montcalm was allocated to the Western Task Force and she assisted
the landings at Omaha beach.
.P The following August Montcalm was ordered to the Mediterranean, where she was
to remain for the rest of the war. She took part in Operation Dragoon that month.
Dragoon was the invasion of Southern France, and Montcalm provided naval gunfire
support during the operation and in the following weeks (see Amphibious Counter
4928).
.P Montcalm then moved east and provided support for Allied troops in Italy, with
her final operation, the shelling of German positions along the Italian Riveira,
taking place at the end of April.
.P Montcalm was scrapped in 1969.

_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to warspite1)
Post #: 2090
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 8/29/2011 3:54:56 PM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline
[4919 Montcalm]
.B Engine(s) output: 84,000 hp
.B Top Speed: 31 knots
.B Main armament: 9 x 6-inch (152mm), 8 x 3.5-inch (90mm) guns
.B Displacement (full load): 9,100 tons
.B Thickest armour: 4-inch (belt)
.P The La Galissonnières were a class of six light cruisers that were built
for the Marine Nationale (MN) between 1931 and 1937. They were developed from the
single-ship Emile Bertin-class and, like many ships of the MN built in the
thirties, they were a successful attempt to equip the MN with a modern, effective
fighting force following years of serious under-funding.
.P The main armament used a 6-inch gun that was first fitted to Emile Bertin and
nine of these were mounted within three triple turrets. Anti-aircraft (AA)
defence was provided by eight 3.5-inch guns fitted in twin turrets, and supported
by eight 37mm and twelve 13.2mm guns for close-range defence. Two double torpedo
tubes were fitted. Up to four aircraft could be operated.
.P As with the heavy cruiser Algérie, that was laid down just before La
Galissonnière, these ships benefitted from the first attempt by the MN to build a
sensible level of armour protection into their light cruiser designs. Vertical
protection was provided by belt armour of 4-inches, while their main deck was
given an armoured deck 1.5-inches thick.
.P A couple of knots in top speed was sacrificed to allow for the increased
protection, but these ships could still comfortably reach 31 knots.
.P These cruisers were named after the following: Roland-Michel Barrin de La
Galissonnière, an 18th century naval commander famous for winning the Battle of
Minorca; Louis-Joseph de Montcalm was the commander of French forces in North
America during the Seven Years War; Georges Leygues was a politician and former
Minister of Marine; Jean de Vienne was an admiral during the Hundred Years War;
La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France; and last but not least, Gloire
is French for Glory and has been a popular name in the MN since the late 18th
century.
.P Montcalm was completed in December 1937 and at the outbreak of the Second
World War she was part of the 4th Division de croiseurs along with her sisters
Gloire and Georges Leygues. The 4th Division was based at the port of Brest and
were part of the Escadre D'Atlantique.
.P Just after the outbreak of war, the MN formed the Force de Raid. This force,
commanded by Amiral Gensoul, consisted of fast and modern ships that were used
for countering German surface raiders.
.P In October, the Force de Raid was split into two as part of a reorganisation
of forces by the British and French navies. With at least two Kriegsmarine
surface raiders on the loose in the North and South Atlantic, the Allies formed
eight hunting groups to track them down. Montcalm was part of Force L, and she
remained at Brest with the fast battleship Dunkerque and her two sisters.
.P
At the end of that month Force L made a sortie to escort an important convoy, KJ.3, in view of the threat posed by the German ships.

Then, a month later, the
ships of Force L were ordered to sail for Iceland. This was in response to the
sinking of the British armed merchant cruiser Rawalpindi by the German
battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. This proved to be a wild goose chase as
the German ships returned to port after the sinking; the German commander
correctly surmising that the Rawalpindi's sinking would have alerted every
available Allied ship.
.P For the rest of the year and into early 1940, life for the Force de Raid was
pretty routine. However, in late April, Montcalm was ordered to replace the cruiser
Emile Bertin off Norway. The ill-fated Allied campaign to assist Norway, following the
German invasion earlier that month, quickly started to unravel, and Montcalm
arrived in time to assist the evacuation of Allied troops from Namsos at the
beginning of May. Although she came under air attack,
she was not damaged during this operation (see Transport Counter (4931).
.P With Italy entering the war on the 10th June 1940, the Force de Raid was sent
to Mers-el-Kebir, the naval base in the French colony of Algeria. Here she was
re-united with her three other sisters, La Galissonnière, Jean de Vienne and
Marseillaise. The French fleet was almost immediately deployed in response to
an erroneous report that Axis ships were trying to venture through the Straits
of Gibraltar. On the return journey, the fleet came under attack from Italian
submarines, though without any success.
.P At the start of the following month the British carried out their attack on
the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir (see Bretagne). However the light cruisers of
the 3rd and 4th divisions were at Algiers at this time and were not attacked.
They were able to rendezvous with the battleship Strasbourg that had escaped
from the British attack, and together, they sailed for Toulon in Southern France.
.P In September 1940, the Vichy authorities were concerned that the African
colony of Gabon was going to switch allegiance to the Free French. The three
cruisers of the 4th Division were sent to restore order, accompanied by three
destroyers (see Transport Counter 4933). However, this operation coincided with
Free French and British efforts to capture the Vichy port of Dakar in West
Africa. The cruisers were unable to provide any assistance to the Vichy
government at Gabon (see Submarine Counter 4938) before being intercepted by a
British cruiser force; Montcalm and Georges Leygues were able to return to Dakar,
but Gloire suffered mechanical problems and was escorted by a British cruiser to
Casablanca.
.P Between the 23rd and 25th September, the Anglo-Free French attack on Dakar
took place. Montcalm and Georges Leygues played their part in ensuring that this
operation was to be a costly failure for the Allies (see ASW Escort Counter
4920). Montcalm received slight damage during the fighting.
.P Following this episode, Montcalm was largely inactive until the Allies
launched Operation Torch in November 1942. Torch was the invasion of French North
Africa and in the same month the Germans occupied Metropolitan Vichy France.
Vichy territories subsequently declared for the Allies and selected naval vessels
were sent to the United States for refitting and repair before entering service
with the Forces Navales Françaises Libres (FNFL).
.P Montcalm was one of the vessels chosen and she sailed for the United States in
February 1943. She had her aircraft facilities removed and was fitted with new
AA weaponry.
.P Upon entering service with the FNFL, Montcalm was initially sent to the
Mediterranean, and in September she assisted the successful invasion of Corsica
that was carried out by troops of the French 1st Corps.
.P Following this, Montcalm was re-united with her sister ship Georges Leygues
and, together with the Italian cruiser Duca degli Abruzzi, these three cruisers
formed one of the two forces that were then sent to the South Atlantic to search
for Axis blockade runners.
.P Then, in June, Montcalm took part in Operation Neptune, the naval component of
the D-Day landings against the beaches of Normandy (see Amphibious Counter 4927). For
this operation Montcalm was allocated to the Western Task Force and she assisted
the landings at Omaha beach.
.P The following August Montcalm was ordered to the Mediterranean, where she was
to remain for the rest of the war. She took part in Operation Dragoon that month.
Dragoon was the invasion of Southern France, and Montcalm provided naval gunfire
support during the operation and in the following weeks (see Amphibious Counter
4928).
.P Montcalm then moved east and provided support for Allied troops in Italy, with
her final operation, the shelling of German positions along the Italian Riveira,
taking place at the end of April.
.P Montcalm was scrapped in 1969.



Sortie (N) (Mil.): A sudden issuing of troops from a defensive position against the enemy.

There is no such word as “sortied” or “sortieed”. I know it sounds right and have found “sortieed” used but it doesn’t exist on any dictionary.

I don't think you can suffix a noun or pronoun when it is the object of a verb.

So it’s “made a sortie”.



_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to warspite1)
Post #: 2091
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/1/2011 10:47:47 PM   
Red Prince


Posts: 3572
Joined: 4/8/2011
From: Bangor, Maine, USA
Status: offline
The latest novel written by Jimm:
-----
Edit: I haven't proofread this yet, just in case you catch something.



Attachment (1)

< Message edited by Red Prince -- 9/1/2011 10:48:37 PM >


_____________________________

Always listen to experts. They'll tell you what can't be done and why. Then do it!
-Lazarus Long, RAH

(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2092
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/2/2011 12:28:10 AM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline
Direct translations
Corazzata - Hardened
Motorizzata - Motorized
Motocorazzato - Armored (CAM)
Moto-Corazzato - Movement-Hardened


Loose Translations
Corpo D'Armata di Corazzata - Armored Army Corps
Corpo D'Armata di Motorizzata - Motorized Army Corps
Corpo D'Armata di Autotrasportabile - Trucked Army Corps
Corpo D'Armata di Manovra - Maneuver Army Corps (CAM)
Corpo D'Armata Motocorazzato - Armored Army Corps (CAM) or Motor Armored Army Corps (CAM)

I can't find a definition for CAM but it is with Manovra and Motocorazzato.





_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to Red Prince)
Post #: 2093
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/10/2011 8:09:06 AM   
warspite1


Posts: 18534
Joined: 2/2/2008
From: England
Status: offline
I have tidied up the write-up for Pozerica following Extraneous' quiz question. If anyone has any details about the equipment provided to the Fighter Direction Ships I would be grateful. Would like to use Tynwald for part of the Torch story.

[4701 ASW British]
.P These ASW counters are only used if playing with the Convoy In Flames optional
rule. The counters do not represent any specific individual convoy or any
particular ships, but are designed to represent convoy escort groups. They have
mixed values reflecting the fact that the make-up of an escort group could differ
from one convoy to the next. Examples of escort vessels used during the Second
World War were: escort carriers, destroyers, destroyer escorts, corvettes,
sloops, trawlers etc - in other words a wide variety of ship type was used in the
defence of merchant vessels.
.P At the start of the war the Royal Navy (RN) had too few escorts to allow it to
undertake all its required duties; protecting convoys, escorting capital ships
etc. Matters were made worse by heavy losses incurred off Norway and the Low
Countries, but gradually, the problem was resolved. A large shipbuilding program
was begun, almost from scratch, in Canada, while in the United Kingdom, priority
was given to the construction of specialised escort vessels. The Lend-Lease bill
passed in the United States further assisted the cause. As the war progressed,
the escorts available to the navies of the Commonwealth not only grew in number,
but also in effectiveness - in particular their anti-aircraft (AA) and anti-
submarine (ASW) capability.
.P There were two main threats to ocean-going convoys: Surface raiders and
U-boats, while closer to shore, aircraft and mines were a particular menace.
Unfortunately for the Kriegsmarine, the surface raiders record against Allied
convoys was ultimately to prove a disappointment. In contrast to its U-boat arm,
neither its warships nor its assortment of auxiliary cruisers came anywhere near
causing the level of destruction they had hoped for.
.P Unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans in the First World War brought
the United Kingdom to the brink of defeat. The UK survived thanks largely to the
introduction of the convoy system, which provided the previously unguarded and
mostly unarmed merchant vessels with warship protection.
.P At the outbreak of World War II convoys were re-introduced as quickly as
possible, but there had been a lack of investment in time and resources devoted
to the subject of convoy defence during the inter-war years. This not only led to
the shortage of specialist escort vessels, but those the RN did have were fitted
with only rudimentary AA and ASW equipment.
.P Fortunately for the British, the Kriegsmarine were equally, if not more
unprepared, and actually started the war with only fifty-seven U-boats. Of
these, just twenty-six were capable of Atlantic operations. The Germans moved
quickly to rectify this deficiency via a large scale U-boat build program, and
great success was achieved in the first half of the Second World War. This led
Winston Churchill to later admit that the only thing that frightened him in World
War II was the U-boat threat. For a time the U-boats were sinking more merchant
ships than could be replaced, but in the end, the greater resources open to the
Allies; more ships and better technology, ground the U-boat menace into oblivion.
.P During the Second World War, the potency of aircraft as ship killers became
evident. Most convoy routes came under threat from air attack at some point
along their length. To reach out into the Atlantic and Arctic, the Germans
employed their long range Focke-Wulf FW200 Condor aircraft that had a range of
2,212 miles (3,560km) and a 14-hour endurance. For more confined waters like the
North Sea, the English Channel and the Mediterranean, the Axis forces were able
to employ their shorter range aircraft in the ship killer role. Ultimately, a
combination of escort carriers and stronger AA capability on board the escorts
managed to neutralise this threat too. Mines were to prove a potent weapon too,
and the Germans were very active in sowing minefields throughout the war.
Clearing paths through these obstacles was a vital role and the minesweepers of
the RN saved many a ship with their unsung work.
.P Of all the Allied convoy routes, the Atlantic was the most important. The
Battle of the Atlantic was to be the longest battle in World War II. Had the
Allies lost, the United Kingdom could have been literally starved into defeat. It
is worth remembering here that the men of the Merchant Navy suffered a higher
percentage of losses compared to the British Army, RN or Royal Air Force in World
War II, and these losses were mostly incurred in bringing food and supplies to
the Britain.
.P In addition, the movement of troops from the United States and the far flung
colonies and dominions of the Commonwealth to the frontline; France, India, North
Africa etc would have been much more hazardous if the Axis had control of the
sea lanes. That this did not happen is down to the bravery and sacrifice of those
that fought the enemy in all major sea areas of the world. These write-ups tell
some of those stories.
.P Note, the date on the back of these ASW and ASW Carrier counters do not relate
in any meaningful way to actual build dates for the ships that took undertook the
convoy escort role during World War II. The counter date should therefore be
ignored. In addition, the counter mix is unbalanced in terms of origin of the
escorts and those with an aircraft component. As a result there will be a degree
of RN ship write-ups on Canadian counters and carrier units being used to
describe non-Carrier counters. Finally, because these smaller ships do not have
their own counter, some of the more important non-convoy related episodes of the
war that involved these ship types, are also told within some of these write-ups.
.P These counters give information on the main types of convoy escort that were
available to the RN and the dominion navies. This write-up looks at two auxiliary
AA Vessels, HMS Foylebank and HMS Pozarica.
.P To better protect convoys that were vulnerable to air attack, during 1940-41,
the Admiralty converted seven merchant ships specifically for use in an AA role.
An eighth ship - the former armed merchant cruiser HMCS Prince Robert - was so
converted in 1943. The eight ships were Alynbank, Foylebank, Palomares, Pozarica,
Prince Robert, Springbank, Tynwald and Ulster Queen. These ships were given a
relatively powerful AA capability and proved useful addition to convoy defence.
Some of the ships were used extensively on the Arctic convoys to the Soviet
Union. Four of these ships were lost during the war.
.B
.B HMS Foylebank
.B Engine(s) output: ? hp
.B Top Speed: 14 knots
.B Main armament: 8 x 4-inch (102mm) guns and 8 x 2-pdr pompoms
.B Gross Registered Tons: 5,582 tons
.B Thickest Armour: n/a
.P Foylebank was built for the Bank Line in 1930. She was designed for use as a
general cargo vessel. However, by the end of that decade, she was to be used for
a very different purpose.
.P Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, Foylebank was requisitioned
by the Admiralty for conversion into an AA auxiliary. For this role she was
fitted with eight high angle 4-inch guns as well as four twin 2-pdrs and ten 20mm
Oerlikons. Sadly HMS Foylebank - as she was now officially titled - was to have a
very short existence.
.P After the defeat of France, the English Channel became a very dangerous place
for merchant ships. Initially the British refused to give up using the Channel,
and convoys to and from the port of London were routed through this narrow
waterway rather than the much longer option of sailing via the north of Scotland.
This decision put convoys at risk of both enemy aircraft and enemy torpedo boats.
The fate of convoy OA178 reflects the seriousness of the situation in the summer
of 1940.
.P OA178 was a large convoy heading for Nova Scotia that left London on the 3rd
July 1940. The next day the fourteen-ship convoy was spotted by reconaissance
aircraft and the Luftwaffe ordered Stukas into the air to attack the vulnerable
ships.
.P After hits were recorded on at least four of the merchant vessels, the order
was given to seek shelter in the port of Portland on the Dorset coast. Within the
harbour HMS Foylebank was acting as an AA guardship. Sadly, instead of being able
to provide much assistance to the convoy, Foylebank found herself a sitting duck
and was subjected to a concerted attack by German dive-bombers. Foylebank was hit
by numerous bombs and she soon sank, taking with her 176 of her 298 crew.
.P One of those killed was Leading Seaman Jack Mantle. For his actions that day,
Mantle won the highest award for bravery in the face of the enemy, the Victoria
Cross. Mantle was operating the starboard pompom when Foylebank came under
attack. He was badly wounded early in the attack, when bomb splinters tore into
his left leg, but he refused to leave his gun. With his leg shattered, he
remained at his gun, taking further punishment in the process. He eventually
passed out and was carried away from the sinking ship. However his injuries were
too severe and brave Mantle died soon afterwards.
.P It was the end for Foylebank too, as she sank in the shallow harbour. She was
raised after the war and scrapped.
.B
.B HMS Pozerica
.B Engine(s) output: 2,640 hp
.B Top Speed: 16.5 knots
.B Main armament: 6 x 4-inch (102mm) guns and 8 x 2-pdr pompoms
.B Gross Registered Tons: 1,893 tons
.B Thickest Armour: n/a
.P Having been built in 1938, Pozerica began life as a fruit carrier, working
for MacAndrews & Co Limited. She was requisitioned by the Admiralty in 1940 for
use as an auxiliary AA ship.
.P Armed with six four-inch high angle guns, four twin 2-pdrs and ten 20mm
Oerlikons, she began her new role in March 1941, deployed with the Western
Approaches Command. She was initially used to escort convoys in the Irish Sea
before being ordered north to undertake escort duty with the Arctic convoys
sailing to and from the Soviet Union.
.P HMS Pozerica took part in the most costly Arctic convoy of the Second World
War, PQ17. This convoy (carrying 150,000 tons of supplies, almost 300 aircraft,
600 tanks and over 4,000 vehicles of all types) contained a heavier escort than
had previously been used as a result of the losses suffered by PQ16 (see ASW
British Counter 4703). The ocean escort, consisted of six destroyers, four
corvettes, three minesweepers, four armed trawlers, a CAM-ship and two auxiliary
AA ships (Pozerica's sister ship Palomares had also been similarly converted).
PQ17 also had a cruiser screen consisting of HM ships London and Norfolk together
with two US cruisers and three destroyers. Two further layers of defence,
employed to guard against the threat from the Kriegsmarine's remaining surface
fleet, was the distant covering force and the US Navy Task Force 99. The former
consisted of the fleet carrier Victorious, the battleship Duke of York (flagship
of Admiral Tovey); the cruisers Cumberland and Nigeria and supporting destroyers.
Task Force 99 contained the battleship Washington flagship of Rear-Admiral
Giffen) and her destroyer screen.
.P Another feature of PQ17 was a dummy convoy operation, code-named Operation ES.
ES was a feint into the Norwegian Sea by the cruisers Curacoa and Sirius together
with supporting destroyers and smaller escort vessels; the latter acting as
escort for four colliers. As it turned out, German reconnaissance failed to pick
out this force, even though the exercise was repeated a few days later.
.P On the 14th June, Allied intelligence picked up details of a German operation
code-named Rösselsprung (Knight's Move) which set out plans for the destruction
of the next Arctic convoy. The plan involved detection of the convoy before it
reached Jan Mayen island, whereupon it would come under air attack. Once Bear
Island was reached further east, there would be a co-ordinated air and sea attack
by a strengthened Luftwaffe, U-boats and up to five German surface ships,
including the battleship Tirpitz.
.P PQ17, consisting of thirty-six merchant vessels and commanded by Commodore J
Dowding, left Iceland on the 27th June 1942, while the day before, the thirty-
five strong convoy QP13 left Russia and headed west. For escort, QP13 had five
destroyers, four corvettes, two minesweepers, two trawlers, the AA ship Alynbank
and a submarine. The two convoys passed each other on the 2nd July and QP13 was
ordered to split into two, with nineteen ships sailing for Scotland and sixteen
heading for Iceland as planned. The Scotland bound vessels reached their
destination without drama, but those heading for Iceland ran into a minefield.
The minesweeper Niger struck a mine and blew up with the loss of 119 men. In
quick order, five merchant vessels also struck mines and sunk with further heavy
loss of life.
.P Meanwhile PQ17 had already lost three ships to mechanical trouble before it
was met by its ocean escort on the 30th June. The convoy was soon being shadowed
by U-boats and ten of these were in the vicinity, assisted by reconnaissance
aircraft. The initial enemy attacks were beaten off, as was a strike by nine
He115's which attacked Pozarica, and the Luftwaffe lost an aircraft in the for
their trouble. At this time the U-boats maintained pressure on the convoy, but
again without success.
.P However, the Luftwaffe finally got some reward for their endeavours. On the
4th July, Palomares was attacked by a force of He111's armed with torpedoes. One
of these missed its intended target but hit the liberty ship Christopher Newport
which was later sunk by U-457. This was quickly followed by the loss of two
further merchants, Navarino and William Hooper.
.P At this point, the fog of war was to rear its head. The British, acting on
intelligence reports indicating a sortie by Tirpitz, the armoured cruiser Scheer
and the heavy cruiser Hipper, ordered the scattering of the convoy. The thinking
was that the merchant vessels would be more likely to reach the Soviet Union if
they were dispersed rather than grouped together. The fateful order was given on
the evening of 4th July. However, Hitler had ordered that his surface ships
should not attack if there was an aircraft carrier or a superior naval force
present. Therefore, when German reconnaissance wrongly reported that a carrier
and a battleship were present with the convoy, the plan to attack PQ17 with
surface ships was halted and the German ships returned to port.
.P The scattered merchant vessels were easy targets for the Luftwaffe and the U-
boats. No less than twelve ships were lost on the 5th July, two on the 6th,
three on the 7th, one on the 8th and finally, two more on the 10th. Including
the three vessels lost before the scatter order, twenty-four heavily laden
merchant ships, packed with supplies for the Red Army had been sunk. 153 officers
and men were killed.
.P Pozerica survived the harsh Arctic theatre and, later in 1942, she was
converted once more; this time for use as a fighter direction ship. It was in
this guise that she took part in Operation Torch; the Allied invasion of North
Africa in November 1942 (see HMS Delhi).
.P It was while operating in these waters the following January, that she was
attacked by an enemy torpedo bomber. Although able to reach port after being hit
by a torpedo, the operation to save her was in vain and she sank on the 13th
February 1943.

_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2094
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/10/2011 10:04:40 AM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline
I have tidied up the write-up for Pozerica following Extraneous' quiz question. If anyone has any details about the equipment provided to the Fighter Direction Ships I would be grateful. Would like to use Tynwald for part of the Torch story.

[4701 ASW British]
.P These ASW counters are only used if playing with the Convoy In Flames optional
rule. The counters do not represent any specific individual convoy or any
particular ships, but are designed to represent convoy escort groups. They have
mixed values reflecting the fact that the make-up of an escort group could differ
from one convoy to the next. Examples of escort vessels used during the Second
World War were: escort carriers, destroyers, destroyer escorts, corvettes,
sloops, trawlers etc - in other words a wide variety of ship type was used in the
defence of merchant vessels.
.P At the start of the war the Royal Navy (RN) had too few escorts to allow it to
undertake all its required duties; protecting convoys, escorting capital ships
etc. Matters were made worse by heavy losses incurred off Norway and the Low
Countries, but gradually, the problem was resolved. A large shipbuilding program
was begun, almost from scratch, in Canada, while in the United Kingdom, priority
was given to the construction of specialised escort vessels. The Lend-Lease bill
passed in the United States further assisted the cause. As the war progressed,
the escorts available to the navies of the Commonwealth not only grew in number,
but also in effectiveness - in particular their anti-aircraft (AA) and anti-
submarine (ASW) capability.
.P There were two main threats to ocean-going convoys: Surface raiders and
U-boats, while closer to shore, aircraft and mines were a particular menace.
Unfortunately for the Kriegsmarine, the surface raiders record against Allied
convoys was ultimately to prove a disappointment. In contrast to its U-boat arm,
neither its warships nor its assortment of auxiliary cruisers came anywhere near
causing the level of destruction they had hoped for.
.P Unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans in the First World War brought
the United Kingdom to the brink of defeat. The UK survived thanks largely to the
introduction of the convoy system, which provided the previously unguarded and
mostly unarmed merchant vessels with warship protection.
.P At the outbreak of World War II convoys were re-introduced as quickly as
possible, but there had been a lack of investment in time and resources devoted
to the subject of convoy defence during the inter-war years. This not only led to
the shortage of specialist escort vessels, but those the RN did have were fitted
with only rudimentary AA and ASW equipment.
.P Fortunately for the British, the Kriegsmarine were equally, if not more
unprepared, and actually started the war with only fifty-seven U-boats. Of
these, just twenty-six were capable of Atlantic operations. The Germans moved
quickly to rectify this deficiency via a large scale U-boat build program, and
great success was achieved in the first half of the Second World War. This led
Winston Churchill to later admit that the only thing that frightened him in World
War II was the U-boat threat. For a time the U-boats were sinking more merchant
ships than could be replaced, but in the end, the greater resources open to the
Allies; more ships and better technology, ground the U-boat menace into oblivion.
.P During the Second World War, the potency of aircraft as ship killers became
evident. Most convoy routes came under threat from air attack at some point
along their length. To reach out into the Atlantic and Arctic, the Germans
employed their long range Focke-Wulf FW200 Condor aircraft that had a range of
2,212 miles (3,560km) and a 14-hour endurance. For more confined waters like the
North Sea, the English Channel and the Mediterranean, the Axis forces were able
to employ their shorter range aircraft in the ship killer role. Ultimately, a
combination of escort carriers and stronger AA capability on board the escorts
managed to neutralise this threat too. Mines were to prove a potent weapon too,
and the Germans were very active in sowing minefields throughout the war.
Clearing paths through these obstacles was a vital role and the minesweepers of
the RN saved many a ship with their unsung work.
.P Of all the Allied convoy routes, the Atlantic was the most important. The
Battle of the Atlantic was to be the longest battle in World War II. Had the
Allies lost, the United Kingdom could have been literally starved into defeat.
It is worth remembering here that the men of the Merchant Navy suffered a higher
percentage of losses compared to the British Army, RN or Royal Air Force in World
War II, and these losses were mostly incurred in bringing food and supplies to Britain.

.P In addition, the movement of troops from the United States and the far flung
colonies and dominions of the Commonwealth to the frontline; France, India, North
Africa etc would have been much more hazardous if the Axis had control of the
sea lanes. That this did not happen is down to the bravery and sacrifice of those
that fought the enemy in all major sea areas of the world. These write-ups tell
some of those stories.
.P Note, the date on the back of these ASW and ASW Carrier counters do not relate
in any meaningful way to actual build dates for the ships that took undertook the
convoy escort role during World War II. The counter date should therefore be
ignored. In addition, the counter mix is unbalanced in terms of origin of the
escorts and those with an aircraft component. As a result there will be a degree
of RN ship write-ups on Canadian counters and carrier units being used to
describe non-Carrier counters. Finally, because these smaller ships do not have
their own counter, some of the more important non-convoy related episodes of the
war that involved these ship types, are also told within some of these write-ups.
.P These counters give information on the main types of convoy escort that were
available to the RN and the dominion navies. This write-up looks at two auxiliary
AA ships, HMS Foylebank and HMS Pozarica.

.P To better protect convoys that were vulnerable to air attack, during 1940-41,
the Admiralty converted seven merchant ships specifically for use in an AA role.
An eighth ship - the former armed merchant cruiser HMCS Prince Robert - was so
converted in 1943. The eight ships were Alynbank, Foylebank, Palomares, Pozarica,
Prince Robert, Springbank, Tynwald and Ulster Queen. These ships were given a
relatively powerful AA capability and proved useful addition to convoy defence.
Some of the ships were used extensively on the Arctic convoys to the Soviet
Union. Four of these ships were lost during the war.
.B
.B HMS Foylebank
.B Engine(s) output: ? hp
.B Top Speed: 14 knots
.B Main armament: 8 x 4-inch (102mm) guns and 8 x 2-pdr pompoms
.B Gross Registered Tons: 5,582 tons
.B Thickest Armour: n/a
.P Foylebank was built for the Bank Line in 1930. She was designed for use as a
general cargo vessel. However, by the end of that decade, she was to be used for
a very different purpose.
.P Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, Foylebank was requisitioned
by the Admiralty for conversion into an AA auxiliary. For this role she was
fitted with eight high angle 4-inch guns as well as four twin 2-pdrs and ten 20mm
Oerlikons. Sadly HMS Foylebank - as she was now officially titled - was to have a
very short existence.
.P After the defeat of France, the English Channel became a very dangerous place
for merchant ships. Initially the British refused to give up using the Channel,
and convoys to and from the port of London were routed through this narrow
waterway rather than the much longer option of sailing via the north of Scotland.
This decision put convoys at risk of both enemy aircraft and enemy torpedo boats.
The fate of convoy OA178 reflects the seriousness of the situation in the summer
of 1940.
.P OA178 was a large convoy heading for Nova Scotia that left London on July 3, 1940.
Reconaissance aircraft spotted the fourteen-ship convoy and the next day the Luftwaffe ordered Stukas into the air to attack the vulnerable ships.
.P After hits were recorded on at least four of the merchant vessels, the order
was given to seek shelter in the port of Portland on the Dorset coast. Within the
harbour HMS Foylebank was acting as an AA guardship. Sadly, instead of being able
to provide much assistance to the convoy, Foylebank found herself a sitting duck
and was subjected to a concerted attack by German dive-bombers.
Numerous bombs hit Foylebank and she soon sank, taking 176 of her 298 crew with her.
.P One of those killed was Leading Seaman Jack Mantle. For his actions that day,
Mantle won the highest award for bravery in the face of the enemy, the Victoria
Cross. Mantle was operating the starboard pompom when Foylebank came under
attack. He was badly wounded early in the attack, when bomb splinters tore into
his left leg, but he refused to leave his gun. With his leg shattered, he
remained at his gun, taking further punishment in the process. He eventually
passed out and was carried away from the sinking ship. However his injuries were
too severe and brave Mantle died soon afterwards.
.P It was the end for Foylebank too, as she sank in the shallow harbour. She was
raised after the war and scrapped.
.B
.B HMS Pozerica
.B Engine(s) output: 2,640 hp
.B Top Speed: 16.5 knots
.B Main armament: 6 x 4-inch (102mm) guns and 8 x 2-pdr pompoms
.B Gross Registered Tons: 1,893 tons
.B Thickest Armour: n/a
.P Having been built in 1938, Pozerica began life as a fruit carrier, working
for MacAndrews & Co Limited. The Admiralty requisitioned her in 1940 for
use as an auxiliary AA ship.

.P Armed with six four-inch high angle guns, four twin 2-pdrs and ten 20mm
Oerlikons, she began her new role in March 1941, deployed with the Western
Approaches Command. She was initially used to escort convoys in the Irish Sea
before being ordered north to undertake escort duty with the Arctic convoys
sailing to and from the Soviet Union.
.P HMS Pozerica took part in the most costly Arctic convoy of the Second World
War, PQ17. This convoy (carrying 150,000 tons of supplies, almost 300 aircraft,
600 tanks and over 4,000 vehicles of all types) contained a heavier escort than
had previously been used as a result of the losses suffered by PQ16 (see ASW
British Counter 4703). The ocean escort, consisted of six destroyers, four
corvettes, three minesweepers, four armed trawlers, a CAM-ship and two auxiliary
AA ships (Pozerica's sister ship Palomares had also been similarly converted).
PQ17 also had a cruiser screen consisting of HM ships London and Norfolk together
with two US cruisers and three destroyers. Two further layers of defence,
employed to guard against the threat from the Kriegsmarine's remaining surface
fleet, was the distant covering force and the US Navy Task Force 99. The former
consisted of the fleet carrier Victorious, the battleship Duke of York (flagship
of Admiral Tovey); the cruisers Cumberland and Nigeria and supporting destroyers.
Task Force 99 contained the battleship Washington flagship of Rear-Admiral
Giffen) and her destroyer screen.
.P Another feature of PQ17 was a dummy convoy operation, code-named Operation ES.
ES was a feint into the Norwegian Sea by the cruisers Curacoa and Sirius together
with supporting destroyers and smaller escort vessels; the latter acting as
escort for four colliers. As it turned out, German reconnaissance failed to pick
out this force, even though the exercise was repeated a few days later.
.P On the 14th June, Allied intelligence picked up details of a German operation
code-named Rösselsprung (Knight's Move) which set out plans for the destruction
of the next Arctic convoy. The plan involved detection of the convoy before it
reached Jan Mayen Island, whereupon it would come under air attack. Once Bear
Island was reached further east, there would be a coordinated air and sea attack
by a strengthened Luftwaffe, U-boats and up to five German surface ships,
including the battleship Tirpitz.
.P PQ17, consisting of thirty-six merchant vessels and commanded by Commodore J
Dowding, left Iceland on the 27th June 1942, while the day before, the thirty-
five strong convoy QP13 left Russia and headed west. For escort, QP13 had five
destroyers, four corvettes, two minesweepers, two trawlers, the AA ship Alynbank
and a submarine. The two convoys passed each other on the 2nd July and QP13 was
ordered to split into two, with nineteen ships sailing for Scotland and sixteen
heading for Iceland as planned. The Scotland bound vessels reached their
destination without drama, but those heading for Iceland ran into a minefield.
The minesweeper Niger struck a mine and blew up with the loss of 119 men. In
quick order, five merchant vessels also struck mines and sunk with further heavy
loss of life.
.P Meanwhile PQ17 had already lost three ships to mechanical trouble before it
was met by its ocean escort on the 30th June. The convoy was soon being shadowed
by U-boats and ten of these were in the vicinity, assisted by reconnaissance
aircraft. The initial enemy attacks were beaten off, as was a strike by nine
He115's which attacked Pozarica, and the Luftwaffe lost an aircraft in the for
their trouble. At this time the U-boats maintained pressure on the convoy, but
again without success.
.P However, the Luftwaffe finally got some reward for their endeavours. On
July 4th, a force of He111’s armed with torpedoes attacked Palomares.
One
of these missed its intended target but hit the liberty ship Christopher Newport
which was later sunk by U-457. This was quickly followed by the loss of two
further merchants, Navarino and William Hooper.
.P At this point, the fog of war was to rear its head. The British, acting on
intelligence reports indicating a sortie by Tirpitz, the armoured cruiser Scheer
and the heavy cruiser Hipper, ordered the scattering of the convoy. The thinking
was that the merchant vessels would be more likely to reach the Soviet Union if
they were dispersed rather than grouped together. The fateful order was given on
the evening of 4th July. However, Hitler had ordered that his surface ships
should not attack if there was an aircraft carrier or a superior naval force
present. Therefore, when German reconnaissance wrongly reported that a carrier
and a battleship were present with the convoy, the plan to attack PQ17 with
surface ships was halted and the German ships returned to port.
.P The scattered merchant vessels were easy targets for the Luftwaffe and the U-
boats. No less than twelve ships were lost on the 5th July, two on the 6th,
three on the 7th, one on the 8th and finally, two more on the 10th. Including
the three vessels lost before the scatter order, twenty-four heavily laden
merchant ships, packed with supplies for the Red Army had been sunk. 153 officers
and men were killed.
.P Pozerica survived the harsh Arctic theatre and, later in 1942, she was
converted once more; this time for use as a fighter direction ship. It was in
this guise that she took part in Operation Torch; the Allied invasion of North
Africa in November 1942 (see HMS Delhi).
.P It was while operating in these waters the following January, that she was
attacked by an enemy torpedo bomber. Although able to reach port after being hit
by a torpedo, the operation to save her was in vain and she sank on the
February 13, 1943.



HMS Foylebank

Weight (tons): 5582 grt
Dimensions: 130 x 17 x 7,9 m
Engine: 2 x Oil engines, 16 cylinders, 2 screws
Power: 830 n.h.p.
Speed: 11 knots (top speed was probably 14 knots)
Yard no.: 878

Allen Tony 22/11/2007 HMS Foylebank was a Merchant vessel of 5,582 tons (ex ‘Andrew Weir’ ) requisitioned in 1939 and converted into an anti-aircraft gunship for patrols around Britain´s east coast. In June 1940, as the Battle of Britain was in progress, she arrived at the harbour of the Royal Naval Base of Portland in England’s south coast. At breakfast time on July 4 the ship was attacked by a squadron of German JU 8 7 Stuka dive bombers.

In an action that lasted only eight minutes the Foylebank (Captain H. Wilson) was hit by over twenty bombs. The vessel listed to port and shrouded in smoke and flames, finally sank. Casualties among her 298 man crew were 176 men killed and many injured. The question one may ask is ´where was Fighter Command during the attack on the Foylebank? as the Tangmere RAF Station was only a few minutes flying time away.




_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to warspite1)
Post #: 2095
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/10/2011 10:47:34 AM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline
Equipment for Aircraft Direction


The radar used in 1940 was Type 280 they also used radio homing beacons to direct aircraft to them.

Type 280

Metric air warning set with separate Tx / Rx antennas. Based upon Army GL Mark I set, fitted to C class cruisers converted to anti-aircraft ships. This set used a Precision Ranging Panel, which passed accurate radar ranges directly to the HACS table (analog computer).



509th Parachute Infantry Timeline

Radio homing beacons

Another complication arose when the H.M.S. Alynbank that had been tasked to position 35 miles off the coast of Oran, Algeria and broadcast a homing beacon on 440 kilocycles instead broadcast unheard on 460 kilocycles. As a result, aircraft had no way to make course corrections before arriving over the coast. A final navigation problem was encountered when OSS Agent Gordon H. Browne took two heavy suitcases with a EUREKA set inside out before midnight in the back of a French Ambulance to a deserted area near Tafaraoui AIrfield. Once in position he set up the nine-foot antenna and began broadcasting at the designated time for Plan "A". Browne was unaware that the 509th had been notified to execute Plan "B".



_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2096
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/18/2011 7:43:32 AM   
warspite1


Posts: 18534
Joined: 2/2/2008
From: England
Status: offline
Please see (hopefully!) the fnal draft for the Audacious-class carriers.

[5098 Canada]
.B Engine(s) output: 152,000hp
.B Top Speed: 32 knots
.B Main armament: 16 x 4.5-inch (114mm) guns and 64 x 2-pdr pompoms
.B Aircraft: 78
.B Displacement (full load): 46,000 tons
.B Thickest armour: 4.5-inch (belt)
.P For the purposes of this write-up, it is assumed that this carrier is from
the Audacious-class, as the factors given to this counter most closely match those
of the three historical carriers from that class.
.P The Audacious-class was originally planned as a four-ship class of aircraft
carrier, with the first ship authorised in 1940. However, it was only in late
1942 that the first vessel was laid down, with the second ship following in May
1943. The third carrier was laid down in April 1944 but she was to be
cancelled in January 1946. The fourth ship was cancelled before being laid down
and was re-ordered as a Malta-class carrier. HMCS Canada is a "what if" counter
that gives the Commonwealth player the option of building the fourth planned
Audacious-class carrier.
.P The original design called for a logical development of the Implacable-class
although construction was hampered by other priorities and, more importantly, the
need to revise the design to allow the ships to take newer, bigger aircraft; this
would ultimately include the need to operate jet aircraft.
.P As a result, the two ships that were completed - Eagle and Ark Royal - were
only became ready for service during the 1950's and they would look very
different not only to their original design, but also to each other.
.P Marrying the Audacious-class World In Flames counters to their historical
counterparts is not straightforward, but can be summarised as follows.
.B Ships of the class:
.B Eagle II - Eagle II was the ship cancelled in 1946.
.B Ark Royal II - originally to have been named Irresistable, Ark Royal was
renamed in honour of the most famous British aircraft carrier of World War II.
She was one of the two ships completed during the fifties. HMS Ark Royal served
with the RN until the late seventies. She was scrapped in 1980.
.B Audacious - the name ship of the class also underwent a change of name while
under construction. She was renamed HMS Eagle, to commemorate the carrier of that
name sunk during Operation Pedestal in 1942 (see HMS Sirius). She too served with
the RN until the seventies, although her latter years saw her canabalised in
order to keep Ark Royal afloat. HMS Eagle was scrapped in 1978.
.B Canada - this was the ship cancelled prior to being laid down. For World In
Flames purposes she replaces HMS Africa - which was the ship re-ordered as a
Malta-class carrier. In World In Flames she is a Canadian ship. Towards the end
of the war the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) provided the manpower for a couple of
escort carriers, and after the war two light fleet carriers were purchased from
Britain. This "what if" counter explores the possibility that the RCN expanded
their fleet further.
.P The technical detail above reflects the original design and how these carriers
would have appeared in World War II had their construction been quicker. The
design was a logical development of the Implacable-class, and featured a number
of improvements over their predecessors.
.P At almost a third bigger, the Audacious-class were projected to be able to
operate up to 78 aircraft; still well below the number available to the US Navy's
Essex-class but an increase on the Implacables.
.P The reason that the size of the air group was still less than their smaller US
counterparts was because of the fact that the Audacious-class continued the Royal
Navy's preference for armoured carriers. The protection afforded to these ships
was not greater in every area when compared to their predecessors, but was
increased or decreased as considered optimal. For example, while the armoured
flight deck was an extra inch thicker at 4-inches, the hangar sides were 0.5-
inches thinner. The belt armour, at 4.5-inches, remained the same.
.P The extra weight of this new class allowed a longer, wider vessel with two
full height hangars, thus ensuring that there was no repeat of the problem with
the Implacable-class whereby the latter ships could not operate Corsair aircraft.
These two hangars were served by two lifts.
.P The class were to have been fitted with two, powerful catapults, capable of
launching up to 30,000lbs at 75 knots. The Aviation fuel capacity remained on the
limited side at 103,000 gallons; only a modest increase over the Implacables
despite a larger air group.
.P The Audacious-class ships were to have been fitted with more powerful
machinery than the Implacables in order to maintain a top speed of 32 knots.
.P For defensive armament, the ships were to rely upon sixteen of the 4.5-inch
guns used on the previous three classes, and sixty-four 2-pounder pompoms for
close-range anti-aircraft defence.
.P The Audacious-class ships, had they been completed to their original design
and been completed in time to serve during World War II, would have been an
excellent addition to the Pacific Fleet. As the Commonwealth player, you have the
ability to make that happen.

_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2097
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/18/2011 10:46:42 AM   
Extraneous

 

Posts: 1636
Joined: 6/14/2008
Status: offline

quote:

ORIGINAL: warspite1

Please see (hopefully!) the fnal draft for the Audacious-class carriers.

[5098 Canada]
.B Engine(s) output: 152,000hp
.B Top Speed: 32 knots
.B Main armament: 16 x 4.5-inch (114mm) guns and 64 x 2-pdr pompoms
.B Aircraft: 78
.B Displacement (full load): 46,000 tons
.B Thickest armour: 4.5-inch (belt)
.P For the purposes of this write-up, it is assumed that this carrier is from
the Audacious-class, as the factors given to this counter most closely match those
of the three historical carriers from that class.
.P The Audacious-class was originally planned as a four-ship class of aircraft
carrier, with the first ship authorised in 1940. However, it was only in late
1942 that the first vessel was laid down, with the second ship following in May
1943. The third carrier was laid down in April 1944 but she was to be
cancelled in January 1946. The fourth ship was cancelled before being laid down
and was re-ordered as a Malta-class carrier. HMCS Canada is a "what if" counter
that gives the Commonwealth player the option of building the fourth planned
Audacious-class carrier.
.P The original design called for a logical development of the Implacable-class
although construction was hampered by other priorities and, more importantly, the
need to revise the design to allow the ships to take newer, bigger aircraft; this
would ultimately include the need to operate jet aircraft.
.P As a result, the two ships that were completed - Eagle and Ark Royal - were
only became ready for service during the 1950's and they would look very
different not only to their original design, but also to each other.
.P Marrying the Audacious-class World In Flames counters to their historical
counterparts is not straightforward, but can be summarised as follows.
.B Ships of the class:
.B Eagle II - Eagle II was the ship cancelled in 1946.
.B Ark Royal II - originally to have been named Irresistable, Ark Royal was
renamed in honour of the most famous British aircraft carrier of World War II.
She was one of the two ships completed during the fifties. HMS Ark Royal served
with the RN until the late seventies. She was scrapped in 1980.
.B Audacious - the name ship of the class also underwent a change of name while
under construction. She was renamed HMS Eagle, to commemorate the carrier of that
name sunk during Operation Pedestal in 1942 (see HMS Sirius). She too served with
the RN until the seventies, although her latter years saw her canabalised in
order to keep Ark Royal afloat. HMS Eagle was scrapped in 1978.
.B Canada - this was the ship cancelled prior to being laid down. For World In
Flames purposes she replaces HMS Africa - which was the ship re-ordered as a
Malta-class carrier. In World In Flames she is a Canadian ship. Towards the end
of the war the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) provided the manpower for a couple of
escort carriers, and after the war two light fleet carriers were purchased from
Britain. This "what if" counter explores the possibility that the RCN expanded
their fleet further.
.P The technical detail above reflects the original design and how these carriers
would have appeared in World War II had their construction been quicker. The
design was a logical development of the Implacable-class, and featured a number
of improvements over their predecessors.
.P At almost a third bigger, the Audacious-class were projected to be able to
operate up to 78 aircraft; still well below the number available to the US Navy's
Essex-class but an increase on the Implacables.
.P The reason that the size of the air group was still less than their smaller US
counterparts was because of the fact that the Audacious-class continued the Royal
Navy's preference for armoured carriers. The protection afforded to these ships
was not greater in every area when compared to their predecessors, but was
increased or decreased as considered optimal. For example, while the armoured
flight deck was an extra inch thicker at 4-inches, the hangar sides were 0.5-
inches thinner. The belt armour, at 4.5-inches, remained the same.
.P The extra weight of this new class allowed a longer, wider vessel with two
full height hangars, thus ensuring that there was no repeat of the problem with
the Implacable-class whereby the latter ships could not operate Corsair aircraft.
These two hangars were served by two lifts.
.P The class were to have been fitted with two, powerful catapults, capable of
launching up to 30,000lbs at 75 knots. The Aviation fuel capacity remained on the
limited side at 103,000 gallons; only a modest increase over the Implacables
despite a larger air group.
.P The Audacious-class ships were to have been fitted with more powerful
machinery than the Implacables in order to maintain a top speed of 32 knots.
.P For defensive armament, the ships were to rely upon sixteen of the 4.5-inch
guns used on the previous three classes, and sixty-four 2-pounder pompoms for
close-range anti-aircraft defence.
.P The Audacious-class ships, had they been completed to their original design
and been completed in time to serve during World War II, would have been an
excellent addition to the Pacific Fleet. As the Commonwealth player, you have the
ability to make that happen.


Well done

_____________________________

University of Science Music and Culture (USMC) class of 71 and 72 ~ Extraneous (AKA Mziln)

(in reply to warspite1)
Post #: 2098
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/18/2011 11:07:10 AM   
Red Prince


Posts: 3572
Joined: 4/8/2011
From: Bangor, Maine, USA
Status: offline
Hey, Rob. I don't give you nearly as much credit as I should. You're such a workhorse that I guess I take you a little for granted. I'm sorry about that.

So, I want you to do me another favor, please and pick out a handful of your favorite naval units and/or naval unit write-ups. Maybe 5 or 6 will do. Since you are so good about posting your write-ups here, I want to make screenshots of your favorites so that people can see what they actually look like once they are in the game. Is that okay with you?

You can either post here or send me the list, and I'll get them done that day (assuming you've already sent me the copy).

-Aaron

_____________________________

Always listen to experts. They'll tell you what can't be done and why. Then do it!
-Lazarus Long, RAH

(in reply to Extraneous)
Post #: 2099
RE: Unit Descriptions: Air, Naval, Land - 9/18/2011 5:13:41 PM   
warspite1


Posts: 18534
Joined: 2/2/2008
From: England
Status: offline
Red Prince, thank-you - I will send some over in the next few days.

In the meantime, does anyone know who crewed the US "auxiliary" ships such as the seaplane tender USS Tangier, the oiler USS Neosho etc. I assume they were crewed by USN personnel, but would like to make sure.


_____________________________

England expects that every man will do his duty - Horatio Nelson 1805.




(in reply to Red Prince)
Post #: 2100
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