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RE: Need help!!!

 
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RE: Need help!!! - 11/30/2007 8:06:09 PM   
mlees


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Efficiency and clarity in communications require the use of simple and consistent unit designations.

Each country had it's own way to abbreviate type-unit names, and each major branch of the military (Army/Navy/Airforce) may be distinct from each other, as well.

http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/squades.htm for USN (aviation) designations.

Army and marine ground unit designations can get even tougher for me, since my background is USN. But I know that the US Marines can abbreviate a unit with just numbers: 1/1st, for example, which (I think) means 1st Brigade, 1st Marine Division.

Hopefully, someone smarter on the ground side can step in an shed more light here.

But anyways, that's just the US. Each country had it's own system.

(in reply to Shannon V. OKeets)
Post #: 601
RE: Need help!!! - 11/30/2007 10:01:48 PM   
hueglin


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From: Kingston, ON, Canada
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quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

What determines if an aircraft is a "Fixed wing" aircraft or not?
Does this go back to the time when the U.S. Navy used many "Lighter than Air" craft?



I'd always heard the term "fixed wing" in comparison to the term "rotary wing" i.e. helicopters, or later, "variable wing" e.g F-14. So I think it literally is an aircraft that has a fixed 'non-moving' wing.

Although I also think that "variable wing" aircraft are often included in the same category as "fixed wing".

I'm not sure "fixed wing" was a term that was actually in use during WWII or not.

I am not 100% on any of this, just the assumptions I have made over the years.

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 602
RE: Need help!!! - 12/5/2007 12:24:15 PM   
davidc

 

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Captain.
If you have some room on one of the Hungarian units perhaps you would like to include this.
Conversation between US State Department official and Hungarian charge d'affaires on occasion of Hungary declaring war on US, as recorded by the Italian Foreign Minister, Galeazzo Ciano.
"Is hungary a republic ?"
"No, it is a kingdom"
"Then you have a king ?"
"No, we have an admiral"
"Then you have a fleet ?"
"No, we do not have any sea"
"Do you have any claims then ?"
"Yes"
"Against America ?"
"No"
"Against England ?"
"No"
"Against Russia ?"
"No"
"But against whom do you have these claims ?"
"Against Romania"
"Then you will declare war on Romania ?"
"No sir, we are allies"
This is from Battle for Budapest by Krisztian Ungvary
pages xiv & xv.

(in reply to capitan)
Post #: 603
RE: Need help!!! - 12/6/2007 2:23:30 AM   
brian brian

 

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Who's on first?


p.s. thanks for sharing that!

< Message edited by brian brian -- 12/6/2007 3:35:49 AM >

(in reply to davidc)
Post #: 604
RE: Need help!!! - 12/6/2007 4:25:47 PM   
cockney

 

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From: London
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I'm asking you?
What?
Who's on first?

_____________________________

never piss off a sgt major

(in reply to brian brian)
Post #: 605
RE: Need help!!! - 12/6/2007 6:30:05 PM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
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From: Tulsa Oklahoma
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Who's on first, What's on second.

(in reply to cockney)
Post #: 606
RE: Need help!!! - 12/6/2007 8:39:43 PM   
flipperwasirish


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quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

Who's on first, What's on second.


I don't know.......Third Base

_____________________________

Flipper

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 607
RE: Need help!!! - 12/7/2007 12:45:19 AM   
brian brian

 

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Who is playing at the rock concert tonight?

Yes.

(in reply to flipperwasirish)
Post #: 608
RE: Need help!!! - 12/7/2007 4:11:31 AM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
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From: Tulsa Oklahoma
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quote:

ORIGINAL: brian brian

Who is playing at the rock concert tonight?

Yes.


Which one The Who, The Guess Who, or Yes

(in reply to brian brian)
Post #: 609
RE: Need help!!! - 12/7/2007 5:22:55 PM   
composer99


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From: Ottawa, Canada
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You know, it can be very punishing to read these forums sometimes.

And now I face the eternal dilemma of forum posters attempting subtle humour: do I add a smiley so everyone knows I'm not just being a jerk, or do I leave it as is because smileys wreak havoc on subtlety?

_____________________________

~ Composer99

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 610
RE: Need help!!! - 12/7/2007 9:44:00 PM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
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From: Tulsa Oklahoma
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quote:

ORIGINAL: composer99

You know, it can be very punishing to read these forums sometimes.

And now I face the eternal dilemma of forum posters attempting subtle humour: do I add a smiley so everyone knows I'm not just being a jerk, or do I leave it as is because smileys wreak havoc on subtlety?


Which icon do we use for sarcasm

(in reply to composer99)
Post #: 611
RE: Need help!!! - 12/9/2007 5:29:31 PM   
brian brian

 

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It's not easy to find such a good bit of levity in such a topic as war. I was trying to think of a way that the diplomatic exchange posted above could be worked in to a write-up. So I looked at the 2 Hungarian airplane counters, hoping they had an air-to-sea factor. I'm sure the write-ups for some of the minors air units are challenging in that the factors represent composites of whole air forces rather than large groups of mostly similar model planes. So maybe it works out better that the don't have that factor - "As you'll notice, the Hungarian air counters do not have an air-to-sea factor, bringing to mind the following exchange..."

Hungary tried to have good and independent relations with the West. They cut a deal at least covering bombing and intercepting policies with the Western Allies, and tried more negotiations late in the war, the particulars of which escape me right now.

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 612
RE: Need help!!! - 12/15/2007 10:52:37 PM   
tenryu

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

I am too involved doing write up on the Japanese to look this up. Maybe somone can answer this.

The United States Navy and Marines has a naming system for air units. For example MAG 16 meens U.S. Marine Air Group 16. Please note there are many countries that have Marines so you have to specify which countries Marines.


VMF 16 would be translated:


V ~ Fixed wing

M ~ U.S. Marine

F ~ Fighter

Squadron 16


VF 16 would be United States Navy, Fixed wing, Fighter Squadron 16


What determines if an aircraft is a "Fixed wing" aircraft or not?
Does this go back to the time when the U.S. Navy used many "Lighter than Air" craft?



Just a guess ... the wings do not fold-up for compact stowing, unlike those designed specifically for many carrier aircraft, which do.

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 613
RE: Need help!!! - 12/17/2007 5:38:37 PM   
mlees


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From: San Diego
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quote:

ORIGINAL: tenryu


quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

I am too involved doing write up on the Japanese to look this up. Maybe somone can answer this.

The United States Navy and Marines has a naming system for air units. For example MAG 16 meens U.S. Marine Air Group 16. Please note there are many countries that have Marines so you have to specify which countries Marines.


VMF 16 would be translated:


V ~ Fixed wing

M ~ U.S. Marine

F ~ Fighter

Squadron 16


VF 16 would be United States Navy, Fixed wing, Fighter Squadron 16


What determines if an aircraft is a "Fixed wing" aircraft or not?
Does this go back to the time when the U.S. Navy used many "Lighter than Air" craft?



Just a guess ... the wings do not fold-up for compact stowing, unlike those designed specifically for many carrier aircraft, which do.



No, sir. The "V" designation has nothing to do with whether an aircraft's wings fold or not.

For example, VF-2, the fighter unit assigned to the USS Lexington (CV-2), initially started WW2 with F2A Buffalo fighters. (Wings did not fold.)

In January of '42, the were upgraded to the F4F-3 Wildcat. (non-folding)

The squadron was disestablished after the loss of the Lexington in the Battle of the Coral Sea.

The squadron was reformed in June of '43, flying the F6F-3 Hellcat, with folding wings.

http://www.vf2.org/history.aspx

(in reply to tenryu)
Post #: 614
RE: Need help!!! - 12/29/2007 8:15:49 PM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
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From: Tulsa Oklahoma
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quote:

ORIGINAL: mlees


quote:

ORIGINAL: tenryu


quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

I am too involved doing write up on the Japanese to look this up. Maybe somone can answer this.

The United States Navy and Marines has a naming system for air units. For example MAG 16 meens U.S. Marine Air Group 16. Please note there are many countries that have Marines so you have to specify which countries Marines.


VMF 16 would be translated:


V ~ Fixed wing

M ~ U.S. Marine

F ~ Fighter

Squadron 16


VF 16 would be United States Navy, Fixed wing, Fighter Squadron 16


What determines if an aircraft is a "Fixed wing" aircraft or not?
Does this go back to the time when the U.S. Navy used many "Lighter than Air" craft?



Just a guess ... the wings do not fold-up for compact stowing, unlike those designed specifically for many carrier aircraft, which do.



No, sir. The "V" designation has nothing to do with whether an aircraft's wings fold or not.

For example, VF-2, the fighter unit assigned to the USS Lexington (CV-2), initially started WW2 with F2A Buffalo fighters. (Wings did not fold.)

In January of '42, the were upgraded to the F4F-3 Wildcat. (non-folding)

The squadron was disestablished after the loss of the Lexington in the Battle of the Coral Sea.

The squadron was reformed in June of '43, flying the F6F-3 Hellcat, with folding wings.

http://www.vf2.org/history.aspx



Fixed-wing Aircraft

quote:

A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish from rotary-wing aircraft or ornithopters, where the movement of the wing surfaces relative to the aircraft generates lift. Fixed-wing aircraft are called airplanes in North America (the U.S. and Canada), and aeroplanes in Commonwealth countries and Ireland (excluding Canada). These terms are derived from Greek αέρας (aéras-) ("air") and -plane.[1]. The current British word is the older of the two terms, dating back to the mid-late 19th century.


So in WWI and WW II if it wasn't a blimp or a ornithopter it was fixed-wing

< Message edited by Mziln -- 12/29/2007 8:18:59 PM >

(in reply to mlees)
Post #: 615
RE: Need help!!! - 12/30/2007 5:05:18 AM   
Mingus Roberts

 

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Allow me to speak in a wise echoey voice from high on the pilot mountaintop and clue you in on the correct scientific nomenclature we professional aviators all use.

1) There are two tribes in aviation: the tribe of fixed wing pilots who fly airplanes, and the tribe of fling wing pilots who spend time in helicopters waiting for the inevitable moment when the main rotor decides to enter the cabin and decapitate them.

2) A helicopter is also known as "20 thousand parts, flying in close formation, looking for a place to make a smoking hole".

3) Should you be foolish enough to get in to a helicopter, ask the pilot why he (or she) has a helmet and you do not? Note the lack of helmets on the flight deck of your next transatlantic flight. Ponder the significance of this fact.



(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 616
RE: Need help!!! - 12/30/2007 6:34:29 AM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
Joined: 2/9/2004
From: Tulsa Oklahoma
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quote:

ORIGINAL: Mingus Roberts

Allow me to speak in a wise echoey voice from high on the pilot mountaintop and clue you in on the correct scientific nomenclature we professional aviators all use.

1) There are two tribes in aviation: the tribe of fixed wing pilots who fly airplanes, and the tribe of fling wing pilots who spend time in helicopters waiting for the inevitable moment when the main rotor decides to enter the cabin and decapitate them.

2) A helicopter is also known as "20 thousand parts, flying in close formation, looking for a place to make a smoking hole".

3) Should you be foolish enough to get in to a helicopter, ask the pilot why he (or she) has a helmet and you do not? Note the lack of helmets on the flight deck of your next transatlantic flight. Ponder the significance of this fact.





(3) In the military "Passengers" are considered "Cargo". Therefore "Crew" get helmets "Cargo" does not. On cargo aircraft "Crew" get parachutes "Cargo" does not. It make the head count easier whe investigating a crash. Civilian airlines just subtract crash survivors from the total aboard to get the total crash victims.



Just FYI: Troops embarked on ships are also considerd "Cargo".

As the Navy told us when we were embarked "Don't worry about being 3 levels below the water line with the hatches sealed. The hatches will all open when the cold sea water reaches the hot boilers." and "The closest land is never more than 2 miles away, streight down.".


< Message edited by Mziln -- 12/30/2007 6:37:09 AM >

(in reply to Mingus Roberts)
Post #: 617
RE: Need help!!! - 12/30/2007 6:36:03 AM   
Shannon V. OKeets

 

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quote:

ORIGINAL: Mingus Roberts

Allow me to speak in a wise echoey voice from high on the pilot mountaintop and clue you in on the correct scientific nomenclature we professional aviators all use.

1) There are two tribes in aviation: the tribe of fixed wing pilots who fly airplanes, and the tribe of fling wing pilots who spend time in helicopters waiting for the inevitable moment when the main rotor decides to enter the cabin and decapitate them.

2) A helicopter is also known as "20 thousand parts, flying in close formation, looking for a place to make a smoking hole".

3) Should you be foolish enough to get in to a helicopter, ask the pilot why he (or she) has a helmet and you do not? Note the lack of helmets on the flight deck of your next transatlantic flight. Ponder the significance of this fact.




I worked at Boeing Helicopter while they were developng the V-22 (Osprey). When those blades are lowered into airplane flight position, they look like gigantic scythes trying to give the pilot a close shave.

_____________________________

Steve

Perfection is an elusive goal.

(in reply to Mingus Roberts)
Post #: 618
RE: Need help!!! - 1/3/2008 6:36:07 AM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
Joined: 2/9/2004
From: Tulsa Oklahoma
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I think I may have gotten a little carried away

quote:

Agano Class: Agano (Named after the Agano river)(1942-1944), Yahagi ("The arrow maker")(1943-1945), Noshiro (1943-1944), Sakawa (Named after the Sakawa river)(1944-1945)

CL Agano (Named after the Agano river)(1942-1944)
Displacement: 6,652 tons Dimensions: 162 x 15.2 x 5.6 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Gihon geared Turbines, 6 Kampon boilers Speed: 35 knots (67 km/h) Range: 6000 nautical miles at 18 knots. Crew: 726 Armament: 6 × 152mm Type 41 guns (3 x 2), 4 × 76 mm guns, 32 x Type 96 25/60mm AA guns, 8 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 16 depth charges, 2 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

Agano was completed in October 1942. In November 1942 she was assigned to Third Fleet as flagship of 10th Destroyer Sentai (squadron).

During "Operation KE" (the evacuation of Guadalcanal January-February 1943) she helped successfully evacuate 11,700 troops from Guadalcanal.

On May 1943 in response to the U.S. landings at Attu in the Alaskan Aleutians Islands chain. She joined a naval force in Tokyo Bay consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Junyo (CVL), Hiyo (CVL), Musashi (BB), Chikuma (CA), Kumano (CA), Mogami (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tone (CA), and destroyers. But before this fleet could sail Attu fell and the operation was canceled.

During June and July of 1943 she underwent refit installing Type 21 air search radar, 2 x triple and 2 x twin Type 96 25mm. AA gun mounts. This brought her 25mm AA total to 16 guns (4 triple mounts and 2 double mounts).

In July 1943 Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Chuyo (CVL), the seaplane carrier Nisshin, and several cruisers and destroyers embarked troops and supplies in Japan to reinforce Truk. U.S. submarines spot them but they are unable to successfully attack. Later in July the Tone (CA), Chikuma (CA), Mogami (CA), Agano (CL), Ōyodo (CL), and destroyers successfully transport troops to Rabaul and return to Truk.

In September 1943 in an attempt to engage U.S. Task Force 15 that was raiding Tarawa, Makin and Abemama Atolls. A fleet sailed consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Yamato (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Maya (CA), Mogami (CA), Myōkō (CA), Takao (CA), Tone (CA), Agano (CL), Noshiro (CL), and destroyers. Unable to make contact the fleet returned to Truk.

In October 30, 1943 After American carrier raids on Wake Island and the Marshall Islands Japanese intelligence, based on intercepted radio traffic, believed that another raid on Wake Island was planned. Agano joins a fleet consisting of the Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Yamato (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Fuso (BB), Kongō (BB), and Haruna (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Maya (CA), Mogami (CA), Suzuya (CA), Takao (CA), Tone (CA), Ōyodo (CL), and destroyers. The fleet returned to Truk when no contact is made.

During Operation "RO" (the Reinforcement of Rabaul October 30, 1943) Agano sails with a fleet that includes the Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), and Zuihō (CVL). The carriers launch their aircraft 200 miles from Rabaul to reinforce the units there and return to Truk. But Agano is ordered to continue on to Rabaul.

The Allies launch “Operation Shoestring II" (the Invasion of Bougainville November 1, 1943) To counter the landings a Japanese force with 1,000 Japanese reinforcements is sent from Rabaul.

The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay (November 2, 1943) a Japanese force consisting of the Myōkō (CA), Haguro (CA), Sendai (CL), and 7 destroyers supporting Agano (CL) and 3 destroyers (acting as fast transports) is intercepted by Task Force 39's Cruiser Division 12 consisted of the radar-equipped USS Cleveland (CL-55), Columbia (CL-56), USS Montpelier (CL-57), USS Denver (CL-58), and 8 destroyers. A Japanese destroyer sights the U.S. destroyers at 7,500 yards (6,900m), turned hard starboard and launched 8 torpedoes. Sendai also turns hard starboard, but barely avoids a collision. All 4 Allied cruisers took Sendai under radar directed 6-inch fire. The U.S. ships hit her from the first salvo until the battle ended with her a wreck and on fire. The Sendai and a destroyer are sunk and the Japanese withdraw to Rabaul.

While in route from Rabaul to Truk the submarine USS Scamp (SS-277) torpedoes her but the Japanese manage to tow her into port where emergency repairs are made. In mid February she departs for Japan but is hit by 2 torpedoes from the submarine USS Skate (SS-305). The next day U.S. carrier planes sink her. She is removed for the list in March 1944.

CL Yahagi ("The arrow maker")(1943-1945)
Displacement: 6,652 tons Dimensions: 162 x 15.2 x 5.6 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Gihon geared Turbines, 6 Kampon boilers Speed: 35 knots (67 km/h) Range: 6,300 nautical miles at 18 knots. Crew: 726. Armament: 3 × 152/50mm Type 41 guns, 2 × 80mm guns, 2 x 25/60mm Type 96 AA guns, 8 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 48 mines, 2 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

After being completed on December 29,1843 she was sent to Singapore for training and patrol duties.

In June 1944 she underwent a refit in Japan where 2 triple mount Type 96 25mm AA guns were installed amidships, a Type 13 air-search, and Type 22 surface-search radar were installed.

The Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 19-20, 1944)(Aka: "Operation A-Go", "Operation A", and "the Marianas Turkey Shoot”) a major Japanese defeat caused by obsolete aircraft and extremely inexperienced aircrews. The Japanese divided their forces in 3 groups. "A Force" consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Taihō (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Yahagi (CL), and 7 destroyers. "B Force" consisting of Hiyō (CVL), Junyō (CVL), Ryūjō (CVL), Nagato (BB), Mogami (CA), and 7 destroyers. "C Force" (Vanguard) consisting of Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Yamato (BB), Atago (CA), Tako (CA), Chōkai (CA), Maya (CA), Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tone (CA), Chikuma (CA), Noshiro (CL), and 7 destroyers. On the U.S. side was Task Force 58 under command of Admiral Raymond Spruance. Task Force 58.1 consisting of Yorktown (CV-10), Hornet (CV-12), Bataan (CVL-29), Belleau Wood (CVL-24), Baltimore (CA-68), Boston (CA-69), Canberra (CA-70), Oakland (CL-95), and 9 destroyers. Task Force 58.2 consisting of Bunker Hill (CV-17), Wasp (CV-18), Cabot (CVL-28), Monterey (CVL-26), Santa Fe (CL-60), Mobile (CL-63), Biloxi (CL-80), San Juan (CL-54), and 9 destroyers. Task Force 58.3 consisting of Enterprise (CV-6), Lexington (CV-16)(Flagship Task Force 58 Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher), San Jacinto (CVL-30), Princeton (CVL-23), Indianapolis CA-35)(Flagship 5th Fleet Admiral Raymond Spruance), Reno (CL-96), Montpelier (CL-57), Cleveland (CL-55), Birmingham (CL-62), and 13 destroyers. Task Force 58.4 consisting of Essex (CV-9), Langley (CVL-27), Cowpens (CVL-25), San Diego (CL-53), Vincennes (CL-64), Houston (CL-81), Miami (CL-89), and 13 destroyers. Task Force 58.7 consisting of Washington (BB-56), North Carolina (BB-55), Indiana (BB-58), Iowa (BB-61), New Jersey (BB-62), South Dakota (BB-57), Alabama (BB-60), Wichita (CA-45), Minneapolis (CA-36), New Orleans (CA-32), San Francisco (CA-38), and 14 destroyers. The Japanese had approximately 600 planes destroyed Hiyō, Shōkaku, Taihō, and 2 tankers sunk Zuikaku, Junyō, Ryūjō, Chiyoda, Haruna, and a destroyer were damaged. While Task Force 58 lost 123 planes destroyed but recovered about 80 of their aircrews. Yahagi helped rescue 570 crewmen from the Shōkaku after it was torpedoed.

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944) was actually several battles consisting of:

The Battle of Palawan Passage (October 23, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) Yamato (BB), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Kumano (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tako (CA), Tone (CA), Noshiro (CL), Yahagi (CL), and 15 destroyers were attacked by the submarines USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227). Dace sank the Atago and Darter sank Maya.

The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (October 24, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) was attacked 11 times by over 250 carrier planes. Musashi was sunk. Yamato, Nagato, Tone, and 3 destroyers were damaged.

The Battle off Samar (October 25, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) attacked Taffy 3 (Task Group 77.43) the USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63)(by kamikaze attack), 2 destroyers, and a destroyer escort were sunk. USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70), USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71)(by kamikaze attack), a destroyer, and a destroyer escort were damaged. While on the Japanese side Suzuya, Chōkai, Chikuma were sunk. Kumano, Haguro, Tone were damaged. The Japanese withdrew thinking they faced a superior force.

The Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944) where carrier planes from the U.S. 3rd Fleet (commanded by Admiral W. F. "Bull" Halsey Jr.) were lured into attacking the last of the Japanese carrier forces. The Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force consisted of Zuikaku (CV), Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Ise (BB), Hyuga (BB), Ōyodo (CL), Isuzu (CL), Tama (CL), and 8 destroyers. Zuikaku, Chitose, Chiyoda, Zuihō, Tama, and 2 destroyers are sunk. Ise and Ōyodo are damaged.
The Battle of Surigao Strait (October 25, 1944) where “Force C” (Southern Force) consisting of the 1st Raiding Force Yamashiro (BB)(Flagship), Fuso (BB), Mogami (CA), and 4 destroyers and the 2nd Raiding Force consisting of the Nachi (CA), Ashigara (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 7 destroyers met the 7th Fleet Support Force consisting of West Virginia (BB-48), Maryland (BB-46), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43), California (BB-44), and Pennsylvina (BB-38), (all but the Mississippi having been sunk or damaged in the Attack on Pearl Harbor) Louisville (CA-28)(Flagship), USS Portland (CA-33), Minneapolis (CA-36), HMAS Shropshire (CA), Boise (CL-47), Columbia (CL-56), Denver (CL-58), Phoenix (CL-46), 29 destroyers, and 39 PT boats. Fuso, Yamashiro, Mogami and 3 destroyers were sunk. Nachi, Abukuma, and 1 destroyer are damaged. The 7th Fleet Support Force lost 1 PT boat sunk, 1 destroyer damaged (by friendly fire), and 3-4 PT boats damaged.

During "Operation Ten-Go" (Operation Ten'ichi-Go “Heaven Number One”)(the Japanese naval attack against Okinawa April 7, 1945) Yamato (BB) Yahagi (CL) and 8 destroyers sailed to attack the U.S. invasion force off Okinawa. Yahagi was hit by at least 7 torpedoes and 12 bombs and went down with 445 crewmen. She was removed form the list in June 1940.

CL Noshiro (1943-1944)
Displacement: 6,652 tons Dimensions: 162 x 15.2 x 5.6 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Gihon geared Turbines, 6 Kampon boilers Speed: 35 knots (67 km/h) Range: 6,300 nautical miles at 18 knots. Crew: 726. Armament: 3 × 152/50mm Type 41 guns, 2 × 80mm guns, 2 x 25/60mm Type 96 AA guns, 8 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 48 mines, 2 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

Noshiro was completed in June of 1943 and was transferred in August 1943 from 1st Fleet to 2nd fleet to replace the Jintsu, which had been sunk at the Battle of Kolombangara.

In September 1943 in an attempt to engage U.S. Task Force 15 that was raiding Tarawa, Makin and Abemama Atolls. A fleet sailed consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Yamato (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Maya (CA), Mogami (CA), Myōkō (CA), Takao (CA), Tone (CA), Agano (CL), Noshiro (CL), and destroyers. Unable to make contact the fleet returned to Truk.

In October 1943, after U.S. carrier raids on Wake Island and the Marshall Islands, Japanese intelligence (based on intercepted radio traffic) believed that another raid on Wake Island was planned. Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Yamato (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Fuso (BB), Kongō (BB), and Haruna (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Maya (CA), Mogami (CA), Suzuya (CA), Takao (CA), Tone (CA), Agano (CL), Noshiro (CL), Ōyodo (CL), and destroyers attempted to engage the enemy but returned to Truk with out making contact.

In February 1944, she was refitted in Japan. 6 x triple-mount and 8 x single single-mount Type 96 25mm AA guns were installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 32 guns (8 triple mounts and 8 single mounts).

The Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 19-20, 1944)(Aka: "Operation A-Go", "Operation A", and "the Marianas Turkey Shoot”) a major Japanese defeat caused by obsolete aircraft and extremely inexperienced aircrews. The Japanese divided their forces in 3 groups. "A Force" consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Taihō (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Yahagi (CL), and 7 destroyers. "B Force" consisting of Hiyō (CVL), Junyō (CVL), Ryūjō (CVL), Nagato (BB), Mogami (CA), and 7 destroyers. "C Force" (Vanguard) consisting of Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Yamato (BB), Atago (CA), Tako (CA), Chōkai (CA), Maya (CA), Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tone (CA), Chikuma (CA), Noshiro (CL), and 7 destroyers. On the U.S. side was Task Force 58 under command of Admiral Raymond Spruance. Task Force 58.1 consisting of Yorktown (CV-10), Hornet (CV-12), Bataan (CVL-29), Belleau Wood (CVL-24), Baltimore (CA-68), Boston (CA-69), Canberra (CA-70), Oakland (CL-95), and 9 destroyers. Task Force 58.2 consisting of Bunker Hill (CV-17), Wasp (CV-18), Cabot (CVL-28), Monterey (CVL-26), Santa Fe (CL-60), Mobile (CL-63), Biloxi (CL-80), San Juan (CL-54), and 9 destroyers. Task Force 58.3 consisting of Enterprise (CV-6), Lexington (CV-16)(Flagship Task Force 58 Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher), San Jacinto (CVL-30), Princeton (CVL-23), Indianapolis CA-35)(Flagship 5th Fleet Admiral Raymond Spruance), Reno (CL-96), Montpelier (CL-57), Cleveland (CL-55), Birmingham (CL-62), and 13 destroyers. Task Force 58.4 consisting of Essex (CV-9), Langley (CVL-27), Cowpens (CVL-25), San Diego (CL-53), Vincennes (CL-64), Houston (CL-81), Miami (CL-89), and 13 destroyers. Task Force 58.7 consisting of Washington (BB-56), North Carolina (BB-55), Indiana (BB-58), Iowa (BB-61), New Jersey (BB-62), South Dakota (BB-57), Alabama (BB-60), Wichita (CA-45), Minneapolis (CA-36), New Orleans (CA-32), San Francisco (CA-38), and 14 destroyers. The Japanese had approximately 600 planes destroyed Hiyō, Shōkaku, Taihō, and 2 tankers sunk Zuikaku, Junyō, Ryūjō, Chiyoda, Haruna, and a destroyer were damaged. While Task Force 58 lost 123 planes destroyed but recovered about 80 of their aircrews.

From late June-early July 1944, she was refitted in Japan. 2 more triple-mount Type 96 25mm AA gun mounts amidships, and a Type 13 air-search and Type 22 surface-search radar were installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 48 guns (10 triple mounts and 18 single mounts).

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944) was actually several battles consisting of:

The Battle of Palawan Passage (October 23, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) Yamato (BB), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Kumano (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tako (CA), Tone (CA), Noshiro (CL), Yahagi (CL), and 15 destroyers were attacked by the submarines USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227). Dace sank the Atago and Darter sank Maya.

The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (October 24, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) was attacked 11 times by over 250 carrier planes. Musashi was sunk. Yamato, Nagato, Tone, and 3 destroyers were damaged.

The Battle off Samar (October 25, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) attacked Taffy 3 (Task Group 77.43) the USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63)(by kamikaze attack), 2 destroyers, and a destroyer escort were sunk. USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70), USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71)(by kamikaze attack), a destroyer, and a destroyer escort were damaged. While on the Japanese side Suzuya, Chōkai, Chikuma were sunk. Kumano, Haguro, Tone were damaged. The Japanese withdrew thinking they faced a superior force.

The Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944) where carrier planes from the U.S. 3rd Fleet (commanded by Admiral W. F. "Bull" Halsey Jr.) were lured into attacking the last of the Japanese carrier forces. The Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force consisted of Zuikaku (CV), Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Ise (BB), Hyuga (BB), Ōyodo (CL), Isuzu (CL), Tama (CL), and 8 destroyers. Zuikaku, Chitose, Chiyoda, Zuihō, Tama, and 2 destroyers are sunk. Ise and Ōyodo are damaged.
The Battle of Surigao Strait (October 25, 1944) where “Force C” (Southern Force) consisting of the 1st Raiding Force Yamashiro (BB)(Flagship), Fuso (BB), Mogami (CA), and 4 destroyers and the 2nd Raiding Force consisting of the Nachi (CA), Ashigara (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 7 destroyers met the 7th Fleet Support Force consisting of West Virginia (BB-48), Maryland (BB-46), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43), California (BB-44), and Pennsylvina (BB-38), (all but the Mississippi having been sunk or damaged in the Attack on Pearl Harbor) Louisville (CA-28)(Flagship), USS Portland (CA-33), Minneapolis (CA-36), HMAS Shropshire (CA), Boise (CL-47), Columbia (CL-56), Denver (CL-58), Phoenix (CL-46), 29 destroyers, and 39 PT boats. Fuso, Yamashiro, Mogami and 3 destroyers were sunk. Nachi, Abukuma, and 1 destroyer are damaged. The 7th Fleet Support Force lost 1 PT boat sunk, 1 destroyer damaged (by friendly fire), and 3-4 PT boats damaged.

At the Battle off Samar, Noshiro (CL) hit the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) with several 150mm shells. On October 26, 1944 USS Wasp (CV-18) and Cowpens (CVL-25) attacked Kurita's force West of Panay with 80 torpedo planes. One bomb exploded in Noshiro's AA shell magazine, starting a fire that was quickly extinguished. 6 more torpedo planes attacked Noshiro, which dodged their torpedoes. A torpedo plane hit her in the boiler room, which flooded, and brought her to a halt. She was undergoing emergency repairs when 28 torpedo planes and dive-bombers struck her with another torpedo to starboard beneath the No. 2 main turret. The forward magazines flooded in an attempt to right the ship. Five minutes later Noshiro sank. Destroyers rescued 328 crewmen. She was removed from the list in December 1944.

CL Sakawa (Named after the Sakawa river)(1944-1945)
Displacement: 6,652 tons Dimensions: 162 x 15.2 x 5.63 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Gihon geared Turbines, 6 Kampon boilers Speed: 35 knots (65 km/h) Range: 6,300 nautical miles (11,670 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) Crew: 438 Armament: 3 × 152/50mm Type 41 guns, 2 × 80 mm guns, 2 × 25/60mm Type 96 AA guns, 8 × 610mm Torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 48 mines 2 x Floatplanes, 1 catapult.

Sakawa was completed in November 1944 and was assigned directly to the Combined Fleet.

During "Operation Ten-Go" (Operation Ten'ichi-Go “Heaven Number One”)(the Japanese naval attack against Okinawa April 7, 1945) Sakawa was to accompany the Yamato and attack the U.S. invasion force off Okinawa. Due to lack of fuel her orders were canceled and she reassigned back to the Combined Fleet.

At the time of the Japans surrender, the U.S took Sakawa as a prize of war. The U.S. used her as a troop transport to evacuate stranded Japanese troops in the Palau Islands group. In October 1945, well after the war ended, she was officially removed from the list. She had never been in combat.

During the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Lagoon, Sakawa and Nagato were the primary target the air burst detonation test "Able", The detonation of the Able bomb occurred 490 yards (450 meters) above and slightly to starboard of Sakawa's stern. The blast caused Sakawa to burn fiercely for twenty-four hours; the force crushed her superstructure, damaged her hull and breached her stern. She sank when the Navy tried to tow her to prevent her from sinking.

Katori Class: Katori (Named after the Katori Shrine)(1940-1944), Kashima (Named after the Kashima Shrine)(1940-1945), Kashii ("Stream Ford" and a shrine)(1941-1945), Kashiwara (not completed)

CL Katori (Named after the Katori Shrine)(1940-1944)
Displacement: 5,890 tons Dimensions: 129.77 x 15.95 x 5.75 meters Propulsion: 2-shaft geared turbines plus diesel motors Speed: 18 knots Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) Crew: 315 Armament: 4 x 140/50mm guns (2 dual mounts), 127/40mm dual mount AA gun, 4 × 25/60mm Type 96 AA guns, 8 x 13 mm AA guns, 8 × 533mm Torpedo tubes (2 dual mounts), 1 Floatplane, 1 catapult.

Katori was completed in April 1940. Katori and Kashima participated in the last pre-war midshipman cruise in July 1940.
On November 11, 1941, Vice Admiral Shimizu, The Commander in Chief 6th Fleet (Submarines) convened a briefing of his commanders aboard Katori, the 6th Fleet's flagship, about the planned attack on Pearl Harbor. At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, Katori was in the Marshall Islands.

Katori returned to Truk by the end of 1941. Vice Admiral Shimizu briefed his commanders January 3, 1942 on the details of the invasion plans for "Operation R" (the invasions of Rabaul, New Britain and Kavieng, New Ireland January 4–23, 1942). Katori came under attack at Kwajalein during February 1942 and sustained enough damage to warrant a return to Japan for repairs. She returned to Kwajalein in May 1942 where the new admiral, of 6th Fleet (Submarines) ordered the detachment of midget submarines to attack Australian ports.

In August 1942 Katori returned briefly to Yokosuka for upgrading with 2 x Type 96 twin 25mm AA guns, which were fitted in the forward part of the bridge. It then returned to Truk, where it continued to be based (with occasional returns to Yokosuka).

Vice Admiral Takagi assumed command of the 6th Fleet (Submarines) in June 1943, but after the fall of Kwajalein Katori was reassigned to the General Escort Command.

Katori had departed shortly before the attack on Truk February 17-18, 1944, escorting the armed merchant cruiser Akagi Maru, 2 destroyers, and a minesweeper towards Japan, but came under attack by fighters and torpedo planes. The Akagi Maru was sunk, and Katori hit by a torpedo, which did minor damage. However, several hours later, USS New Jersey (BB) and USS Iowa (BB) with 2 heavy cruisers and 2 destroyers spotted the Katori and opened the attack. The screening destroyers fired 6 salvos of torpedoes at Katori (which was already listing slightly to port and on fire amidships), but all torpedoes missed. Katori responded with a salvo of torpedoes, which also missed. The Iowa straddled Katori with eight salvos. After being under attack by the Iowa for only 11 minutes, She sank. A large group of survivors were seen in the water after she sank, but the USN did not recover any. She was officially stricken from the list in March 1944.

CL Kashima (Named after the Kashima Shrine)(1940-1945)
Displacement: 5,890 tons Dimensions: 129.77 x 15.95 x 5.75 meters Propulsion: 2-shaft geared turbines plus diesel motors Speed: 18 knots Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) Crew: 315 Armament: 4 x 140/50mm guns (2 dual mounts), 127/40mm dual mount AA gun, 4 × 25/60mm Type 96 AA guns, 8 x 13 mm AA guns, 8 × 533mm Torpedo tubes (2 dual mounts), 1 Floatplane, 1 catapult.

Kashima was completed in May 1940. Kashima (CL) and Katori (CL) participated in the last pre-war midshipman cruise in July 1940. Upon her return she was reassigned to the Japanese Fourth Fleet as flagship for Cruiser Division 18 based at Truk.

During "Operation R" (the invasions of Rabaul, New Britain and Kavieng, New Ireland January 4–23, 1942) she covered the landings.

During "Operation MO” (the invasions of Tulagi, Solomon islands and Port Moresby, New Guinea January 23-24, 1942) she covered the landings.

In May 1942 the Kashima arrived at Rabaul to direct operations, and missed the Battle of the Coral Sea, which occurred during that period. After the successful Japanese landings on New Guinea, the she returned to Truk. She underwent a refit in July 1942, to install in the forward part of the bridge 2 twin Type 96 25mm AA guns. She then returned to Truk.
In November 1943 departing from Truk for Japan Kashima, submarine tender Chogei, and 2 destroyers were attacked by the submarine USS Sculpin (SS-191), which they sank without any Japanese losses.

From May through July of 1944 she was pressed into service transporting troops and supplies to various outposts.
In December 1944 she was refitted. Replacing her torpedo tubes with 2 x Type 89 twin unshielded 127mm/40 HA guns, 4 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA guns, 6 x Type 96 single mount 25mm AA guns, a Type 22 radar, 4 depth charge throwers, 2 depth charge rails, hydrophones, sonar, and 2 Type 2 infra-red communications devices. She also had some aft compartments changed to concrete-protected magazines to store up to 100 depth charges. She was assigned escort and anti-submarine patrols in the South China Sea and off Korea until the end of the war.

She was stricken from the list in October 1945. After the war she served as a repatriation vessel and transported some 5,800 troops back to Japan.

CL Kashii (Named after the Kashii Shrine)(1941-1945)
Displacement: 5,890 tons Dimensions: 129.77 x 15.95 x 5.75 meters Propulsion: 2-shaft geared turbines plus diesel motors Speed: 18 knots Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) Crew: 315 Armament: 4 x 140/50mm guns (2 dual mounts), 127/40mm dual mount AA gun, 4 × 25/60mm Type 96 AA guns, 8 x 13 mm AA guns, 8 × 533mm Torpedo tubes (2 dual mounts), 1 Floatplane, 1 catapult.

Kashii was completed on July 1941. From December 1941 to January 1942 she was involved in transporting troops to Thailand, Malaya, and Hainan. January through March 1942 saw her on patrol and convoying troopships invading the Dutch East Indies, where she participated in "Operation T" (the invasion of Northern Sumatra March 12, 1942). After which she continued with patrol and convoy duties in the Indian Ocean. Kashii embarked on an emergency transport mission to reinforce Japanese forces at Rabaul in October 1942. Where she successfully mimicked a USN heavy cruiser by installing a fake second funnel and landed reinforcements there.

She underwent a refit in January 1943, to shorten her masts and add a "submarine spotting station”. Kashii resumed its patrol and convoy duties in the eastern Indian Ocean from February through July 1943.

From March through April 1944 she was refitted in Japan. Her torpedo tubes were removed, 2 x twin mount Type 89 127mm HA guns, 4 x triple mount Type 96 25mm AA guns, Four depth charge throwers, two depth charge rails, Type 21 air-search radar, Hydrophone, and sonar were installed. Some of her aft compartments were modified into concrete-protected depth charge magazines to hold up to 300 depth charges. This brought her total 25mm AA to 20 guns (4 triple mounts and 4 double mounts).

After more patrol and convoy escort duties she underwent further refit in Japan in June 1944. Where 10 x single mount Type 96 25mm AA guns and new Type 22 surface-search radar were installed. This brought her total 25mm AA to 30 guns (4 triple mounts, 4 double mounts, and 10 single mounts).

Another convoy mission was undertaken to the Philippines in August through September 1944. On the return voyage the convoy was attacked on September 16, 1944 by the submarines Queenfish (SS-393) and Barb (SS-220), which sank the Unyo (CVL) and 2 tankers. Even though the convoy managed to rescue 761 crewmen more than 900 were lost, along with 48 aircraft.

In January 1945 Shortly after departing Qui Nhon Bay, French Indochina with convoy HI-86 America carrier planes attacked, sinking most of the convoy's ships. A torpedo hit Kashii starboard amidships. Then a dive-bomber struck with two bombs that set off the depth charges in the aft magazine, she sank stern first. Of her crew 621 were lost and only 19 were rescued. She was removed from the list in March 1945.

Kuma Class: Kuma (Named for the Kuma river)(1919-1944), Tama (Named for the Tama river)(1920-1944), Kitakami (Named for the Kitakami river)(1920-1947), Ōi (Named for the Ōi river)(1920-1944), Kiso (Named for the Kiso river)(1920-1944)

CL Kuma (Named for the Kuma River)(1919-1944)
Displacement: 5,870 tons Dimensions: 490 (pp) 535 (oa) x 46 1/2 x 15 3/4 feet. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines. Crew: 439 Armament: 7 x 140mm single mount guns, 2 x 80/40 mm AA single mount guns, 4 x 24 inch dual mount torpedo tubes, 80 mines, 1 aircraft.

Kuma was completed in August 1920 and after commissioning was immediately assigned to cover the landings of Japanese troops against the Bolshevik Red Army. Was based in Port Arthur and patrolled the China coast in this area during the Siberian Intervention (1918 -1922).

At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack she was part of the Invasion of the Philippines. She patrolled the islands there and covered landing there until September 1942.

During "Operation M" (the invasion of the Philippines December 7, 1941) the Japanese 3rd Fleet Philippine Seizure Force was made up of 4 Surprise Attack Forces, The Lamon Bay Force, the Close Cover Force, and the South Philippines Support Force. The 1st Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at Aparri and Lingayen consisting of Natori (CL), 6 destroyers, 6 subchasers, 3 minesweepers, and 6 transports. Supported by the seaplane tender Sanuki Maru from the Close Cover Force. With the 2nd Formosa Regiment (less one battalion) and the Tanaka Detachment of the 48th Division. The 2nd Surprise Attack force departed the Formosa for landings at Vigan consisting of Naka (CL), 7 destroyers, and 6 transports. With the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Formosa Regiment (reinforced). The 3rd Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at the Batan Islands (not to be confused with the Bataan peninsula) consisting of a destroyer, several small craft, and 2 transport ships. With the 21st Engineer Regiment, the 14th Army Headquarters, and the 24th Airfield Battalion. The Fourth Surprise Attack or Legaspi Force departed the Palau Islands for landings at Legaspi consisting of Nagara (CL), 6 destroyers, seaplane tender Chitose, seaplane tender Mizuho, 2 minesweepers, and 7 transport ships. With elements of the 32nd Special Base Force, the 1st Kure Special Naval Landing force (SNLF), the 33rd Regiment (3,200 men), and the 22nd Field Artillery Regiment. The Lamon Bay Force departed the Naze, Japan for landings at Lamon Bay consisting of 2 minesweepers, 2 subchasers, 3 gunboats, a tanker, and 24 transport ships. With the 4 Tank Regiment and the 20th Regiment and the 33rd Regiment (9,000 men) of the16 Division. The Close Cover Force departed the Palau Islands to provide surface cover for the landings consisting of Ashigara (CA), Maya (CA), seaplane tender Sanyo Maru, Kuma (CL), and 2 destroyers. The South Philippines Support Force departed the Palau Islands to provide air cover for the landings consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Nachi (CA), Jintsu (CL), and 7 destroyers.

In October 1942 to November 1943 she was assigned to patrol the Netherlands East Indies. She underwent refit in Singapore where the No. 5 140-mm gun, her catapult, and derrick were removed. And 2 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA guns were installed. This brought her total 25mm AA to 10 guns (2 triple mounts and 2 double mounts). After her refit she returned to patrol the N.E.I.

In January 1944 the Royal Navy submarine HMS Tally-Ho (P317) torpedoed Kuma. Two torpedoes hit Kuma starboard aft, setting the ship on fire, and detonating her own depth charges. A destroyer picked up survivors, but 138 crewmen were lost with the ship. She was removed from the list in March 1944.

CL Tama (Named for the Tama river)(1920-1944)
Displacement: 5,870 tons Dimensions: 490 (pp) 535 (oa) x 46 1/2 x 15 3/4 feet. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines. Crew: 439 Armament: 7 x 140mm single mount guns, 2 x 80mm AA single mount guns, 4 x 24 inch dual mount torpedo tubes, 80 mines, 1 aircraft

Tama was completed in January 1921 and after commissioning was immediately assigned to cover the landings of Japanese troops against the Bolshevik Red Army. Was based in Port Arthur and patrolled the China coast in this area during the Siberian Intervention (1918 -1922). She was assigned a diplomatic mission in 1925 to return the remains of the US Ambassador Edgar A. Bancroft to Japan. She was assigned to patrol the northern coasts of China after the Manchurian Incident in 1932. As the war in China escalated she covered landings of Japanese troops in central China.

At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack she was patrolling in the Kuril Islands north of Japan, and after suffering damage due to severe weather, was forced to return to Japan for repairs by the end of the year. From January to end April 1942, she was back on patrol and convoy duties in the waters north of Japan, accompanied by her sister ship, the light cruiser Kiso.
The Battle of the Komandorski Islands (March 26, 1943) Maya (CA), Nachi (CA), Tama (CL), Abukuma (CL), and 5 destroyers were escorting 3 transports to Attu. When they ran into a U.S. Surface Task Group consisting of the Salt Lake City (CA), Richmond (CL), and 4 destroyers. Nachi (CA) hit several times and was badly damaged and one U.S. destroyer damaged. Vice Admiral Shiro Kawase ordered the Japanese to withdraw and aborted the mission. He was disgraced and forced to retire for retreating from an inferior force.

During "Operation AL" (the Battle of the Aleutian Islands June-August 1942) the Japanese ships were divided into 4 groups. The Northern Force consisting of Nachi (CA) and 2 destroyers. The Second Mobile Force consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Junyō (CVL), Maya (CA), Tako (CA), 3 destroyers, and 1 tanker. The Adak-Attu Occupation Force consisting of Abukuma (CL), 4 destroyers, 1 transport, and 1 mine layer. The Kiska Occupation Force consisting of Kiso (CL), Tama (CL), 1 Auxiliary Cruiser, 5 destroyers, 2 transport ships, 3 gunboats and 8 subchasers. The Seaplane Force: 1 seaplane carrier and 1 destroyer.

In September 1943 she was assigned to the South and transported troops to various garrisons. In October 1943 while carrying troops to Rabaul she was damaged by a RAAF bomber and was forced to return to Rabaul for emergency repairs.
In October 1943 Tama returned to Japan for a major refit she had her No. 5 and No. 7 140-mm guns, catapult, and derrick removed. And a twin 127-mm HA gun, 18 x Type 96 25mm AA guns (4 triple mounts and 6 single mounts), and a type 21 air search radar installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 22 guns (4 triple mounts, 2 double mounts, and 6 single mounts). She was then assigned patrol and supply assignments until being assigned to the Northern Mobile Force in August 1944.

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944) was actually several battles consisting of:

The Battle of Palawan Passage (October 23, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) Yamato (BB), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Kumano (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tako (CA), Tone (CA), Noshiro (CL), Yahagi (CL), and 15 destroyers were attacked by the submarines USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227). Dace sank the Atago and Darter sank Maya.

The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (October 24, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) was attacked 11 times by over 250 carrier planes. Musashi was sunk. Yamato, Nagato, Tone, and 3 destroyers were damaged.

The Battle off Samar (October 25, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) attacked Taffy 3 (Task Group 77.43) the USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63)(by kamikaze attack), 2 destroyers, and a destroyer escort were sunk. USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70), USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71)(by kamikaze attack), a destroyer, and a destroyer escort were damaged. While on the Japanese side Suzuya, Chōkai, Chikuma were sunk. Kumano, Haguro, Tone were damaged. The Japanese withdrew thinking they faced a superior force.

The Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944) where carrier planes from the U.S. 3rd Fleet (commanded by Admiral W. F. "Bull" Halsey Jr.) were lured into attacking the last of the Japanese carrier forces. The Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force consisted of Zuikaku (CV), Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Ise (BB), Hyuga (BB), Ōyodo (CL), Isuzu (CL), Tama (CL), and 8 destroyers. Zuikaku, Chitose, Chiyoda, Zuihō, Tama, and 2 destroyers are sunk. Ise and Ōyodo are damaged.
The Battle of Surigao Strait (October 25, 1944) where “Force C” (Southern Force) consisting of the 1st Raiding Force Yamashiro (BB)(Flagship), Fuso (BB), Mogami (CA), and 4 destroyers and the 2nd Raiding Force consisting of the Nachi (CA), Ashigara (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 7 destroyers met the 7th Fleet Support Force consisting of West Virginia (BB-48), Maryland (BB-46), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43), California (BB-44), and Pennsylvina (BB-38), (all but the Mississippi having been sunk or damaged in the Attack on Pearl Harbor) Louisville (CA-28)(Flagship), USS Portland (CA-33), Minneapolis (CA-36), HMAS Shropshire (CA-73), Boise (CL-47), Columbia (CL-56), Denver (CL-58), Phoenix (CL-46), 29 destroyers, and 39 PT boats. Fuso, Yamashiro, Mogami and 3 destroyers were sunk. Nachi, Abukuma, and 1 destroyer are damaged. The 7th Fleet Support Force lost 1 PT boat sunk, 1 destroyer damaged (by friendly fire), and 3-4 PT boats damaged.

During the Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944), carrier planes torpedoed Tama in the No. 2 boiler room. After emergency repairs, the Tama retired from the battle, escorted by a destroyer, but this destroyer was soon ordered to protect the damaged Chiyoda (CVL). Another destroyer then escorted Tama, but later it was ordered to assist the damaged Zuihō (CVL).

Tama proceeded northward alone at 14 knots but her luck had run out. Northeast of Luzon, the submarine USS Jallao (SS-368), on her first war patrol, picked her up on radar. Jallao's first attack with her bow tubes missed, but her second salvo from the stern tubes scored 3 hits, breaking the Tama in two. She sank within minutes with all hands. She was removed from the list in December 1944.

CL Kitakami (Named for the Kitakami river)(1920-1947)
Displacement: 5,870 tons Dimensions: 490 (pp) 535 (oa) x 46 1/2 x 15 3/4 feet. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines. Crew: 439 Armament: 7 x 140mm single mount guns, 2 x 80/40 mm AA single mount guns, 4 x 24 inch dual mount torpedo tubes, 80 mines, 1 aircraft.

Kitakami was completed in July 1920. Soon after her commissioning she was based in China and covered landings there as the tension leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War continued to increase.

In August 1921 she was refit in Japan to convert her to a "Torpedo Cruiser". She was refitted with 4 x 140mm guns, 10 x quadruple mount Type 93 "Long Lance" 61cm torpedo tubes, and her seaplane was removed. This was part of the Japanese Navy’s plan to create a "Night Battle Force".

At the time of the Pearl Harbor Attack she was on escort duty from Japan to the Bonin Islands and back again.
At the time of the Battle of Midway (June 1942), Kitakami (CL) and Ōi (CL) were part of the Aleutian Screening Force.
From August through September 1942 Kitakami (CL) and Ōi (CL) were converted into fast transports. They had their torpedo mounts reduced to 6 quadruple torpedo mounts (a total of 24 tubes). Which were replaced with two Daihatsu landing barges, 2 x triple mount Type 96 25mm AA guns, and depth charge rails. After the conversion Kitakami and Ōi were pressed into transporting troops to numerous bases.

In June 1943 while in the Celebes, B-24 Liberators bombed the Kitakami, Ōi, Kinu and Kuma. None of the ships were hit but some sustained slight damage from near misses.

In January 1944 Aboa (CA), Kinu (CL), Ōi (CL), Kitakami (CL), and a destroyer convoyed troops to the Andaman Islands. While the convoy was returning HMS Templar (P316) hit Kitakami with 2 torpedoes. Kinu towed her to Angsa Bay, Malaya for emergency repairs. She then underwent extensive repairs at Singapore In February but continued to take on water.
In August 1944, in Japan she underwent modification to a Kaiten human torpedo carrier. Her leaks were repaired. And 20-ton crane formerly from the seaplane carrier Chitose was fitted to raise and lower the Kaiten into the water. Her stern was remodeled into an overhanging ramp configuration and one engine room was converted to a storeroom for equipment for the Kaitens, which reduced her speed to 23 knots. All of Kitakami's armaments were removed and replaced by 2 x Type 89 127mm AA guns, 67 x Type 96 25mm AA guns (12 triple mounts and 31 single mounts), 2 Type 13 air-search radar, a Type 22 surface-search radar, 2 depth charge throwers, and 2 depth charge rails. With modifications completed she was assigned directly to the Combined Fleet in January 1945.

In July 1945 strafing U.S. carrier planes damaged her and killed 32 crewmen. After the war Kitakami was assigned as a repair tender for ships on repatriation duties. She was removed from the list in November 1945 and scrapped March 1947.

CL Ōi (Named for the Ōi river)(1920-1944)
Displacement: 5,870 tons Dimensions: 490 (pp) 535 (oa) x 46 1/2 x 15 3/4 feet. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines. Crew: 439 Armament: 7 x 140mm single mount guns, 2 x 80/40 mm AA single mount guns, 4 x 24 inch dual mount torpedo tubes, 80 mines, 1 aircraft.

Ōi was completed in May 1921. From 1928-1931, she was assigned to be a training vessel at the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy. Due to the Shanghai Incident in 1937, Ōi was re-assigned to patrol of the coast of China. She resumed her training role from the end of 1933 to August 1937. At which time she covered landings China as the tension leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War continued to increase. She again returned to her training duties in December 1937 through 1939.

In August 1941 as part of the Japanese Navy’s plan to create a "Night Battle Force" she underwent a refit in Japan to be convert to a "Torpedo Cruiser" 4 x 140mm guns, 10 x quadruple mount Type 93 "Long Lance" 61cm torpedo tubes were installed, and her seaplane was removed.

At the time of the Pearl Harbor Attack she was on escort duty from Japan to the Bonin Islands and back again.
The Chief of Staff inspected Ōi in January 1942, and expressed strong disapproval of the Navy's plans for the use of the newly remodeled torpedo cruisers and urged a change to the Navy's tactics. While the Imperial Japanese General Staff discussed the issue, Ōi was assigned to escort duty from the end of January through mid April 1942.

At the time of the Battle of Midway (June 1942), Kitakami (CL) and Ōi (CL) were part of the Aleutian Screening Force.
From August through September 1942 Kitakami (CL) and Ōi (CL) were converted into fast transports. They had their torpedo mounts reduced to 6 quadruple torpedo mounts (a total of 24 tubes). Which were replaced with two Daihatsu landing barges, 2 x triple mount Type 96 25mm AA guns, and depth charge rails. After the conversion Kitakami and Ōi were pressed into transporting troops to numerous bases.

In June 1943 while in the Celebes, B-24 Liberators bombed the Kitakami, Ōi, Kinu and Kuma. None of the ships were hit but some sustained slight damage from near misses.

In January 1944 Aboa (CA), Kinu (CL), Ōi (CL), Kitakami (CL), and a destroyer convoyed troops to the Andaman Islands. While the convoy was returning HMS Templar (P316) hit Kitakami with 2 torpedoes.

In July 1944 she was sighted 570 miles south of Hong Kong by USS Flasher (SS-249). When she was 1,400 yards astern, the Flasher fired its stern tubes; hitting Ōi with two torpedoes portside aft. One was a dud, but the other one exploded flooding her aft engine room. The Flasher then fired its four bow torpedoes from 3,500 yards, but all missed. At 1725, Ōi sank by the stern. A destroyer rescued Captain Shiba and 368 crewmen, but 153 men were lost with the ship. Captain Shiba was later one of the representatives of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Japans formal surrender aboard the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945. Ōi was removed from the List in September 1944.

CL Kiso (Named for the Kiso river)(1920-1944)
Displacement: 5,870 tons Dimensions: 490 (pp) 535 (oa) x 46 1/2 x 15 3/4 feet. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines. Crew: 439 Armament: 7 x 140mm single mount guns, 2 x 80/40 mm AA single mount guns, 4 x 24 inch dual mount torpedo tubes, 80 mines, 1 aircraft.

Kiso was completed in may 1921 and soon after completion, was fitted with both a forward and an aft flat superstructure, with a rotating floatplane take-off platform located aft for experimental and testing purposes. She covered the landings of Japanese troops against the Bolshevik Red Army. Was based in Port Arthur and patrolled the China coast in this area during the Siberian Intervention (1918 -1922). On April 17, 1939, she fired a 21-gun salute as the USS Astoria arrived in Japan carrying the remains of the Japanese ambassador, Hiroshi Saito, who died while on assignment to the United States.
At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack she was patrolling in the Kuril Islands north of Japan, and after suffering damage due to severe weather, was forced to return to Japan for repairs by the end of the year. From January to end April 1942, she was back on patrol in the waters north of Japan, accompanied by her sister ship, the light cruiser Tama. In April, after the Doolittle Raid, She scuttled guard boats No. 26 Nanshin Maru and No. 1 Iwate Maru, which had been damaged by, planes the raid. In May 1942, Kiso accompanied the converted Seaplane tender on a scouting mission to Adak and Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands. The Adak mission was successful, but Kiska was obscured by weather.

During "Operation AL" (the Battle of the Aleutian Islands June-August 1942) the Japanese ships were divided into 4 groups. The Northern Force consisting of Nachi (CA) and 2 destroyers. The Second Mobile Force consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Junyō (CVL), Maya (CA), Tako (CA), 3 destroyers, and 1 tanker. The Adak-Attu Occupation Force consisting of Abukuma (CL), 4 destroyers, 1 transport, and 1 mine layer. The Kiska Occupation Force consisting of Kiso (CL), Tama (CL), 1 Auxiliary Cruiser, 5 destroyers, 2 transport ships, 3 gunboats and 8 subchasers. The Seaplane Force: 1 seaplane carrier and 1 destroyer.

In April she was refitted, 2 x Type 96 twin mount 25mm AA guns were added above the aft port and starboard torpedo-tube mounts, three 1100mm searchlights replaced her 900mm searchlights, and a No. 21 air-search radar was installed.

She returned to patrolling the Kuriles Islands and Aleutians Islands until the end of August 1943.

She was assigned to the south in September 1943 and transported troops to various garrisons. While carrying troops to Rabaul in October 1943 she was damaged by a RAAF bomber and was forced to return to Japan for repairs. She arrived in Japan in November 1943, Kiso was refitted having its two 140-mm gun mounts removed and replaced by a dual 127-mm HA gun mount. 3 x triple mount and 6 x single mount Type 96 25-mm AA guns were also installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 19 guns (3 triple mounts, 2 double mounts, and 6 single mounts).

After her refit she was again sent to petrol the northern islands from March through August of 1944. In October 1944 she was ordered to re-supply Japanese naval units after the Battle of Leyte Gulf. After delivering the supplies she was detached to Manila. Due to the threat of U.S. carrier strikes she was ordered in November 1944 to Borneo. Before she could leave Luzon, more than 350 carrier planes attacked her. Three bombs hit Kiso to starboard - one in the bow, one near her boiler rooms and one near her aft gun mounts. Kiso sank in shallow water and most of the Kiso's crew survived. She was removed from the list in March 1945.

Nagara Class: Nagara (Named for the Nagara river)(1921-1944), Isuzu (Named for the Isuzu river)(1923-1945), Yura (Named for the Yura river)(1923-1942), Natori (Named for the Natori river)(1922-1944), Kinu (Named for the Kinu river)(1922-1944), Abukuma (Named for the Abukuma river)(1925-1944)

CL Nagara (Named for the Nagara river)(1921-1944)
Displacement: 5,570 tons. Dimensions: 163 x 14.8 x 4.9 meters. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 boilers, Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h) Range: 5,000nm @ 36 knots Crew: 438 Armament: 7 × 140mm guns, 2 × 76mm guns, 8 × 610mm torpedo tubes (4 double mounts), 48 mines, 1 floatplane, 1 catapult.

Nagara was completed in April 1922. Soon after her commissioning she was based in China and covered landings there as the tension leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War continued to increase. In January 1922, Nagara was assigned to provide coverage for Japanese transports during the Battle of Shanghai (19)(the first of 22 major engagements fought between the Nationalists Chinese and the Japanese), and remained on station patrolling the China coast through 1939. Nagara assisted in the Invasion of French Indochina and provided coverage for the landings of Japanese troops in southern China from January through April 1941.

During "Operation M" (the invasion of the Philippines December 7, 1941) the Japanese 3rd Fleet Philippine Seizure Force was made up of 4 Surprise Attack Forces, The Lamon Bay Force, the Close Cover Force, and the South Philippines Support Force. The 1st Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at Aparri and Lingayen consisting of Natori (CL), 6 destroyers, 6 subchasers, 3 minesweepers, and 6 transports. Supported by the seaplane tender Sanuki Maru from the Close Cover Force. With the 2nd Formosa Regiment (less one battalion) and the Tanaka Detachment of the 48th Division. The 2nd Surprise Attack force departed the Formosa for landings at Vigan consisting of Naka (CL), 7 destroyers, and 6 transports. With the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Formosa Regiment (reinforced). The 3rd Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at the Batan Islands (not to be confused with the Bataan peninsula) consisting of a destroyer, several small craft, and 2 transport ships. With the 21st Engineer Regiment, the 14th Army Headquarters, and the 24th Airfield Battalion. The Fourth Surprise Attack or Legaspi Force departed the Palau Islands for landings at Legaspi consisting of Nagara (CL), 6 destroyers, seaplane tender Chitose, seaplane tender Mizuho, 2 minesweepers, and 7 transport ships. With elements of the 32nd Special Base Force, the 1st Kure Special Naval Landing force (SNLF), the 33rd Regiment (3,200 men), and the 22nd Field Artillery Regiment. The Lamon Bay Force departed the Naze, Japan for landings at Lamon Bay consisting of 2 minesweepers, 2 subchasers, 3 gunboats, a tanker, and 24 transport ships. With the 4 Tank Regiment and the 20th Regiment and the 33rd Regiment (9,000 men) of the16 Division. The Close Cover Force departed the Palau Islands to provide surface cover for the landings consisting of Ashigara (CA), Maya (CA), seaplane tender Sanyo Maru, Kuma (CL), and 2 destroyers. The South Philippines Support Force departed the Palau Islands to provide air cover for the landings consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Nachi (CA), Jintsu (CL), and 7 destroyers.

During "Operation H" (The Invasion of Celebes and the Netherlands East Indies January 1942 to February 1942) the Netherlands East Indies Seizure Force departs Davao. The No. 2 Escort Unit, the Jintsu (CL) and 10 destroyers, escorted the Nagara (CL) and 10 transports. Air cover is provided by seaplane tenders Mizuho and Chitose. The Nachi (CA), Haguro (CA), and 2 destroyers provide the surface cover force. The 1st Sasebo SNLF lands on Kema and Menado in the Celebes. 334 men of the 1st Yokosuka SNLF (Air) successfully paradrop from Mitsubishi G3M1-L Nell converted transport aircraft and seize Langoan airfield. One of Jintsu's Kawanishi E7k2 (Alf) floatplanes shot down a Dutch A-29 Hudson bomber. But the floatplane is soon shot down before returning. In early February 1942 Jintsu was assigned to the invasion force for Ambon Island, Dutch (West) Timor, Portuguese (East) Timor, and Eastern Java.

During “Operation X” (the Invasion of Christmas Island March 31, 1942) Naka (CL)(Flagship), Nagara (CL), Natori (CL), 8 destroyers, a tanker, and 2 transport ships made unopposed landings. The garrison of Indian soldiers having mutinied killed their British officer, 4 non-commissioned officers and treating to kill all Europeans.

In April 1942 she was refitted in Japan with 2 x Type 93 twin mount 13mm machineguns.

After the flagship, Akagi (CV) was set ablaze by dive-bombers at the Battle of Midway. Vice Admiral Nagumo transferred his flag to a destroyer and then to the Nagara.

the Japanese launch “Operation Ka” (the Japanese Counter Offensive in the Solomon Islands August 1942) to counter the U.S. landings on Guadalcanal and to sink Allied warships.

During the Battle of the Eastern Solomon’s (August 23-25, 1942) the Japanese force was divided into 4 groups. The Vanguard Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Chikuma (CA), Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Nagara (CL), and 3 destroyers. The Main Body Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku(CV), and 6 destroyers. The Advanced Force seaplane tender Chitose, Atago (CA), Haguro (CA), Maya (CA), Myōkō (CA), Tako (CA), Yura (CL), and 6 destroyers. The Mobile Force Ryūjō (CV), Tone (CA), and 2 destroyers detached ahead of the Main Body. The U.S. force was divided into 4 Task Forces. Task Force 16 Enterprise (CV-6), North Carolina (BB-55), USS Portland (CA-33) USS Atlanta (CL-51), and 6 destroyers. Task Force 61 Saratoga (CV-3), USS Minneapolis (CA-36), USS New Orleans (CA-32), and 5 destroyers. the Japanese had Ryūjō, and 1 destroyer sunk with the seaplane tender Chitose damaged while the Enterprise was severely damaged on the U.S. side.

The Battle of Santa Cruz (October 25-27, 1942) the Japanese attempted to end the stalemate at Guadalcanal with a major ground offensive supported by naval forces. They also hoped to decisively defeat any Allied naval forces responding to the offensive. The U.S. Forces wanted to lure the Japanese naval forces into a battle break the stalemate. The Japanese forces were in 8 groups. The Main Body consisting of Atago (CA), Maya (CA), Myōkō (CA), Tako (CA), Isuzu (CL), and 6 destroyers. The Air Group consisting of Junyō (CVL), and 2 destroyers. The Support Group consisting of Kongō (BB), Haruna (BB), and 2 destroyers. The Carrier Strike Force consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Kumano (CA), and 8 destroyers. The Vanguard Force consisting of Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Tone (CA), Chikuma (CA), Suzuya (CA), Nagara (CL), and 7 destroyers. The Supply Group consisting of a destroyer and 4 transport ships. The Assault Unit consisting of 3 destroyers. The Bombardment Unit consisting of Yura (CL), and 5 destroyers. The U.S. forces were in 2 groups. Task Force 16 consisting of Enterprise (CV-6), South Dakota (BB-57), Portland (CA-33), San Juan (CL-54), and 8 destroyers. Task Force 17 consisting of Hornet (CV-8), Northampton (CA-26), Pensacola (CA-24), San Diego (CL-53), Juneau (CL-52), and 6 destroyers. Hornet and a destroyer were sunk while Enterprise, South Dakota, San Juan were damaged. Shōkaku, Zuihō, and Chikuma were damaged. While the Japanese had won a tactical victory the loss of experienced aircrews and continued use of Henderson Field made the battle a strategic loss for them.

The 1st Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (November 13, 1942) The Japanese attempting to neutralize Henderson Field to clear the way for a large convoy meet an inferior U.S. force. The Japanese Bombardment Force consisting of Hiei (BB)(Flagship), Kirishima (BB), Nagara (CL), and 9 destroyers. The U.S. Task Group 67.4 commanded by Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan consisting of USS Portland (CA-33), USS San Francisco (CA-38)(Flagship), USS Atlanta (CL-51), USS Helena (CL- 50), USS Juneau (CL-52), and 9 destroyers. The Japanese had Hiei and 2 destroyers sunk 3 destroyers damaged. The U.S. had Atlanta and 4 destroyers sunk and Portland, San Francisco, Helena, Juneau, and 1destroyer damaged.

The 2nd Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (November 15, 1942) after the loss of the battleship Hiei, an Emergency Bombardment Force is formed with Kirishima (BB), Atago (CA), Takao (CA), Nagara (CL), and 6 destroyers. Sendai (CL) and 3 destroyers form a sweeping force in front of the bombardment force. The USS Washington (BB-56) and South Dakota (BB-57), lead by 4 destroyers, approached Guadalcanal in a column on a Northerly course. The Washington detected the Japanese at 18,000 yards bearing East of Savo Island. The Washington opened fire on the Sendai with her 16-inch guns and Sendai made smoke and retired undamaged. The Nagara and destroyers launched "Long Lance" torpedoes and opened fire at the South Dakota. During the battle the South Dakota had over 30 torpedoes fired at her but none hit. The Washington managed to get within 8,400 yards of Kirishima undetected. And hit Kirishima with 8 or 9 of 75 armor-piercing radar-directed 16-inch shells. This set the Kirishima on fire, disabled 2 of her 14-inch turrets, damaged her below the waterline, destroyed her rudder, and caused her to list to starboard. She began circling until she was scuttled and capsized. The U.S. had 2 destroyers sunk and 2 damaged (one so badly it was scuttled the next evening). The Japanese lost the Kirishima and a destroyer.

In early February, Nagara participated in the evacuation of Guadalcanal where 11,700 Japanese troops were rescued. She returned to Japan for refit 4 x Type 96 twin mount 25mm AA guns and Type 21 air-search radar were installed. In November 1943 she assisted in towing Agano (CL), which had been torpedoed by the submarine USS Skate (SS-305), back to Truk. In November 1943 responding to U.S. invasion of Tarawa and the Gilbert Islands, Nagara sailed from Truk arriving at Kwajalein where she was attacked by carrier planes and damaged enough to justify a return to Japan.

In January 1944 she was refitted in Japan the No. 7 140mm gun mount was removed and replaced by a 127mm unshielded HA gun mount. The fore and aft twin torpedo tubes were removed and replaced by two quadruple mounts aft. The catapult was removed and replaced by 2 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA gun. Depth charge rails and a Type 93 hydrophone set installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 22 guns (2 triple mounts, 6 double mounts, and 4 single mounts).

In May and June 1944 she remained in Japanese waters training with new destroyers and escorting convoys. in July 1944 she underwent refit in Japan 10 x Type 96 single mount 25mm AA guns, and Type 22 surface-search radar were installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 32 guns (2 triple mounts, 6 double mounts, and 14 single mounts).

In August 1944 by USS Croaker (SS-246) spotted the Nagara in route to Sasebo. Croaker closed to 1,300 yards and fired a salvo of four stern torpedoes, one hitting Nagara aft on the starboard side. Nagara sank by the stern. The captain and 348 crewmen were lost with the ship, but 235 crewmen were rescued. She was removed from the list in October 1944.

CL Isuzu (Named for the Isuzu river)(1923-1945)
Displacement: 5,088 tons. Dimensions: 163 x 14.8 x 4.9 meters. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers, Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h) Range: 9,000nm @ 10 knots Crew: 438 Armament: 7 × 140mm single mount guns, 2 × 25mm AA guns, 6 x 13mm AA guns, 8 × 610mm torpedo tubes (4 double mounts), 48 mines, 1 floatplane, 1 catapult.

Isuzu was completed in August 1923. Soon after her commissioning she was based in China and covered landings there as the tension leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War continued to increase.

At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, she was participating in the invasion of Hong Kong. She remained based there after its capture from the end of December 1941 to April 1942, briefly transporting troops to Thailand and French Indochina. In

April 1942, Isuzu (CL), Natori (CL), and Kinu (CL) patrol in the Netherlands East Indies. She returned to Japan in June 1942 for repairs and overhaul, which was completed in time for Isuzu to support landing operations on the Netherlands East Indies in July 1942. She was briefly assigned to the Indian Ocean in August 1942 but soon returned to the Netherlands East Indies.

Isuzu (CL) and Kinu (CL) were assigned in September 1944 to escort troops to the Solomon Islands. She then was assigned to Truk, where she replaced the damaged Jintsu. In October 1942 she fired on U.S. Marine batteries on Tulagi when the Kongō (BB) and Haruna (BB) bombarded Henderson Field.

The Battle of Santa Cruz (October 25-27, 1942) the Japanese attempted to end the stalemate at Guadalcanal with a major ground offensive supported by naval forces. They also hoped to decisively defeat any Allied naval forces responding to the offensive. The U.S. Forces wanted to lure the Japanese naval forces into a battle break the stalemate. The Japanese forces were in 8 groups. The Main Body consisting of Atago (CA), Maya (CA), Myōkō (CA), Tako (CA), Isuzu (CL), and 6 destroyers. The Air Group consisting of Junyō (CVL), and 2 destroyers. The Support Group consisting of Kongō (BB), Haruna (BB), and 2 destroyers. The Carrier Strike Force consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Kumano (CA), and 8 destroyers. The Vanguard Force consisting of Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Tone (CA), Chikuma (CA), Suzuya (CA), Nagara (CL), and 7 destroyers. The Supply Group consisting of a destroyer and 4 transport ships. The Assault Unit consisting of 3 destroyers. The Bombardment Unit consisting of Yura (CL), and 5 destroyers. The U.S. forces were in 2 groups. Task Force 16 consisting of Enterprise (CV-6), South Dakota (BB-57), Portland (CA-33), San Juan (CL-54), and 8 destroyers. Task Force 17 consisting of Hornet (CV-8), Northampton (CA-26), Pensacola (CA-24), San Diego (CL-53), Juneau (CL-52), and 6 destroyers. Hornet and a destroyer were sunk while Enterprise, South Dakota, San Juan were damaged. Shōkaku, Zuihō, and Chikuma were damaged. While the Japanese had won a tactical victory the loss of experienced aircrews and continued use of Henderson Field made the battle a strategic loss for them.

During the Naval Battles of Guadalcanal (November 14, 1942), after the original bombardment force, having fought a night engagement with U.S. naval forces, failed in its mission. Kinugasa (CA), Chōkai (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tenryū (CL), Isuzu (CL), and 5 destroyers, which were supposed to have covered the landings, assume the role and bombard Guadalcanal. As the Japanese withdraw to the Shortland Islands, they are first attacked by the submarine USS Flying Fish (SS-229), which fails to hit a heavy cruiser. But during the day carrier planes from the USS Enterprise (CV-6) and U.S. Marine aircraft from Guadalcanal sink Kinugasa, slightly damage Chōkai, and a Douglas SBD "Dauntless" dive-bomber crashes into the cruiser Maya. Isuzu sustained two near misses from U.S. Marine aircraft that flooded her No. 3 boiler room and reduced her speed to 15 knots. A destroyer escorted her to the Shortland Islands for emergency repairs.
Additional repairs were performed at Truk but she was forced to Japan to complete repairs in December 1942.

While being repaired she had her No. 5 and No. 7 140mm mount removed And added a twin 127mm/40 HA-gun unshielded mount, 2 x 25mm AA triple mounts, a Type 21 air-search radar, a Type 93 hydrophone set, and Depth charge rails were installed. This brought her total light AA to 10 x 25mm AA mounts and a quadruple 13mm mount.

In June 1943 she returned to Truk with troops and supplies. In October 1943, She was briefly assigned to carry troops and supplies to China. That same month she joined convoy Tei No. 4 at Truk to transport troops. When the convoy was 60 miles north of Kavieng U.S. B-24 Liberator bombers attacked and damaged the Kiyozumi Maru, which was towed by Isuzu into Kavieng. The convoy departed for Rabaul and 8 miles southwest of Kavieng the convoy entered a minefield sown by the submarine USS Silversides (SS-236), 2 transports were sunk, a destroyer damaged, and Isuzu suffered hull damage which disabled 2 forward guns.

During the U.S. Task Force 38 Carrier Raid on Rabaul (November 5, 1943) Isuzu was in Rabaul for repairs. Her damage during the raid was minor but she returned to Truk to complete repairs.

In response to the Allied "Operation Galvanic" (retaking Tarawa the Gilbert Islands November 20, 1942) she ferried troops from the Caroline Islands to the Marshall Islands. In December 1943 by dive-bombers and torpedo planes damaged her. Repairs were conducted at Kwajalein and Truk, but damage forced her to return to Japan.

In January 1944 Isuzu was converted to an anti-aircraft cruiser in Japan. All of her 140mm gun mounts, the catapult, and seaplane equipment were removed. 2 x twin 127mm guns were installed, the number of Type 96 25-mm AA guns was increased to 38 guns, Type 13 air-search, Type 21 air-search, and Type 22 surface-search radars, sonar, and depth charge rails were installed. She returned for duty in September 1944.

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944) was actually several battles consisting of:

The Battle of Palawan Passage (October 23, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) Yamato (BB), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Kumano (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tako (CA), Tone (CA), Noshiro (CL), Yahagi (CL), and 15 destroyers were attacked by the submarines USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227). Dace sank the Atago and Darter sank Maya.

The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (October 24, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) was attacked 11 times by over 250 carrier planes. Musashi was sunk. Yamato, Nagato, Tone, and 3 destroyers were damaged.

The Battle off Samar (October 25, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) attacked Taffy 3 (Task Group 77.43) the USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63)(by kamikaze attack), 2 destroyers, and a destroyer escort were sunk. USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70), USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71)(by kamikaze attack), a destroyer, and a destroyer escort were damaged. While on the Japanese side Suzuya, Chōkai, Chikuma were sunk. Kumano, Haguro, Tone were damaged. The Japanese withdrew thinking they faced a superior force.

The Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944) where carrier planes from the U.S. 3rd Fleet (commanded by Admiral W. F. "Bull" Halsey Jr.) were lured into attacking the last of the Japanese carrier forces. The Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force consisted of Zuikaku (CV), Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Ise (BB), Hyuga (BB), Ōyodo (CL), Isuzu (CL), Tama (CL), and 8 destroyers. Zuikaku, Chitose, Chiyoda, Zuihō, Tama, and 2 destroyers are sunk. Ise and Ōyodo are damaged.
The Battle of Surigao Strait (October 25, 1944) where “Force C” (Southern Force) consisting of the 1st Raiding Force Yamashiro (BB)(Flagship), Fuso (BB), Mogami (CA), and 4 destroyers and the 2nd Raiding Force consisting of the Nachi (CA), Ashigara (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 7 destroyers met the 7th Fleet Support Force consisting of West Virginia (BB-48), Maryland (BB-46), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43), California (BB-44), and Pennsylvina (BB-38), (all but the Mississippi having been sunk or damaged in the Attack on Pearl Harbor) Louisville (CA-28)(Flagship), USS Portland (CA-33), Minneapolis (CA-36), HMAS Shropshire (CA-73), Boise (CL-47), Columbia (CL-56), Denver (CL-58), Phoenix (CL-46), 29 destroyers, and 39 PT boats. Fuso, Yamashiro, Mogami and 3 destroyers were sunk. Nachi, Abukuma, and 1 destroyer are damaged. The 7th Fleet Support Force lost 1 PT boat sunk, 1 destroyer damaged (by friendly fire), and 3-4 PT boats damaged.

During the Battle of Cape Engaño after the 1st carrier strike Isuzu unsuccessfully attempted to take the sinking Chitose (CVL) in tow. But she did manage to rescue 480 of the Chitose's crew. During the 2nd carrier strike Isuzu attempted to protect the Chiyoda (CVL). But a 3rd strike sank Chiyoda with all hands. While rescuing survivors, she came under fire from Allied cruisers sent to finish off the ships disabled by the carrier planes.

Isuzu returned to Japan on October 1944, where she was assigned to convoy troops to the Philippines and Bruni. 55 miles west of Corregidor, in November 1944, the submarine USS Hake (SS-256) torpedoed Isuzu, severely damaging her stern and destroying her rudder. After emergency repairs she limped into Singapore.

After temporary repairs, the Isuzu was transferred to the Netherlands East Indies in December 1944 for more complete repair work. Having completed repairs in April 1945, she resumed transporting troops in the Netherlands East Indies. In April 1945, She was attacked in the Netherlands East Indies by 10 B-25 Mitchell bombers of the No. 18 Squadron (Netherlands East Indies), based in Australia. Isuzu was slightly damaged by near misses off her starboard bow. After she landed troops and was returning to base she was attacked again. She was hit in the bow by bombs from RAAF B-24 Liberator bombers based in Australia (2 of which were shot down by Japanese Army fighters). The next day the submarine USS Gabilan (SS-252) torpedoed her on the portside below the bridge caused flooding forward slowing her to below 10 knots. The next day as her crew was performing emergency repairs the submarine USS Charr (SS-328) hit her with 2 torpedoes on the portside near the aft engine room. Charr then fired two more torpedoes, one of which broke off Isuzu's bow. Isuzu took on a list and went down at the bow as witnessed by HMS Spark (P326). Her captain and 450 crewmen were rescued, but 190 crewmen were lost with the ship. She was removed from the list in June 1945.

CL Yura (Named for the Yura river)(1923-1942)
Displacement: 5,088 tons. Dimensions: 163 x 14.8 x 4.9 meters. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers, Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h) Range: 9,000nm @ 10 knots Crew: 438 Armament: 7 × 140mm guns, 2 × 76mm single mount guns, 2 x 25mm AA guns, 6 x 13mm AA guns, 8 × 610mm torpedo tubes (4 double mounts), 48 mines, 1 floatplane, 1 catapult.

Yura was completed in March 1923. The early 30's, the Japanese Navy had catapults installed forward of the bridge. And used Yura to test aircraft catapult design. She had a new rotating catapult and mainmast to support a derrick installed amidships to support aircraft in 1934-1935. She was assigned in1932, after the Manchurian Incident, and again 1937–1939 to patrol and cover troop landings on the coast of China.

At the time of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Yura was covering the landings of the Malaya Invasion Force. In December 1941, Yura's squadron was sent to search for and attack "Force Z" (the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, battlecruiser HMS Repulse, and supporting destroyers). The Japanese submarine I-65 transmitted that she had spotted the British ships, but due to poor reception, the signal was unclear. Torpedo planes from the 22nd Air Flotilla based in Indochina sank the British vessels before Yura squadron could make contact. Yura covered the landings in Malaya and the island Borneo in December 1941. Yura returned to Indochina by the end of the year. During February 1942, Yura covered the invasion of Sumatra and Java in the Netherlands East Indies. In March 1942, Yura rescued the crew of the tanker Erimo (sunk by the submarine USS S-39). The rest of March she continued covering landings in Sumatra and the Andaman Islands.

During "Operation C" (the Indian Ocean Raid 31 March 10 through April 1942) the Japanese were divided into 2 groups the Strike Force consisting of Akagi (CV), Hiryū (CV-Flying Dragon), and Sōryū (CV-Green Dragon), Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Chikuma (CA), Tone (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 9 destroyers. And the Malay Force consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Chōkai (CA), Kumano (CA), Mikuma (CA), Mogami (CA), Suzuya (CA), Yura (CL), and 8 destroyers. The Allies were divided into 2 groups Force A (Fast Force) consisting of HMS Indomitable (CV-92), HMS Formidable (CV-67), HMS Warspite (BB-3)(Flagship), HMS Cornwall (CA-56), HMS Dorsetshire (CA-40), HMS Emerald (CL-D6), HMS Enterprise (CL-D2), and 6 destroyers. And Force B (Slow Force) consisting of HMS Hermes (CVL-95), HMS Resolution (BB-9)(Flagship), HMS Ramilles (BB-7), HMS Royal Sovereign (BB-5), HMS Revenge (BB-6), HMS Caledon (CL-D53), HMS Dragon (CL-D46), HNMS Jacob Van Heemskerck (CL), and 8 destroyers. The Japanese lost roughly 24 carrier planes and sank Hermes, Cornwall, Dorsetshire, 2 destroyers, and 23 merchant ships.

At the end of April, she returned to Japan for refit. At the Battle of Midway she was the flagship for the 7 destroyers of 4th Destroyer Sentai (squadron).

The Allies launch "Operation Watchtower" (the southern Solomon offensive August 7, 1942). The U.S. 1st Marine Division lands on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, and Guadalcanal beginning the campaign to retake the island.

On August 11, the Japanese Second Fleet's Advanced Force departs Japan for Truk consisting of Mutsu (BB), Atago (CA)(Flagship), Takao (CA), Maya (CA), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Yura (CL), the seaplane tender Chitose, and 9 destroyers. From another Japanese port the Jintsu (CL) and a destroyer depart for Truk where; on the night of August 12, they load troops and supplies.

The Japanese launch “Operation Ka” (the Japanese Counter Offensive in the Solomon Islands August 1942) to counter the U.S. landings on Guadalcanal and to sink Allied warships.

On August 16th the Japanese reinforcement convoy departs Truk for Guadalcanal in 3 echelons. The 1st echelon consisting of 6 destroyers carrying Colonel Ichiki's assault battalion from the 28th Infantry Regiment. The 2nd echelon consisting of Jintsu, 2 patrol boats, and 2 transports carrying the remaining 1,100 men of the 28th Infantry Regiment. The 3rd echelon consisting of 2 patrol boats and a fast transport carrying about 1,000 troops of the 5th Yokosuka SNLF. On August 17, the Second Fleet's Advance Force arrives at Truk.

On August 18th, 3 destroyers merge with the 2nd and 3rd echelons en-route to Guadalcanal. August 19th, a destroyer in the 1st echelon is damaged by 9 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. Later, the 1st echelon lands Colonel Ichiki's troops at Cape Taivu.

August 20th, the auxiliary aircraft carrier USS Long Island (ACV-1) catapult 19 F4F Wildcat fighters of U.S. Marine Fighter Squadron 223 (VMF-223) and 12 SBD Dauntless dive-bombers of U.S. Marine Scout-Bombing Squadron 232 (VMSB-232) of U.S. Marine Air Group 23 (MAG-23). These are the first aircraft to land on Henderson Field, home what would be informally known "the Cactus Air Force".

On August 21st, Colonel Ichiki's assault battalion attempts to charge across the Ilu River (often misnamed the Tenaru on U.S. Marine maps), to quickly recapture Guadalcanal's airfield. The U.S. Marines defending the river kill most of the attackers. His attack a failure Colonel Ichiki commits ritual suicide. The convoy commander receives orders from 11th Air Fleet headquarters to head north to avoid an U.S. task force. Soon, he receives orders from Eighth Fleet headquarters that orders them to change course to West-southwest. Faced with conflicting orders from local area command and fleet command, he is also plagued by atmospheric problems effecting communications to both headquarters. He changes course west northwest as a compromise. The convoy receives a signal that 20 U.S. carrier planes landed at Guadalcanal's airfield. That same day, Combined Fleet, orders the Advanced Force from Truk to rendezvous with the Third Fleet, en-route from Japan, consisting of Shōkaku (CV) and Zuikaku (CV), Ryūjō (CVL), Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Chikuma (CA), Tone (CA), Nagara (CL) and 3 destroyers, are scheduled to arrive at Truk. Combined Fleet orders them to refuel at sea and continue to Guadalcanal. That evening the convoy receives a signal from Eighth Fleet that the Second and Third Fleet's will support them.

On 22 August, 5 Bell P-400 Air Cobras of the Army's 67th Fighter Squadron land on Henderson Field. The Japanese convoy is spotted 200 miles North of Guadalcanal by a PBY Catalina flying boat.

During the Battle of the Eastern Solomon’s (August 23-25, 1942) the Japanese force was divided into 4 groups. The Vanguard Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Chikuma (CA), Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Nagara (CL), and 3 destroyers. The Main Body Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku(CV), and 6 destroyers. The Advanced Force seaplane tender Chitose, Atago (CA), Haguro (CA), Maya (CA), Myōkō (CA), Tako (CA), Yura (CL), and 6 destroyers. The Mobile Force Ryūjō (CV), Tone (CA), and 2 destroyers detached ahead of the Main Body. The U.S. force was divided into 4 Task Forces. Task Force 16 Enterprise (CV-6), North Carolina (BB-55), USS Portland (CA-33) USS Atlanta (CL-51), and 6 destroyers. Task Force 61 Saratoga (CV-3), USS Minneapolis (CA-36), USS New Orleans (CA-32), and 5 destroyers. the Japanese had Ryūjō, and 1 destroyer sunk with the seaplane tender Chitose damaged while the Enterprise was severely damaged on the U.S. side.

August 25, 150 miles North of Guadalcanal. 6 U.S. Marine SBD Dauntless dive-bombers attack the convoy. One transport is damaged by a near miss and one is hit and begins to sink. 2 destroyers and two patrol boats remove the embarked troops. A 500lb bomb hit Jintsu in the forecastle that started fires requiring her forward magazines to be flooded. B-17 Flying Fortress bombers sink a stationary old destroyer that is evacuating troops from the sinking transport. The convoy arrives at the Shortland Islands that night.

During the month of September 1942, while on patrol in the Solomon Islands, she was slightly damaged by a bomb from 2 USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress bombers.

The Battle of Santa Cruz (October 25-27, 1942) the Japanese attempted to end the stalemate at Guadalcanal with a major ground offensive supported by naval forces. They also hoped to decisively defeat any Allied naval forces responding to the offensive. The U.S. Forces wanted to lure the Japanese naval forces into a battle break the stalemate. The Japanese forces were in 8 groups. The Main Body consisting of Atago (CA), Maya (CA), Myōkō (CA), Tako (CA), Isuzu (CL), and 6 destroyers. The Air Group consisting of Junyō (CVL), and 2 destroyers. The Support Group consisting of Kongō (BB), Haruna (BB), and 2 destroyers. The Carrier Strike Force consisting of Shōkaku (CV), Zuikaku (CV), Zuihō (CVL), Kumano (CA), and 8 destroyers. The Vanguard Force consisting of Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Tone (CA), Chikuma (CA), Suzuya (CA), Nagara (CL), and 7 destroyers. The Supply Group consisting of a destroyer and 4 transport ships. The Assault Unit consisting of 3 destroyers. The Bombardment Unit consisting of Yura (CL), and 5 destroyers. The U.S. forces were in 2 groups. Task Force 16 consisting of Enterprise (CV-6), South Dakota (BB-57), Portland (CA-33), San Juan (CL-54), and 8 destroyers. Task Force 17 consisting of Hornet (CV-8), Northampton (CA-26), Pensacola (CA-24), San Diego (CL-53), Juneau (CL-52), and 6 destroyers. Hornet and a destroyer were sunk while Enterprise, South Dakota, San Juan were damaged. Shōkaku, Zuihō, and Chikuma were damaged. While the Japanese had won a tactical victory the loss of experienced aircrews and continued use of Henderson Field made the battle a strategic loss for them.

In October 1942, she takes part in the "Tokyo Express” reinforcement/supply operations to Guadalcanal. In October 1942, on the day before the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Yura was off Santa Isabel Island on a mission to bombard Guadalcanal. When 5 dive-bombers hit her with 2 bombs aft by the engine room. She flooded and she started settling by the stern. After receiving reports of the attack the bombardment mission was canceled. Yura's group reversed course back towards port. On the way back, Yura was attacked by 3 USAAF P-39 Airacobras and by four U.S. Marine dive-bombers, but these attacks failed to cause any damage. Yura was attacked again while attempting to beach her by 4 dive-bombers, 3 F4F Wildcats, and 4 P-39s. Soon after this attack, another 6 USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress bombers from Espiritu Santo attacked the Yura. The attacks re-ignited Yura's fires 2 destroyers took off her crew and torpedoed her. She broke in two and the forward portion sank. A Japanese destroyer had to sink the stern portion later off Savo Island by gunfire later. She was removed from the list in November 1942.

CL Natori (Named for the Natori river)(1922-1944)
Displacement: 5,088 tons. Dimensions: 163 x 14.8 x 4.9 meters. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers, Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h) Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) Crew: 438 Armament: 7 × 140mm single mount guns, 2 × 25mm AA guns. 6 x 13mm AA guns, 8 × 610mm torpedo tubes (4 double mounts), 48 mines, 1 floatplane, 1 catapult.

Natori was completed in September 1922. Soon after her commissioning she was based in China and covered landings there as the tension leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War continued to increase. After the border dispute between Siam and French Indochina in 1940 the Japanese-sponsored a "Conference for the Cessation of Hostilities" and a cease-fire between the governments of Vichy France and the Kingdom of Siam were signed aboard Natori in January 1941.

During "Operation M" (the invasion of the Philippines December 7, 1941) the Japanese 3rd Fleet Philippine Seizure Force was made up of 4 Surprise Attack Forces, The Lamon Bay Force, the Close Cover Force, and the South Philippines Support Force. The 1st Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at Aparri and Lingayen consisting of Natori (CL), 6 destroyers, 6 subchasers, 3 minesweepers, and 6 transports. Supported by the seaplane tender Sanuki Maru from the Close Cover Force. With the 2nd Formosa Regiment (less one battalion) and the Tanaka Detachment of the 48th Division. The 2nd Surprise Attack force departed the Formosa for landings at Vigan consisting of Naka (CL), 7 destroyers, and 6 transports. With the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Formosa Regiment (reinforced). The 3rd Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at the Batan Islands (not to be confused with the Bataan peninsula) consisting of a destroyer, several small craft, and 2 transport ships. With the 21st Engineer Regiment, the 14th Army Headquarters, and the 24th Airfield Battalion. The Fourth Surprise Attack or Legaspi Force departed the Palau Islands for landings at Legaspi consisting of Nagara (CL), 6 destroyers, seaplane tender Chitose, seaplane tender Mizuho, 2 minesweepers, and 7 transport ships. With elements of the 32nd Special Base Force, the 1st Kure Special Naval Landing force (SNLF), the 33rd Regiment (3,200 men), and the 22nd Field Artillery Regiment. The Lamon Bay Force departed the Naze, Japan for landings at Lamon Bay consisting of 2 minesweepers, 2 subchasers, 3 gunboats, a tanker, and 24 transport ships. With the 4 Tank Regiment and the 20th Regiment and the 33rd Regiment (9,000 men) of the16 Division. The Close Cover Force departed the Palau Islands to provide surface cover for the landings consisting of Ashigara (CA), Maya (CA), seaplane tender Sanyo Maru, Kuma (CL), and 2 destroyers. The South Philippines Support Force departed the Palau Islands to provide air cover for the landings consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Nachi (CA), Jintsu (CL), and 7 destroyers.

In December 1941 the 1st Surprise Attack force was attacked by 3 USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress bombers the minesweeper W-19 is sunk while Natori and an escorting destroyer are Slightly damaged with near misses. After minor repairs Natori returned to convoy duties in the Philippines. Late in December 1941, Natori (CL) and Kashii (CL) escort a convoy of 43 transports landing troops to attack Singapore.

In February 1942, Natori performed convoy duties during the invasion of the Netherlands East Indies and participated in the Battle of the Sunda Strait where the USS Huston (CA-30) and HMAS Perth (CL-D29) were sunk.

During “Operation X” (the Invasion of Christmas Island March 31, 1942) Naka (CL)(Flagship), Nagara (CL), Natori (CL), 8 destroyers, a tanker, and 2 transport ships made unopposed landings. The garrison of Indian soldiers having mutinied killed their British officer, 4 non-commissioned officers and treating to kill all Europeans. That day the submarine USS Seawolf (SS-197) fired four torpedoes at the Naka, but missed. Seawolf tried again with two more torpedoes the following day, and this time one hit to starboard near her No. 1 boiler. Natori towed the badly damaged Naka to Bantam Bay, Java for temporary repairs.

From April through the rest of the year, except for a brief refit, Natori was assigned escort and convoy duties in the Java Sea, Timor Sea, and Philippines areas. The submarine USS Tautog (SS-199) attacked Natori in January 1943. The Tautog hit the Natori in the stern. Which broke off carrying away her rudder. Natori quickly got underway again, at a reduced speed, and escaped.

In January 1943, a U.S. B-24 Liberator bomber damaged Natori with a near miss on her starboard side that caused flooding in the No. 2 boiler room. The damage was so severe it could not be repaired in the Celebes and was done in Singapore. By the time the repairs had been finished in May 1943 it was decided to have her return to Japan for modernization.

In Japan, Natori's No. 5 and No.7 140mm guns, catapult, and derrick were removed. And a Type 89 twin mount 127mm HA gun, 2 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA guns, a Type 21 air-search radar, and hydrophones were installed. This brought Natori's 25 mm AA suite to fourteen barrels (2 triple mounts, 2 double mounts, and 4 single mounts). Refitting was completed in April 1944.

Natori convoyed troops from Japan to the Philippines and then to the Palau Islands, arriving in June 1944 (the day before the Battle of the Philippine Sea). She remained in the Philippines from late June through August as a guard ship. Natori arrived in the Palau Islands in July 1944 to help evacuate 800 Japanese and Korean "comfort women" to Davao.

In August 1944 Natori was accompanying the transport T.3 to the Palau Islands when the submarine USS Hardhead (SS-365) spotted her east of the San Bernardino Straits. USS Hardhead identified the target as a battleship and closed for a surface attack. In Hardhead's 1st attack a torpedo hit the Natori in a portside boiler room stopping her dead in the water. In the 2nd attack a torpedo hit starboard amidships. Natori sank taking 330 crewmen with her. 2 Japanese destroyers rescued 194 survivors, and the submarine USS Stingray (SS-186) rescued 4 more on a rubber raft. In September 1944, almost a month later, the destroyer USS Marshall (DD-676) rescued another 44 Natori survivors in lifeboat. She was removed from the list in October 1944.

CL Kinu (Named for the "Kinugawa" river)(1922-1944)
Displacement: 5,088 tons. Dimensions: 163 x 14.8 x 4.9 meters. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers, Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h) Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) Crew: 438 Armament: 7 × 140mm single mount guns, 2 × 25mm AA guns. 6 x 13mm AA guns, 8 × 610mm torpedo tubes (4 double mounts), 48 mines, 1 floatplane, 1 catapult.

Kinugawa literally means “Angry Demon River”. Kinugawa's official mascots are a pair of cuddly oni (demons) named "Kinu", red-skinned with blond hair, and "Kawa", blue-skinned with brown hair. Both wear earrings; have a single fang, and a stubby horn poking out from their heads.

Kinu was completed in November 1922. From 1934-1935 the Japanese Navy largely used her as a training vessel. She was based in China in 1937-1938 and covered landings there as the tension leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War continued to increase.

At the time of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Kinu was covering the landings of the Malaya Invasion Force.

In December 1941, Kinu's squadron was sent to search for and attack "Force Z" (the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, battlecruiser HMS Repulse, and supporting destroyers). The Japanese submarine I-65 transmitted that she had spotted the British ships, but due to poor reception, the signal was unclear. Torpedo planes from the 22nd Air Flotilla based in Indochina sank the British vessels before Kinu's squadron could make contact. She covered the landings on the island in Malaya and Borneo in December 1941. Kinu returned to Indochina by the end of the year. During February 1942, Kinu covered the invasion of Sumatra and Java in the Netherlands East Indies. She continued to cover the landings in Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies from January through March 1942. Early in March her convoy was attacked in the Java Sea by 10 Vickers Vildebeest bombers and 15 fighters of the Australian and New Zealand Air Forces, which caused slight damage. The next day the submarine USS S-38 fired 4 torpedoes at Kinu but missed. Kinu was assigned to the "N" Expeditionary Force for the landings in New Guinea from March through April 1942. After which she returned to Japan for overhaul. She returned and patrolled the Java Sea, Timor Sea, and Netherlands East Indies from June through January 1943. In January 1943, Kinu escorted the damaged light cruiser Natori from the Celebes to Singapore for repairs. In June 1943, while the light cruisers Kinu, Kuma, Ōi, and Kitakami were docked in the Celebes. 17 USSAF B-24 Liberator bombers attacked the light cruisers. All four were straddled by near misses, but suffered only slight damage.

In August 1943, she was refitted in Japan. Her No. 5 and No.7 140-mm guns, catapult, and derrick were removed. And a twin 127-mm HA guns, 2 x Type 95 triple mount 25mm AA guns, Type 21 air search radar, and depth charge rails were added. This brought her 25mm AA total to 10 guns (2 triple mounts and 2 double mounts).

In January 1944 Aboa (CA), Kinu (CL), Ōi (CL), Kitakami (CL), and a destroyer convoyed troops to the Andaman Islands. While the convoy was returning HMS Templar (P316) hit Kitakami with 2 torpedoes. Kinu towed her to Angsa Bay, Malaya for emergency repairs. In February she towed Kitakami to Singapore for extensive repairs at Singapore.

In October 1944 while convoying troops in the Philippines the submarine USS Bream (SS-243) torpedoed the Aoba hitting her No. 2 engine room. Kinu towed Aoba to the Cavite for emergency repairs. The next day as Kinu left for Cagayan she was attacked by U.S. carrier planes that caused light damage and the loss of 47 crewmen.

In October 1944 while Kinu and a destroyer escorted a convoy of 5 transports in the Visayan Sea Kinu and the destroyer were repeated bombed, rocketed, and strafed by 75 to 80 carrier planes. In the 1st attack one carrier plane scored two direct bomb hits on Kinu and several rocket hits on the destroyer (which sank around noon). In the 2nd attack a bomb hit the aft engine room and set Kinu on fire. The Kinu sank by the stern and the Japanese transports rescued most of her crew of 813 men. She was removed from the list in December 1944.

CL Abukuma (Named for the Abukuma river)(1925-1944)
Displacement: 5,088 tons Dimensions: 163 x 14.8 x 4.9 meters. Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers, Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h) Range: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) Crew: 438 Armament: 7 × 140mm single mount guns, 2 × 25mm AA guns. 6 x 13mm AA guns, 8 × 610mm torpedo tubes (4 double mounts), 48 mines, 1 floatplane, 1 catapult.

Abukuma was completed in May 1925, its commissioning was delayed by the Great Kanto Earthquake. She was assigned to patrol the northern coasts of China after the Manchurian Incident in 1932. As the war in China escalated she covered landings of Japanese troops in central China through 1938.

Abukuma was part of the Carrier Strike Force in the Pearl Harbor attack and served as the flagship 1st Destroyer Sentai (squadron), which consisted of 8 destroyers. After Pearl Harbor most of the Carrier Strike Force along with Abukuma and her squadron returned to Japan where they were met with a hero's welcome.

From the squadron’s new base at Truk in January 1942 they escorted convoys to invade Rabaul and New Guinea.
Early in February 1942, the escorted the Carrier Strike Force in an unsuccessful pursuit of the Task Force (commanded by Vice Admiral William F. Halsey Jr.) after they raided the Marshall Islands. Late in February, still escorting the Carrier Strike Group they were part of the Port Darwin, Australia attack. At the end of February they attacked the Netherlands East Indies, Ceylon and other bases in the Indian Ocean, and Sunk the British aircraft carrier HMS Hermes.

The Battle of the Komandorski Islands (March 26, 1943) Maya (CA), Nachi (CA), Tama (CL), Abukuma (CL), and 5 destroyers were escorting 3 transports to Attu. When they ran into a U.S. Surface Task Group consisting of the Salt Lake City (CA), Richmond (CL), and 4 destroyers. Nachi (CA) hit several times and was badly damaged and one U.S. destroyer damaged. Vice Admiral Shiro Kawase ordered the Japanese to withdraw and aborted the mission. He was disgraced and forced to retire for retreating from an inferior force.

During "Operation AL" (the Battle of the Aleutian Islands June-August 1942) the Japanese ships were divided into 4 groups. The Northern Force consisting of Nachi (CA) and 2 destroyers. The Second Mobile Force consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Junyō (CVL), Maya (CA), Tako (CA), 3 destroyers, and 1 tanker. The Adak-Attu Occupation Force consisting of Abukuma (CL), 4 destroyers, 1 transport, and 1 mine layer. The Kiska Occupation Force consisting of Kiso (CL), Tama (CL), 1 Auxiliary Cruiser, 5 destroyers, 2 transport ships, 3 gunboats and 8 subchasers. The Seaplane Force: 1 seaplane carrier and 1 destroyer. From June through mid-December her squadron escorted 4 convoys to the newly conquered islands.
In mid-December 1942, she returned to Japan for refit the No. 5 140-mm gun and a 13mm quadruple mount AA gun were replaced with a 13mm double mount AA gun.

From April through May 1943, in Japan she had Type 21 air-search radar installed.

During "Operation KE" (the evacuation of Kiska July 29, 1943) her squadron supported the evacuation. While off Kuril Islands in September 1943, she was slightly damaged by near misses from USAAF B-24 Liberator and B-25 Mitchell bombers.

In October and November 1943, her No. 7 gun mount was removed. A Type 89 unshielded twin mount 127mm/40 HA gun, a Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA gun, and four 25mm single mount AA guns were installed. She resumed patrolling the Kurile Islands in December 1943 until June 1944.

From June through mid-July 1944 in Japan she was refitted with 10 x Type 96 single mount 25mm AA guns, 5 x Type 93 single mount 13-mm AA guns, and Type 22 surface-search radar.

In October 1944, Her squadron was ordered to attack the damaged USS Canberra (CA-70) and USS Huston (CL-81) of Task Force 38 that had been raiding the island of Formosa. But these orders were preempted due to the Battle of Leyte Gulf.

From October 15-22 she joined the 2nd Raiding Force. Six different U.S. submarines spotted this group and they all reported the course, speed, and position of the ships. Only the USS Seadragon (SS-194) was able to get close enough on the 22nd to attack but missed.

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944) was actually several battles consisting of:

The Battle of Palawan Passage (October 23, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) Yamato (BB), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Kumano (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tako (CA), Tone (CA), Noshiro (CL), Yahagi (CL), and 15 destroyers were attacked by the submarines USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227). Dace sank the Atago and Darter sank Maya.

The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (October 24, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) was attacked 11 times by over 250 carrier planes. Musashi was sunk. Yamato, Nagato, Tone, and 3 destroyers were damaged.

The Battle off Samar (October 25, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) attacked Taffy 3 (Task Group 77.43) the USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63)(by kamikaze attack), 2 destroyers, and a destroyer escort were sunk. USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70), USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71)(by kamikaze attack), a destroyer, and a destroyer escort were damaged. While on the Japanese side Suzuya, Chōkai, Chikuma were sunk. Kumano, Haguro, Tone were damaged. The Japanese withdrew thinking they faced a superior force.

The Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944) where carrier planes from the U.S. 3rd Fleet (commanded by Admiral W. F. "Bull" Halsey Jr.) were lured into attacking the last of the Japanese carrier forces. The Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force consisted of Zuikaku (CV), Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Ise (BB), Hyuga (BB), Ōyodo (CL), Isuzu (CL), Tama (CL), and 8 destroyers. Zuikaku, Chitose, Chiyoda, Zuihō, Tama, and 2 destroyers are sunk. Ise and Ōyodo are damaged.
The Battle of Surigao Strait (October 25, 1944) where “Force C” (Southern Force) consisting of the 1st Raiding Force Yamashiro (BB)(Flagship), Fuso (BB), Mogami (CA), and 4 destroyers and the 2nd Raiding Force consisting of the Nachi (CA), Ashigara (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 7 destroyers met the 7th Fleet Support Force consisting of West Virginia (BB-48), Maryland (BB-46), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43), California (BB-44), and Pennsylvina (BB-38), (all but the Mississippi having been sunk or damaged in the Attack on Pearl Harbor) Louisville (CA-28)(Flagship), USS Portland (CA-33), Minneapolis (CA-36), HMAS Shropshire (CA-73), Boise (CL-47), Columbia (CL-56), Denver (CL-58), Phoenix (CL-46), 29 destroyers, and 39 PT boats. Fuso, Yamashiro, Mogami and 3 destroyers were sunk. Nachi, Abukuma, and 1 destroyer are damaged. The 7th Fleet Support Force lost 1 PT boat sunk, 1 destroyer damaged (by friendly fire), and 3-4 PT boats damaged.

The Battle of Surigao Strait (early on the morning of October 25) the 2nd Raiding Force was attacked by PT-boats. A torpedo fired at a destroyer passed under her and hit the Abukuma in the No. 1 boiler room. She fell behind but after emergency repairs managed to make 20 knots and catch up to the rest of the ships. She was down by the bow and shipping several tons of water. She was ordered to Dapitan, western Mindanao escorted by a destroyer.

On October 26, USAAF B-24 Liberator bombers attacked Abukuma 3 times. She first took a direct hit near the No. 3 140mm turret; then she took two direct hits further aft that started heavy fires. Due to the fires she lost steering and her speed started to drop. The fire spread to the aft engine room and then set off 4 Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes. Abandon ship was ordered and a destroyer rescued 283 crewmen. She sank by the stern with 250 of her crew. She was removed from the list in December 1944.

Ōyodo Class: Ōyodo (Named for the Ōyodo river)(1943-1945), Niyodo/Niyoyodo (not completed), Takachiho (1885-1914), Saien (1895-1904)

CL Ōyodo (Named for the Ōyodo river)(1943-1945)
Displacement: 8,164 tons Dimensions: 192 x 15.7 x 5.95 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35 knots (64 km/h) Range: 10,600 nautical miles (19,610 km) @ 18 knots (33 km/h) Crew: 782 (initially); 911 (final) Armament: 6 × 155 mm/60 (3 dual mounts), 8 × Type 98 100mm/65 AA guns (4 dual mounts), 12 × Type 96 25mm/60 AA guns, 6 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

The Ōyodo light cruiser design was approved under the 4th Replenishment Program of 1939 as a larger improved version of the Agano class to be flagships for submarine groups. Plans were made to have eight vessels built of this class. 2 ships were actually authorized and only the Ōyodo was completed. The second ship would have been named Niyodo but construction was never started. After the completion of Ōyodo, all available shipbuilding resources at were assigned to building aircraft carriers.

The light cruiser Ōyodo was completed in April 1942. In December 1943 she reinforced troops on Kavieng, New Ireland. In January 1944 while returning to Truk she was slightly damaged by U.S. carrier planes. In February 1944, The Japanese ordered surface units to withdraw from Truk. Japanese intelligence knew about "Operation Hailstone" (the USN plan to launch carrier raids to reduce Truk).

In March 1944 Ōyodo under went refit. She had been design to carry 6 x high-speed Kawanishi E15K1 (Norm) floatplanes, which were found to be slower than expected. It was then decided to equip her with a shorter catapult and two Aichi E16A1 (Paul) floatplanes but they could not be delivered in time. So instead 2 standard Type O Aichi E13A1 (Jake) floatplanes are installed. The seaplane hangar was converted to living quarters, the forward crews' quarters in the part of the ship are converted to use by staff, and catapult replaced. 6 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA guns, 11 x Type 96 single mount 25mm AA guns, and Type 22 surface-search radar were installed.

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944) was actually several battles consisting of:

The Battle of Palawan Passage (October 23, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) Yamato (BB), Haruna (BB), Kongō (BB), Musashi (BB), Nagato (BB), Atago (CA), Chikuma (CA), Chōkai (CA), Haguro (CA), Kumano (CA), Maya (CA), Suzuya (CA), Tako (CA), Tone (CA), Noshiro (CL), Yahagi (CL), and 15 destroyers were attacked by the submarines USS Dace (SS-247) and USS Darter (SS-227). Dace sank the Atago and Darter sank Maya.

The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea (October 24, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) was attacked 11 times by over 250 carrier planes. Musashi was sunk. Yamato, Nagato, Tone, and 3 destroyers were damaged.

The Battle off Samar (October 25, 1944) where Admiral Kurita's "Force A" (Center Force) attacked Taffy 3 (Task Group 77.43) the USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63)(by kamikaze attack), 2 destroyers, and a destroyer escort were sunk. USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70), USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71)(by kamikaze attack), a destroyer, and a destroyer escort were damaged. While on the Japanese side Suzuya, Chōkai, Chikuma were sunk. Kumano, Haguro, Tone were damaged. The Japanese withdrew thinking they faced a superior force.

The Battle off Engaño (October 25, 1944) where carrier planes from the U.S. 3rd Fleet (commanded by Admiral W. F. "Bull" Halsey Jr.) were lured into attacking the last of the Japanese carrier forces. The Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force consisted of Zuikaku (CV), Chitose (CVL), Chiyoda (CVL), Zuihō (CVL), Ise (BB), Hyuga (BB), Ōyodo (CL), Isuzu (CL), Tama (CL), and 8 destroyers. Zuikaku, Chitose, Chiyoda, Zuihō, Tama, and 2 destroyers are sunk. Ise and Ōyodo are damaged.
The Battle of Surigao Strait (October 25, 1944) where “Force C” (Southern Force) consisting of the 1st Raiding Force Yamashiro (BB)(Flagship), Fuso (BB), Mogami (CA), and 4 destroyers and the 2nd Raiding Force consisting of the Nachi (CA), Ashigara (CA), Abukuma (CL), and 7 destroyers met the 7th Fleet Support Force consisting of West Virginia (BB-48), Maryland (BB-46), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43), California (BB-44), and Pennsylvina (BB-38), (all but the Mississippi having been sunk or damaged in the Attack on Pearl Harbor) Louisville (CA-28)(Flagship), USS Portland (CA-33), Minneapolis (CA-36), HMAS Shropshire (CA-73), Boise (CL-47), Columbia (CL-56), Denver (CL-58), Phoenix (CL-46), 29 destroyers, and 39 PT boats. Fuso, Yamashiro, Mogami and 3 destroyers were sunk. Nachi, Abukuma, and 1 destroyer are damaged. The 7th Fleet Support Force lost 1 PT boat sunk, 1 destroyer damaged (by friendly fire), and 3-4 PT boats damaged.

Assigned to the Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force she was the only ship with floatplanes to provide reconnaissance and anti-submarine patrols. During the Battle off Engaño, they were attacked by 5 carrier strikes. Ōyodo suffered 2 near misses and 1 hit that damaged her Number 4 boiler room. Vice Admiral Ozawa transferred his flag from the sinking Zuikaku (CV) and ordered the force to retire northward. Later that day, USN F6F Hellcat fighter-bombers hit her with 2 rockets and a near miss from a bomb. The surviving ships of the Northern Mobile Force arrived at the Ryukyu Islands the next day.
For the remainder of 1944, she is involved in numerous operations in Brunei, French Indochina, and the Philippines. In January 1945, She joined the "Completion Force" where she loaded 300 tons of needed war materials. On the way back to Japan this force was pursued by 23 Allied submarines. The Completion Force arrived at Kure, Japan in February 1945.
In March 1945, the first Allied carrier raid struck Kure with over 240 carrier planes. Three 500lb bomb hits caused flooding and Ōyodo had to be beached.

In July the Allies started daylong attacks to destroy all Japanese Navy ships. The first day Ōyodo was strafed and 4 hits by 500lb bombs and many near misses left her listing to starboard. Four days later, 4 bombs that caused extensive flooding hit Ōyodo and she took on a heavy list to starboard. Soon she capsized in shallow water and her remaining crew abandoned ship that afternoon. She was removed from the list in November 1945.

Her wreck was raised in September 1947 and towed to Kure on in December 1947. She was scrapped at the shipyard where she was completed.

CL Niyodo/Niyoyodo (Named for the Niyodo river)(not completed)
Displacement: 8,164 tons Dimensions: 192 x 15.7 x 5.95 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35 knots (64 km/h) Range: 10,600 nautical miles (19,610 km) @ 18 knots (33 km/h) Crew: 782 (initially); 911 (final) Armament: 6 × 155 mm/60 (3 dual mounts), 8 × Type 98 100mm/65 AA guns (4 dual mounts), 12 × Type 96 25mm/60 AA guns, 6 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

This ship represents a ship that was proposed but never built. The Ōyodo light cruiser design was approved under the 4th Replenishment Program of 1939 as a larger improved version of the Agano class to be flagships for submarine groups. Plans were made to have eight vessels built of this class. 2 ships were actually authorized and only the Ōyodo was completed. The second ship would have been named Niyodo but construction was never started. After the completion of Ōyodo, all available shipbuilding resources were assigned to building aircraft carriers.

CL Takachiho (1885-1914)
Displacement: 8,164 tons Dimensions: 192 x 15.7 x 5.95 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35 knots (64 km/h) Range: 10,600 nautical miles (19,610 km) @ 18 knots (33 km/h) Crew: 782 (initially); 911 (final) Armament: 6 × 155 mm/60 (3 dual mounts), 8 × Type 98 100mm/65 AA guns (4 dual mounts), 12 × Type 96 25mm/60 AA guns, 6 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

This ship represents a ship that was proposed but never built. The Ōyodo light cruiser design was approved under the 4th Replenishment Program of 1939 as a larger improved version of the Agano class to be flagships for submarine groups. Plans were made to have eight vessels built of this class. 2 ships were actually authorized and only the Ōyodo was completed. The second ship would have been named Niyodo but construction was never started. After the completion of Ōyodo, all available shipbuilding resources at were assigned to building aircraft carriers.

The real Takachiho was one of the first protected cruisers designed by a Japanese and built in England. Designed by Sasō Sachū it was based on the best features of several ships of the time period. In 1893 she made 2 voyages to Hawaii to protect Japanese citizens after the Hawaiian Queen Lili'uokalani was overthrown. During the First Sino-Japanese War {August 1, 1894 - April 17, 1895}, which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty. She took part in the Battle of the Yellow Sea (1894) between the Chinese and Japanese navies. Afterwards she patrolled the Yellow Sea. Having been downgraded to a 2nd class cruiser in March of 1998. She served in the "Boxer Rebellion" (November 1899-September 7, 1901) covering Japanese landings in China. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) she was considered to lightly armed and armored. Never the less she was present at the Battle of Chemulpo Bay off the coast of Inchon, Korea and the Battle of Tsushima. She was later downgraded to a 2nd class coastal defense ship and then a minelayer/mine recovery ship. Early in World War I the Imperial German Navy torpedo boat S90 hit her wit 3 torpedoes during the Battle of Tsingtao. She sank taking with her 271 men, the largest single loss of the entire war.

CL Saien (1895-1904)
Displacement: 8,164 tons Dimensions: 192 x 15.7 x 5.95 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft geared Turbines, 12 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35 knots (64 km/h) Range: 10,600 nautical miles (19,610 km) @ 18 knots (33 km/h) Crew: 782 (initially); 911 (final) Armament: 6 × 155 mm/60 (3 dual mounts), 8 × Type 98 100mm/65 AA guns (4 dual mounts), 12 × Type 96 25mm/60 AA guns, 6 x floatplanes, 1 catapult.

This ship represents a ship that was proposed but never built. The Ōyodo light cruiser design was approved under the 4th Replenishment Program of 1939 as a larger improved version of the Agano class to be flagships for submarine groups. Plans were made to have eight vessels built of this class. 2 ships were actually authorized and only the Ōyodo was completed. The second ship would have been named Niyodo but construction was never started. After the completion of Ōyodo, all available shipbuilding resources at were assigned to building aircraft carriers.

The real Saien was a protected cruiser, originally built for the Qing dynasty in Germany under the name Jiyuan (Chinese Aka: Tche-Yuen, Tsi-yuan, and Chiyuan; Japanese Aka: Saiyen).

During the First Sino-Japanese War {August 1, 1894 - April 17, 1895}, which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty. She took part in the Battle of Pungdo (July 5, 1894) and the Battle of the Yellow Sea (1894) between the Chinese and Japanese navies. She was captured by the Japanese during the Battle of Weihaiwei (February 12, 1895) and commissioned as Saien a 2nd class cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy on March 16, 1895. She was downgraded to a 3rd class coastal defense ship in November 1904. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) she was assigned to blockade duties at the Battle of Port Arthur, where a mine sank her.

Sendai Class: Sendai (Named for the Sendai river)(1924-1943), Jintsu (Named for the Jinzū river)(1925-1943), and Naka (Named for the Naka river)(1925-1944)

CL Sendai (Named for the Sendai river)(1924-1943)
Displacement: 5195 tons Dimensions: 152.4 x 14.2 x 4.9 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Parsons geared turbines, 10 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35.3 knots (65 km/h) Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h) Crew: 452 Armament: 7 × 140/50mm guns (7 x 1), 2 × 80/40mm guns, 4 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 48 mines, 1 x Floatplane, 1 catapult.

Sendai was completed in April 1924. Immediately she was assigned to patrol the coasts of China and provided coverage for Japanese transports during the Battle of Shanghai (the first of 22 major engagements fought between the Nationalists Chinese and the Japanese).

At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, Sendai and 4 destroyers were escorting a convoy to invade Kota Bharu, Malaya. The convoy, after bombarding and landing troops, is attacked by 7 RAAF Hudson bombers, which sink a transport and damage 2 others.

In December 1941, Sendai's squadron was sent to search for and attack "Force Z" (the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, battlecruiser HMS Repulse, and supporting destroyers). The Japanese submarine I-65 transmitted that she had spotted the British ships, but due to poor reception, the signal was unclear. Torpedo planes from the 22nd Air Flotilla based in Indochina sank the British vessels before Sendai's squadron could make contact.

The Battle off Endau (January 1942) the destroyers HMAS Vampire and old WW1 HMS Thanet are ordered to make a night attack on transports at Endau, about 80 miles North of Singapore. As they approaching Endau, they engaged minesweeper W-1 that they believed to be a destroyer. The Vampire missed W-1 with 2 torpedoes. W-1 sent out a warning as the Allied destroyers continued towards Endau. About a half hour later Vampire and Thanet attacked a destroyer. They both fired 2 torpedoes but missed and then opened fire with their 4-inch guns. Sendai and the destroyer returned fire and the Allied destroyers withdrew at maximum speed toward Singapore. About 30 minutes later the Thanet was hit in the engine and boiler rooms, which slowed her speed. An explosion brought her dead in the water, listing heavily to starboard, and she began to sink. Vampire laid a smoke screen, but 5 destroyers and W-1 attack Thanet. HMS Thanet sank. Vampire having no chance to pick up survivors and made for Singapore. 2 Japanese transports had been damaged in the action. Later, one of the Japanese destroyers picked up 31 survivors from HMS Thanet. They were never seen again.

During "Operation L" (the Invasion of Palembang and Banka Island, Sumatra March 1, 1942) her squadron escorted and covered the landings made by 8 transports. Her squadron then patrols the Strait of Malacca for Allied vessels fleeing Singapore.

During "Operation T" (the Invasion of Northern Sumatra March 12, 1942), her squadron covered the landings at Sabang and Kutaradja.

During "Operation D" (the Invasion of the Andaman Islands March 23, 1942) her squadron covered the unopposed landings at Port Blair.

During "Operation C" (the Indian Ocean Raid 31 March 10 through April 1942) her squadron covered the Andaman Islands.

During "Operation MI" (the Battle of Midway June 4, 1942) her squadron screened the Main Body, which did not engage the U.S. forces.

The Allies launch "Operation Watchtower" (the southern Solomon offensive August 7, 1942). The U.S. 1st Marine Division lands on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, and Guadalcanal beginning the campaign to retake the island. Sendai convoys troops to Rabaul, the Shortland Islands, and Bougainville.

In September 1942, she supports landings on Guadalcanal and shells Tulagi and "Bloody Ridge" near Henderson Field. Sendai with 4 destroyers search for an Allied convoy landing troops at Guadalcanal, Unable to locate the convoy, they bombard U.S. Marine positions at Lunga Point. In October 1942, Sendai (CL), Yura (CL), seaplane tender Nisshin, and 4 destroyers land 1,100 troops at Cape Experience on Guadalcanal.

The 1st Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (November 13, 1942) she provided distant cover from North of Santa Isabel Island for the Bombardment force against Henderson Field.

The 2nd Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (November 15, 1942) after the loss of the battleship Hiei, an Emergency Bombardment Force is formed with Kirishima (BB), Atago (CA), Takao (CA), Nagara (CL), and 6 destroyers. Sendai (CL) and 3 destroyers form a sweeping force in front of the bombardment force. The USS Washington (BB-56) and South Dakota (BB-57), lead by 4 destroyers, approached Guadalcanal in a column on a Northerly course. The Washington detected the Japanese at 18,000 yards bearing East of Savo Island. The Washington opened fire on the Sendai with her 16-inch guns and Sendai made smoke and retired undamaged. The Nagara and destroyers launched "Long Lance" torpedoes and opened fire at the South Dakota. During the battle the South Dakota had over 30 torpedoes fired at her but none hit. The Washington managed to get within 8,400 yards of Kirishima undetected. And hit Kirishima with 8 or 9 of 75 armor-piercing radar-directed 16-inch shells. This set the Kirishima on fire, disabled 2 of her 14-inch turrets, damaged her below the waterline, destroyed her rudder, and caused her to list to starboard. She began circling until she was scuttled and capsized. The U.S. had 2 destroyers sunk and 2 damaged (one so badly it was scuttled the next evening). The Japanese lost the Kirishima and a destroyer.

In Japan May/June 1943, Sendai was refitted the No.5 140/50mm gun mount was removed and 2 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA guns and Type 21 radar were installed.

In July 1943, U.S. Marine torpedo bombers attacked Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Chōkai (CA), Sendai (CL), and 4 destroyers (used as fast transports). Kumano and Chōkai are damaged by near misses from 2000lb bombs dropped by radar. Later that month the transport group is skip-bombed by B-25 Mitchell bombers 2 destroyers are sunk with all hands.
in July 1943, the group was attacked by U.S. Marine torpedo-bombers from Guadalcanal, and two days later by B-25 Mitchell bombers but was not damaged. In November 1943, a B-24 Liberator bomber attacked her but failed to damage her.

To counter the U.S. landings in Bougainville a Japanese force with 1,000 Japanese reinforcements is sent from Rabaul.
The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay (November 1943) a Japanese force consisting of the Myōkō (CA), Haguro (CA), Sendai (CL), and 7 destroyers while supporting Agano (CL) and 3 destroyers (acting as fast transports). Is intercepted by Task Force 39's Cruiser Division 12 consisted of the radar-equipped USS Cleveland (CL-55), Columbia (CL-56), USS Montpelier (CL-57) and USS Denver (CL-58), and 8 destroyers. A Japanese destroyer sighted the U.S. destroyers at 7,500 yards (6,900m), turned hard starboard and launched 8 torpedoes. Sendai also turned hard starboard, and barely avoided colliding. All 4 Allied cruisers took Sendai under radar directed 6-inch fire. The U.S. ships hit her from the first salvo until the battle ended with her a wreck and on fire. A Japanese destroyer was sunk during the battle. Japanese destroyers rescue 236 of the Sendai’s crew and the Japanese withdraw to Rabaul.

Sendai sank the following morning with 184 of her crew. The next day 75 more were rescued by Japanese submarine RO-104. She was removed from the list in January 1944.

CL Jintsu (Named for the Jinzū river)(1925-1943)
Displacement: 5195 tons Dimensions: 152.4 x 14.2 x 4.9 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Parsons geared turbines, 10 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35.3 knots (65 km/h) Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h) Crew: 452 Armament: 7 × 140/50mm guns (7 x 1), 2 × 80/40mm guns, 4 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 48 mines, 1 x Floatplane, 1 catapult.

Jintsu was completed in July 1925. In 1928, Jintsu was assigned to cover landings of Japanese troops in the Chinese province of Shandong during the Jinan Incident (May 1927-May 1928).

During "Operation M" (the invasion of the Philippines December 7, 1941) the Japanese 3rd Fleet Philippine Seizure Force was made up of 4 Surprise Attack Forces, The Lamon Bay Force, the Close Cover Force, and the South Philippines Support Force. The 1st Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at Aparri and Lingayen consisting of Natori (CL), 6 destroyers, 6 subchasers, 3 minesweepers, and 6 transports. Supported by the seaplane tender Sanuki Maru from the Close Cover Force. With the 2nd Formosa Regiment (less one battalion) and the Tanaka Detachment of the 48th Division. The 2nd Surprise Attack force departed the Formosa for landings at Vigan consisting of Naka (CL), 7 destroyers, and 6 transports. With the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Formosa Regiment (reinforced). The 3rd Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at the Batan Islands (not to be confused with the Bataan peninsula) consisting of a destroyer, several small craft, and 2 transport ships. With the 21st Engineer Regiment, the 14th Army Headquarters, and the 24th Airfield Battalion. The Fourth Surprise Attack or Legaspi Force departed the Palau Islands for landings at Legaspi consisting of Nagara (CL), 6 destroyers, seaplane tender Chitose, seaplane tender Mizuho, 2 minesweepers, and 7 transport ships. With elements of the 32nd Special Base Force, the 1st Kure Special Naval Landing force (SNLF), the 33rd Regiment (3,200 men), and the 22nd Field Artillery Regiment. The Lamon Bay Force departed the Naze, Japan for landings at Lamon Bay consisting of 2 minesweepers, 2 subchasers, 3 gunboats, a tanker, and 24 transport ships. With the 4 Tank Regiment and the 20th Regiment and the 33rd Regiment (9,000 men) of the16 Division. The Close Cover Force departed the Palau Islands to provide surface cover for the landings consisting of Ashigara (CA), Maya (CA), seaplane tender Sanyo Maru, Kuma (CL), and 2 destroyers. The South Philippines Support Force departed the Palau Islands to provide air cover for the landings consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Nachi (CA), Jintsu (CL), and 7 destroyers.

During "Operation H" (The Invasion of Celebes, Netherlands East Indies January 11, 1942) the Netherlands East Indies Seizure Force departs Davao. The No. 2 Escort Unit: the Jintsu (CL) and 10 destroyers escort Nagara (CL) and a convoy of 10 transports. Air cover is provided by seaplane tenders Mizuho and Chitose. The Nachi (CA), Haguro (CA), and 2 destroyers provide the surface cover force. The 1st Sasebo SNLF lands on Kema and Menado in the Celebes and 334 men of the 1st Yokosuka SNLF (Air) successfully Paradrop, from Mitsubishi G3M1-L Nell converted transport aircraft, and seize Langoan airfield. One of Jintsu's Kawanishi E7k2 (Alf) floatplanes shoots down a Dutch A-29 Hudson bomber. But the floatplane is soon shot down as well. In early February 1942, Jintsu was assigned to the invasion force for Ambon Island, Dutch (West) Timor, Portuguese (East) Timor, and Eastern Java.

The Battle of the Java Sea (February 27, 1942) a Japanese force consisting of Nachi (CA), Haguro (CA), Jintsu (CL) and Naka (CL), and 14 destroyers. Engaged a mixed Allied force consisting of USS Houston (CA-30) and 4 old destroyers the British HMS Exeter (CA-68) and Australian HMAS Perth (CL-D29), and 3 destroyers the Dutch HNMS De Ruyter (CL)(Flagship), HNMS Java (CL), and 2 destroyers. The Japanese launched floatplanes from Nachi, Jintsu, and Naka to mark the Allied positions and act as spotters. Naka and 6 destroyers launched 43 Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes but miss. A 203mm shell from the Haguro set the Exeter on fire. The Haguro blows up a Dutch destroyer with a torpedo. Jintsu and destroyers launched 72 Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes that missed. A Japanese destroyer sank a British destroyer in a gun battle. A Dutch mine sank a British destroyer. The HNMS Java's stern breaks off after a torpedo hit. The HNMS De Ruyter was hit by a torpedo from the Haguro causing a complete power failure and started fires aft. The De Ruyter remained afloat for hours but the fire could not be extinguished due to the power failure. The Java sinks with the loss of 512 crewmembers. The Houston and Perth withdrew to Java and the Japanese left the area. The De Ruyter sank early the next day with the loss of 344 crewmen. At mid-day, the submarine USS S-37 approached an open boat from De Ruyter carrying 60 Allied survivors. She could not accommodate all of those in the boat and finding no wounded she took on two U.S. sailors who performed signals liaison on De Ruyter. She left supplies and transmitted an encrypted message to ABDA (American-British-Dutch-Australian) Command headquarters with the boats location and resumed her patrol. Later, the submarine USS S-38 rescued 54 British destroyer crewmen. During the next 2 days, Japanese Naval and air units sank Houston, Perth, Exeter, and 3 destroyers.

During "Operation MI" (the Battle of Midway June 4, 1942) the Midway Invasion Force departed Saipan consisting of the seaplane carrier Chitose, the seaplane tender Kamikawa Maru, Jintsu's squadron, a tanker, and 12 transports. The transports carry an airfield construction unit, Colonel Ichiki 's 28th Infantry Regiment and 2 SNLF battalions. The day before the battle 9 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers attack the convoy but miss. Later, PBY Catalina flying boats hit the tanker with a torpedo. After the loss of the Japanese aircraft carriers Akagi (CV), Kaga (CV), Hiryū (CV-Flying Dragon), and Sōryū (CV-Green Dragon) the Invasion Force retired to Truk.

The Allies launch "Operation Watchtower" (the southern Solomon offensive August 7, 1942). The U.S. 1st Marine Division lands on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, and Guadalcanal beginning the campaign to retake the island.
On August 11, the Japanese Second Fleet's Advanced Force departs Japan for Truk consisting of the Mutsu (BB), Atago (CA)(Flagship), Takao (CA), Maya (CA), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Yura (CL), the seaplane tender Chitose, and 9 destroyers. From another Japanese port the Jintsu (CL) and a destroyer depart for Truk where; on the night of August 12, they load troops and supplies.

On August 16th the Japanese reinforcement convoy departs Truk for Guadalcanal in 3 echelons. The 1st echelon consisting of 6 destroyers carrying Colonel Ichiki's assault battalion from the 28th Infantry Regiment. The 2nd echelon consisting of Jintsu, 2 patrol boats, and 2 transports carrying the remaining 1,100 men of the 28th Infantry Regiment. The 3rd echelon consisting of 2 patrol boats and a fast transport carrying about 1,000 troops of the 5th Yokosuka SNLF. On August 17, the Second Fleet's Advance Force arrives at Truk.

On August 18th, 3 destroyers merge with the 2nd and 3rd echelons en-route to Guadalcanal. August 19th, a destroyer in the 1st echelon is damaged by 9 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. Later, the 1st echelon lands Colonel Ichiki's troops at Cape Taivu.

August 20th, the auxiliary aircraft carrier USS Long Island (ACV-1) catapult 19 F4F Wildcat fighters of U.S. Marine Fighter Squadron 223 (VMF-223) and 12 SBD Dauntless dive-bombers of U.S. Marine Scout-Bombing Squadron 232 (VMSB-232) of U.S. Marine Air Group 23 (MAG-23). These are the first aircraft to land on Henderson Field, home what would be informally known "the Cactus Air Force".

On August 21st, Colonel Ichiki's assault battalion attempts to charge across the Ilu River (often misnamed the Tenaru on U.S. Marine maps), to quickly recapture Guadalcanal's airfield. The U.S. Marines defending the river kill most of the attackers. His attack a failure Colonel Ichiki commits ritual suicide. The convoy commander receives orders from 11th Air Fleet headquarters to head north to avoid an U.S. task force. Soon, he receives orders from Eighth Fleet headquarters that orders them to change course to West-southwest. Faced with conflicting orders from local area command and fleet command, he is also plagued by atmospheric problems effecting communications to both headquarters. He changes course west northwest as a compromise. The convoy receives a signal that 20 U.S. carrier planes landed at Guadalcanal's airfield. That same day, Combined Fleet, orders the Advanced Force from Truk to rendezvous with the Third Fleet, en-route from Japan, consisting of the aircraft carriers Shōkaku and Zuikaku, the light aircraft carrier Ryūjō, the Hiei (BB), Kirishima (BB), Kumano (CA), Suzuya (CA), Chikuma (CA), Tone (CA), Nagara (CL) and 3 destroyers, are scheduled to arrive at Truk. Combined Fleet orders them to refuel at sea and continue to Guadalcanal. That evening the convoy receives a signal from the 8th Fleet that the 2nd and 3rd Fleet's will support them.

On 22 August, 5 Bell P-400 Air Cobras of the Army's 67th Fighter Squadron land on Henderson Field. The Japanese convoy is spotted 200 miles North of Guadalcanal by a PBY Catalina flying boat.

The Battle of the Eastern Solomon’s (August 22, 1942) the convoy sights the Ryūjō (CVL), Tone (CA) and 2 destroyers. Ryūjō launches 2 strikes against Henderson Field. Planes from the USS Saratoga (CV-3) hit Ryūjō with four bombs and a torpedo that floods her starboard engine room. Later Ryūjō capsizes and sinks. The Shōkaku (CV) and Zuikaku (CV) attack and damage the USS Enterprise (CV-6). Planes from Saratoga damage the seaplane tender Chitose that evening. That night, five destroyers shell Henderson Field then withdraw northward to join the convoy.

August 25, 150 miles North of Guadalcanal. 6 U.S. Marine SBD Dauntless dive-bombers attack the convoy. One transport was damaged by a near miss and one is hit and began to sink. 2 destroyers and 2 patrol boats remove the embarked troops. A 500lb bomb hit Jintsu in the forecastle that started fires requiring her forward magazines to be flooded. B-17 Flying Fortress bombers sink a stationary old destroyer that is evacuating troops from the sinking transport. The convoy arrives at the Shortland Islands that night.

Escorted by a destroyer, Jintsu arrives at Truk where she undergoes emergency repairs for over a month.

In October 1942 she was refitted in Japan 2 x Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA guns are installed.

During "Operation KE" (The evacuation of Guadalcanal August 1942-February 1943) in January 1943, She patrolled North of Guadalcanal covering the evacuation.

On July 8, 1943 Jintsu (CL), 5 destroyers, and 4 destroyers (acting as fast transports) depart Rabaul carrying 1,200 troops for Kolombangara Island, New Georgia. On July 11, 1943 she launched a floatplane to reconnoiter the Kula Gulf, which radioed sighting an Allied cruiser force.

The Battle of Kolombangara (July 12, 1943) E27 radar on Jintsu and a destroyer then detected the Allied ships 30 minutes before they could be seen. This was Task Group 36.1 USS Honolulu (CL-48)(Flagship), St. Louis (CL-49), HMNZS Leander, and 10 destroyers. The Japanese launched 31 Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes at the Allied force. Jintsu then illuminated the Allied ships with her searchlights. The Allied destroyers launched torpedoes and Jintsu received very accurate radar controlled fire from the Honolulu, St. Louis, and Leander. At least ten 6-inch shells from the Allied cruisers hit Jintsu and set her on fire. The squadron’s Admiral, the ships Captain, and the ships Executive Officer were killed and a torpedo hit her in the aft engine room. A Japanese destroyer torpedoed and sank an Allied destroyer. Leander was severely damaged. She was hit in the engine room, the boiler room, and had a 4-inch gun destroyed. St. Louis had her bow twisted by a torpedo hit. During the battle, 2 destroyers glance off each other causing one of them slight flooding and light damage to the stern. Jintsu broke in two and sank with 482 of her crew. The U.S. rescued a few of her crew and later the Japanese submarine I-180 arrives and rescues 21 more. But the Japanese successfully land 1,200 troops, so the Battle of Kolombangara is a major defeat for the Allies. She was removed form the list in September 1943.

CL Naka (Named for the Naka river)(1925-1944)
Displacement: 5195 tons Dimensions: 152.4 x 14.2 x 4.9 meters Propulsion: 4-shaft Parsons geared turbines, 10 Kampon boilers. Speed: 35.3 knots (65 km/h) Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h) Crew: 452 Armament: 7 × 140/50mm guns (7 x 1), 2 × 80/40mm guns, 4 × 610 mm torpedo tubes (4 dual mounts), 48 mines, 1 x Floatplane, 1 catapult.

Naka was completed in November 1925.

During "Operation M" (the invasion of the Philippines December 7, 1941) the Japanese 3rd Fleet Philippine Seizure Force was made up of 4 Surprise Attack Forces, The Lamon Bay Force, the Close Cover Force, and the South Philippines Support Force. The 1st Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at Aparri and Lingayen consisting of Natori (CL), 6 destroyers, 6 subchasers, 3 minesweepers, and 6 transports. Supported by the seaplane tender Sanuki Maru from the Close Cover Force. With the 2nd Formosa Regiment (less one battalion) and the Tanaka Detachment of the 48th Division. The 2nd Surprise Attack force departed the Formosa for landings at Vigan consisting of Naka (CL), 7 destroyers, and 6 transports. With the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Formosa Regiment (reinforced). The 3rd Surprise Attack force departed Formosa for landings at the Batan Islands (not to be confused with the Bataan peninsula) consisting of a destroyer, several small craft, and 2 transport ships. With the 21st Engineer Regiment, the 14th Army Headquarters, and the 24th Airfield Battalion. The Fourth Surprise Attack or Legaspi Force departed the Palau Islands for landings at Legaspi consisting of Nagara (CL), 6 destroyers, seaplane tender Chitose, seaplane tender Mizuho, 2 minesweepers, and 7 transport ships. With elements of the 32nd Special Base Force, the 1st Kure Special Naval Landing force (SNLF), the 33rd Regiment (3,200 men), and the 22nd Field Artillery Regiment. The Lamon Bay Force departed the Naze, Japan for landings at Lamon Bay consisting of 2 minesweepers, 2 subchasers, 3 gunboats, a tanker, and 24 transport ships. With the 4 Tank Regiment and the 20th Regiment and the 33rd Regiment (9,000 men) of the16 Division. The Close Cover Force departed the Palau Islands to provide surface cover for the landings consisting of Ashigara (CA), Maya (CA), seaplane tender Sanyo Maru, Kuma (CL), and 2 destroyers. The South Philippines Support Force departed the Palau Islands to provide air cover for the landings consisting of Ryūjō (CVL), Haguro (CA), Myōkō (CA), Nachi (CA), Jintsu (CL), and 7 destroyers.

In December 1941 aircraft of the U. S. Army's Far East Air Force attack while the Japanese are landing troops. 5 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers escorted by P-35A Guardsman and P-40B Kittyhawk fighters sink a minesweeper and damage 2 transports so badly they have to be beached. The Naka and a destroyer are slightly damaged by strafing.

“Operation J” (the Invasion of the Netherlands East Indies February 4 - March 31, 1942)

During the invasion of Tarakan (January 11-12, 1942) 16 transport ships carrying 56th Regimental Group (Sakaguchi Brigade) and 2nd Kure Special Naval Landing Force (SNLF) were escorted by the seaplane tender Sanyo Maru, seaplane tender Sanuki Maru, Nagara (CL)(Flagship), 11 destroyers, and 1 tanker. While taking the island the Japanese massacred 249 KNIL soldiers.

The Battle of Balikpapan (23-24 January 1942) Naka (CL), 10 destroyers, and 10 transports were assigned to the invasion of Balikpapan, Borneo. While the Japanese were landing troops the submarine HNMS K-XVIII, operating on the surface due to poor weather, fired four torpedoes at the Naka, but missed. Ordered by Admiral Nishimura Naka and her destroyers unsuccessfully pursued the submarine. Task Force 5 with 4 destroyers and Allied aircraft attacked the now unprotected Japanese convoy. Submarine HNMS K-XVIII sank 1 transport, the destroyers sank 2 transports and damaged 3 more, and bombers sank 2 transports damaging another.

In late February 1942, Naka (CL) and Jintsu (CL) escorted transports with the 48th Infantry Division to the Celebes and eastern Java.

The Battle of the Java Sea (February 27, 1942) a Japanese force consisting of Nachi (CA), Haguro (CA), Jintsu (CL) and Naka (CL), and 14 destroyers. Engaged a mixed Allied force consisting of USS Houston (CA-30) and 4 old destroyers the British HMS Exeter (CA-68) and Australian HMAS Perth (CL-D29), and 3 destroyers the Dutch HNMS De Ruyter (CL)(Flagship), HNMS Java (CL), and 2 destroyers. The Japanese launched floatplanes from Nachi, Jintsu, and Naka to mark the Allied positions and act as spotters. Naka and 6 destroyers launched 43 Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes but miss. A 203mm shell from the Haguro set the Exeter on fire. The Haguro blows up a Dutch destroyer with a torpedo. Jintsu and destroyers launched 72 Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes that missed. A Japanese destroyer sank a British destroyer in a gun battle. A Dutch mine sank a British destroyer. The HNMS Java's stern breaks off after a torpedo hit. The HNMS De Ruyter was hit by a torpedo from the Haguro causing a complete power failure and started fires aft. The De Ruyter remained afloat for hours but the fire could not be extinguished due to the power failure. The Java sinks with the loss of 512 crewmembers. The Houston and Perth withdrew to Java and the Japanese left the area. The De Ruyter sank early the next day with the loss of 344 crewmen. At mid-day, the submarine USS S-37 approached an open boat from De Ruyter carrying 60 Allied survivors. She could not accommodate all of those in the boat and finding no wounded she took on two U.S. sailors who performed signals liaison on De Ruyter. She left supplies and transmitted an encrypted message to ABDA (American-British-Dutch-Australian) Command headquarters with the boats location and resumed her patrol. Later, the submarine USS S-38 rescued 54 British destroyer crewmen. During the next 2 days, Japanese Naval and air units sank Houston, Perth, Exeter, and 3 destroyers.

In March 1942, Naka was assigned patrol duties between Java and the Celebes.

During “Operation X” (the Invasion of Christmas Island March 31, 1942) Naka (CL)(Flagship), Nagara (CL), Natori (CL), 8 destroyers, a tanker, and 2 transport ships made unopposed landings. The garrison of Indian soldiers having mutinied killed their British officer, 4 non-commissioned officers and treating to kill all Europeans. That day the submarine USS Seawolf (SS-197) fired four torpedoes at the Naka, but missed. Seawolf tried again with two more torpedoes the following day, and this time one hit to starboard near her No. 1 boiler. Natori towed the badly damaged Naka to Bantam Bay, Java for temporary repairs. Naka then proceeded to Singapore under her own power. The damage was sufficient to justify a return to Japan for further repairs in June. Naka remained in Japan in reserve until April 1943.

In April 1943, Naka (CL) and Isuzu (CL) formed the 14th Cruiser Division. For the next several months Naka was assigned to reinforce the Marshall Islands and Nauru.

In October 1943, Naka and Isuzu embarked Army troops at Shanghai. The convoy was intercepted in the East China Sea by the submarine USS Shad, which fired 10 torpedoes that missed.

In November 1943, Naka suffered a near-miss when the convoy was attacked by B-24 Liberator bombers from the 13th Air Force 60 nautical miles (111 km) North of Kavieng, New Ireland. She arrived at the Rabaul the same day as the U.S. Task Force 38 Carrier Raid on Rabaul (November 5, 1943). Naka was slightly damaged by near misses from dive-bombers from USS Saratoga (CV-3) and USS Princeton (CVL-23).

In November 1943, Naka departed Ponape with troop reinforcements for Tarawa, but the island fell to the U.S. before the reinforcements could arrive.

From 17-18 February 1944, Naka (CL)assisted Agano (CL), which had been torpedoed the day before by the submarine USS Skate. Immediately after Naka departed, U.S. Task Force 58 attacked Truk in “Operation Hailstone”. The U.S. sank 31 transports and 10 naval vessels (two cruisers, four destroyers and four auxiliary vessels), destroyed nearly 200 aircraft and severely damaged about 100 more, eliminating Truk as a major Japanese base. Naka was attacked 35 nautical miles (65 km) west of Truk by three waves of dive-bombers and torpedo planes from USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) and the USS Cowpens (CVL-25). The first two strikes failed to score a hit, but in the 3rd strike a torpedo and a bomb hit her. Naka broke in two and sank with some 240 crewmen. Patrol boats managed to rescue 210 crewmen. She was removed from the list in March 1944.

Tenryū Class: Tenryū (Named for the Tenryū river)(1919-1942), Tatsuta (Named for the Tatsuta river)(1919-1944)
CL Tenryū Class: Tenryū (Named for the Tenryū river)(1919-1942)

Displacement: 3,948 tons Dimensions: 142.9 x 12.3 x 4 meters Propulsion: 3-shaft geared Turbines, 10 Kampon boilers. Speed: 33 knots (61 km/h) Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) @ 14 knots (26 km/h) Crew: 327 Armament: 4 × 140/50mm guns, 3 × 80/40mm guns, 3 × 550mm torpedo tubes.

Tenryū was completed in November 1919. The following year, she was assigned to cover the landings of Japanese troops against the Bolshevik Red Army. Was based in Port Arthur and patrolled the China coast in this area during the Siberian Intervention (1918 -1922).

From 1931 to 1939, she was assigned to patrol the coasts of China and provided coverage for Japanese transports during the Battle of Shanghai (the first of 22 major engagements fought between the Nationalists Chinese and the Japanese).

In 1939 she had 2 x 13mm AA guns installed.

In August 1941, Tenryū (CL) and Tatsuta (CL) are assigned to Truk as the 18th Cruiser Division.
At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack her division was part of the Wake Island invasion force.

The Battle of Wake Island (December 11, 1941) Tatsuta (CL), Tenryū (CL), Yubari (CL), 2 destroyers, 2 converted destroyer transports, a submarine depot ship and 2 transports attempt to capture the island. Yubari and 3 destroyers close to within 4,500 yards before the order is given to the U.S. Marine shore batteries to open fire. Yubari is straddled withdraws to 5,700 yards and is straddled twice more. The destroyer Hayate takes a direct hit, blows up, and is lost with her entire crew. The destroyer Yayoi is damaged and Oite takes a near miss. As the Japanese withdraw towards the Marshall Islands U.S. Marine F4F Wildcats from VMF-211 strafe the Tenryu (CL) and Tatsuta (CL). A 100lb. bomb hits the destroyer Kisaragi in the stern and probably causes the depth charges there to explode. Kisaragi is lost with her entire crew.

The Battle of Wake Island (December 23, 1941) reinforced with Hiryū (CV-Flying Dragon), Sōryū (CV-Green Dragon), Aoba (CA), Chikuma (CA), Furutaka (CA), Kako (CA), Kinugasa (CA), Tone (CA), seaplane tender Kiyokawa Maru, and 4 destroyers the invasion force successfully captures Wake Island.

In January 1942, Tatsuta and Tenryū cover landings in New Ireland.

At Truk in February 1942, she has 2 x Type 96 twin mount 25mm AA guns installed.

March through May 1942 her division covers landings in the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Bougainville, Rabaul, the Shortland Islands, and the Admiralty Islands.

In July 1942, Tenryū was assigned to cover Japanese troop landings in the invasion of Buna, New Guinea. The invasion force was attacked by USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress and B-26 Marauder bombers. A transport is sunk and a destroyer damaged.

The Battle of Savo Island (August 9, 1942), in a night action off Savo Island the Japanese with Aoba (CA), Chōkai (CA), Kako (CA), Kinugasa (CA), Furutaka (CA), Tenryū (CL) and Yubari (CL), and a destroyer engage an Allied force of HMAS Australia (CA-1886)(flagship), (CA-44), HMAS Canberra (CA), USS Astoria (CA-34), USS Chicago (CA-29), USS Quincy (CA-39), Vincennes USS San Juan (CL-54), HMAS Hobart (CL-1939) and 8 destroyers. The Astoria, Quincy, Vincennes, and Canberra are sunk while the Chicago and 2 destroyers are damaged. The Chōkai takes 3 hits, Kinugasa 2 hits, and Aoba 1 hit. The submarine USS SS-44 sinks Kako (CA) en-route back to New Ireland.

In August 1942, she is attacked by B-17s Flying Fortress bombers during "Operation RE" (The Capture of the Allied Airfield at Milne Bay July 21, 1942) at Milne Bay, New Guinea, but is undamaged. In September 1942, she was part of the force assigned to evacuate troops after "Operation RE" is canceled. At Milne Bay Tenryū and a destroyer sink the British freighter Anshun. The Japanese illuminate the Australian hospital ship Manunda by searchlight, but don't attack her. In October 1942, a USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress bomber hits her while at Rabaul. But she is not severely damaged. Through early November 1942, Tenryū she runs troops and supplies from Rabaul to Guadalcanal as part of the "Tokyo Express". On one run she is attacked by PT-37, P-39, and PT-61but is undamaged.

During the "First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal" (November 13, 1942), after the original Bombardment unit failed in its mission, having fought a night engagement with U.S. naval forces. 4 heavy cruisers, Tenryū (CL), Isuzu (CL), and 5 destroyers, which were supposed to have covered the landings, assume the role and bombard Guadalcanal. As the Japanese withdraw to the Shortland Islands, they are first attacked by the submarine USS Flying Fish (SS-229), which fails to hit a heavy cruiser. But during the day carrier planes from the USS Enterprise (CV-6) and U.S. Marine aircraft from Guadalcanal sink Kinugasa (CA), slightly damage Chōkai (CA) and a Douglas SBD "Dauntless" dive-bomber crashes into the cruiser Maya.

In December 1942, the 18th Cruiser Division is disbanded Tatsuta and Tenryū are attached directly to 8th Fleet. Tenryū, 4 destroyers, and 2 transports land troops in New Guinea. While departing the next day Tenryū is attacked by the submarine USS Albacore (SS-218). One torpedo hits Tenryū in the stern. She sinks and a destroyer rescues the crew. She was removed from the list in January 1944.

CL Tatsuta (Named for the Tatsuta river)(1919-1944)
Displacement: 3,948 tons Dimensions: 142.9 x 12.3 x 4 meters Propulsion: 3-shaft geared Turbines, 10 Kampon boilers. Speed: 33 knots (61 km/h) Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) @ 14 knots (26 km/h) Crew: 327 Armament: 4 × 140/50mm guns, 3 × 80/40mm guns, 3 × 550mm torpedo tubes.

Tatsuta was completed in November 1919. The following year, she was assigned to cover the landings of Japanese troops against the Bolshevik Red Army. Was based in Port Arthur and patrolled the China coast in this area during the Siberian Intervention (1918 -1922). From 1937 to 1938, Tatsuta was assigned to patrol the coasts of China.

In 1939, she has 2 x 13mm AA guns installed.

In August 1941, Tenryū (CL) and Tatsuta (CL) are assigned to Truk as the 18th Cruiser Division.

At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack Cruiser Division 18 was part of the Wake Island invasion force.

The Battle of Wake Island (December 11, 1941) Tatsuta (CL), Tenryū (CL), Yubari (CL), 2 destroyers, 2 converted destroyer transports, a submarine depot ship and 2 transports attempt to capture the island. Yubari and 3 destroyers close to within 4,500 yards before the order is given to the U.S. Marine shore batteries to open fire. Yubari is straddled withdraws to 5,700 yards and is straddled twice more. The destroyer Hayate takes a direct hit, blows up, and is lost with her entire crew. The destroyer Yayoi is damaged and Oite takes a near miss. As the Japanese withdraw towards the Marshall Islands U.S. Marine F4F Wildcats from VMF-211 strafe the Tenryu (CL) and Tatsuta (CL). A 100lb. bomb hits the destroyer Kisaragi in the stern and probably causes the depth charges there to explode. Kisaragi is lost with her entire crew.

The Battle of Wake Island (December 23, 1941) reinforced with Hiryū (CV-Flying Dragon), Sōryū (CV-Green Dragon), Aoba (CA), Chikuma (CA), Furutaka (CA), Kako (CA), Kinugasa (CA), Tone (CA), seaplane tender Kiyokawa Maru, and 4 destroyers the invasion force successfully captures Wake Island.

In January 1942, Tatsuta and Tenryū cover landings in New Ireland.

At Truk in February 1942, she has 2 x Type 96 twin mount 25mm AA guns installed.

March through May 1942 her division covers landings in the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Bougainville, Rabaul, the Shortland Islands, and the Admiralty Islands.

In July 1942, Tatsuta was assigned to cover Japanese troop landings in the invasion of Buna, New Guinea. The invasion force was attacked by USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress and B-26 Marauder bombers. A transport is sunk and a destroyer damaged.

During "Operation RE" (The Capture of the Allied Airfield at Milne Bay, New Guinea July 21, 1942) she is attacked by B-17 Flying Fortress bombers but is undamaged. In September 1942 after "Operation RE" was canceled, she was part of the force assigned to evacuate troops.

In October 1942 Tatsuta and 5 destroyers transported the commander of the 17th Army and troops to Guadalcanal. In December 1942, the 18th Cruiser Division is disbanded Tatsuta and Tenryū are attached directly to 8th Fleet.
In June 1943, when Mutsu (BB) exploded and sank due to an accidental magazine explosion Tatsuta rescued 39 of the survivors.

In March 1944, she was assigned to escort a major reinforcement convoy to Saipan. The submarine USS Sand Lance (SS-381) on her first war patrol attacks the convoy off the Japanese coast. 2 torpedoes hit and sink Tatsuta and 2 hit and sank a transport carrying 1,029 troops. 26 crewmen were killed. 2 destroyers rescue the remaining survivors. She was removed from the list in May 1944.

CL Yubari (Named for the Yubari river)(1923-1944)
Displacement: 2,890 tons Dimensions: 138.90 x 12.04 x 3.58 meters Propulsion: 3-shaft geared Turbines, 8 Kampon boilers Speed: 35 1/2 knots. Range: 5000 nm at 14 knots. Crew: 328 Armament: 6 x 140mm/50 guns (2 double mounts and 2 single mounts), 1 x 76.2mm AA gun, 2 x 13mm AA guns, 4 x 24 in torpedo tubes (2 double mounts), and 34 mines

Yubari was completed in Japan July 1923. Following the Great Kanto Earthquake in September 1923, she ferried refugees from Yokohama to other areas and carried Prince Hirohito to tour the stricken city.

During the April 1925 US Navy Fleet Problem V (Grand Joint Exercise 3) in Hawaiian waters that simulated strained relations existed between the "Blue Fleet" (the U.S. Atlantic Fleet), representing the U.S. and the "Black Fleet" (the U.S. Pacific Fleet), representing an imaginary country in the area of the Hawaiian Islands. This exercise saw the first appearance of an aircraft carrier, the USS Langley (CV-1) (as part of the "Black Fleet"), in naval war games. Yubari briefly shadowed the "Blue Fleet“. Reportedly, 3 USN destroyers gave chase, but failed to overtake her.

In Japan from March 1932-January 1933, she under went refit having her 76.2mm AA gun removed and spray shields installed on her torpedo mounts. In Japan from May-July 1934, she had her mines removed. In Japan from July-November 1935, she had 2 x 13.2-mm Type 93 twin AA guns installed, both 50mm saluting guns resisted, and her power plant repaired. In November 1935 she was assigned as the flagship of 5th Destroyer Sentai (squadron) replacing Tatsuta.
With the situation in South China becoming worse her squadron was assigned to help protect about 12,000 Japanese residents in Fuchow, Amoy, Swatow and Canton. Her squadron helped to safely evacuate Japanese residents to Formosa. With the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" and Japanese invasion of North China proper in 1937, her squadron is sent to North China to support landings there.

On the day of the Pearl Harbor attack, Yubari sailed from the Marshall Islands for Wake Island.

The Battle of Wake Island (December 11, 1941) Tatsuta (CL), Tenryū (CL), Yubari (CL), 2 destroyers, 2 converted destroyer transports, a submarine depot ship and 2 transports attempt to capture the island. Yubari and 3 destroyers close to within 4,500 yards before the order is given to the U.S. Marine shore batteries to open fire. Yubari is straddled withdraws to 5,700 yards and is straddled twice more. The destroyer Hayate takes a direct hit, blows up, and is lost with her entire crew. The destroyer Yayoi is damaged and Oite takes a near miss. As the Japanese withdraw towards the Marshall Islands U.S. Marine F4F Wildcats from VMF-211 strafe the Tenryu (CL) and Tatsuta (CL). A 100lb. bomb hits the destroyer Kisaragi in the stern and probably causes the depth charges there to explode. Kisaragi is lost with her entire crew.

The Battle of Wake Island (December 23, 1941) reinforced with Hiryū (CV-Flying Dragon), Sōryū (CV-Green Dragon), Aoba (CA), Chikuma (CA), Furutaka (CA), Kako (CA), Kinugasa (CA), Tone (CA), seaplane tender Kiyokawa Maru, and 4 destroyers the invasion force successfully captures Wake Island.

At Truk in January 1942, 2 of her saluting guns are removed and on each side of the bridge a Type 93 twin 13.2-mm AA gun are provisionally mounted.

During "Operation R" (the invasions of Rabaul, New Britain and Kavieng, New Ireland January 27, 1942) she covered the landings.

During "Operation SR" (the Invasion of Lae-Salamaua, Papua New Guinea March 8, 1942) she covered the landings. Task Force 17, Lexington (CV-2) and USS Yorktown (CV-5) flew 90 carrier planes from the Coral Sea over New Guinea's Owen Stanley Mountains to attack the anchored invasion force. 2 dive-bombers Yubari attacked by and scored several near misses. Bomb fragments cut down several of the 13.2-mm AA machine-gun crews. Next four F4F-3 fighters strafed her killing the Executive Officer several of the bridge crew. Strafing dive-bombers detonate the No. 2 turret ready-use powder bags, igniting the mattresses fitted to the bridge for anti-splinter protection. In the next strafing attack a 13.2mm machine gun is disabled and the port lifeboat gasoline storage drums ignite, causing a serious fire amidships. Firefighting teams dump most of the burning drums overboard, but their hoses don’t cover the entire area and the fire reaches the forward torpedo mount. The order is given to jettison the torpedoes, but the mount can't be rotated because of a power failure. The crew manages to manually rotate the mount and use a pulley jettison the torpedoes. Of 67 bombs and 12 torpedoes she received 5 near misses, which caused splinter damage in 3,000 locations. Yubari's losses were 13 killed and 49 wounded. During the raid 4 transports are sunk and several other ships damaged. She arrives in Rabaul and later in the month is bombed by 4 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers which score 4 near misses near her stern. From late March to early April 1942 she is in Truk repairing damage.

During "Operation MO” (the invasions of Tulagi, Solomon islands and Port Moresby, New Guinea January 23-24, 1942) Yubari is the flagship of the Port Moresby Attack Force. After the Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942) the Japanese cancel "Operation MO" she returns to Truk. In June 1942 She escorts 3 transports carrying troops and an airfield construction unit to Guadalcanal. In July 1942, her middle turbine develops blade trouble, limiting her maximum speed to 26 knots.

The Allies launch "Operation Watchtower" (the southern Solomon offensive August 7, 1942). The U.S. 1st Marine Division lands on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, and Guadalcanal beginning the campaign to retake the island.

The Battle of Savo Island (August 9, 1942), in a night action off Savo Island the Japanese with Aoba (CA), Chōkai (CA), Kako (CA), Kinugasa (CA), Furutaka (CA), Tenryū (CL) and Yubari (CL), and a destroyer engage an Allied force of HMAS Australia (CA-1886)(flagship), (CA-44), HMAS Canberra (CA), USS Astoria (CA-34), USS Chicago (CA-29), USS Quincy (CA-39), Vincennes USS San Juan (CL-54), HMAS Hobart (CL-1939) and 8 destroyers. The Astoria, Quincy, Vincennes, and Canberra are sunk while the Chicago and 2 destroyers are damaged. The Chōkai takes 3 hits, Kinugasa 2 hits, and Aoba 1 hit. The submarine USS SS-44 sinks Kako (CA) en-route back to New Ireland.

In August 1942, Yubari and a destroyer covered the landings at Nauru and Ocean islands.

She performed patrol and convoy escort duties until February 1943, when she was refitted in Japan where her middle turbine was repaired and the 2 x 13.2-mm Type 93 twin AA guns are replaced with 2 x Type 96 twin mount 25mm AA guns.

The Allies launch "Operation Toenails" (the Invasion of New Georgia June 20 – August 25, 1943). Supported by land-based air units, U.S. Marines and U.S. Army troops land on Rendova and other islands in the New Georgia area, Solomon Islands. In July 1943, Yubari and 8 destroyers bombarded the U.S. beachhead at Rendova Island with little effect. Japanese Navy and Army air units also attacked the beachhead. 3 U.S. PT-boats engage the bombardment group but they inflict no damage. 4 destroyers counter-attack and the PT-boats escape the destroyers under a smoke screen. The destroyers suffer no damage in the engagement.

In July 1943, she struck a mine when arriving at Bougainville. Her forward food store and fresh water tank flooded and 26 sailors were wounded. She is repaired at Rabaul but her speed is permanently reduced to 22 knots.

At Truk in July 1943, she had concrete poured into a damaged compartment to strengthen the hull as a temporary repair.
In Japan in September 1943, a Type 96 triple mount 25mm AA gun replaces the aft 140mm single gun mount, Type 22 surface search radar, Type 93 Mk. 4 sonar, and a Type 93 hydrophone are installed.

In November 1943, U.S. carrier planes raided Rabaul sinking a destroyer and damaging the Agano (CL) and 3 destroyers. Yubari is slightly damaged by strafing. She departed Rabaul to transport troops to Garove Island, New Britain and was attacked by USAAF B-24 Liberator bombers and later by USN PBY Catalina flying boats. Damage to the ship from these attacks caused her to abort the mission and return to Rabaul for repairs.

From December 1943 until March 1944, She underwent refit in Japan. The forward 140mm mount was replaced with a 120mm/45 Type 10 HA gun, 14 x Type 96 25mm AA guns (2 triple mounts and 8 single mounts), and two depth charge rails are installed. This brought her 25mm AA total to 25 guns (3 triple mounts, 4 double mounts, and 8 single mounts).

In April 1944, the submarine USS BLUEGILL (SS-242) on her first war patrol. Southwest of Palau sighted Yubari and 2 destroyers transporting troops. The Japanese ships disappear behind the island where they unload. Suddenly Yubari reappears from behind the island traveling at top speed. The BLUEGILL swings to a new course and fires 6 torpedoes. Yubari evades 4 of them but is hit on the starboard side in her No. 1 boiler room. All engines stop and she goes dead in the water. Boiler rooms Nos. 1 and 2 flood. An attempt to get underway on her middle shaft fails. A destroyer unsuccessfully attempts to tow her. Another destroyer rescues the survivors; almost 24-hours after she was attacked Yubari sinks by the bow. She was removed from the list in June 1944.

Ex-Republic of China cruisers as prizes of Second Sino-Japanese War

CL Ioshima (1931 ex-Ning Hai) (1931-1944)
Displacement: 2,461 tons Dimensions: 350 (pp) 360 (oa) x 39 x 13 feet. Propulsion: 2-shaft geared Turbines. Speed: 22 knots. Crew: 340 Armament: 6 x 127mm guns, 6 x 80mm guns, 4 x 21 inch torpedo tubes, Hangers for 2 aircraft (there is no information showing that any aircraft were ever carried).

Ioshima was built in Japan as the Chinese Navy's Ning Hai (CL) (the first of her class). Being of Japanese design she was outfitted with Japanese armament and equipment. She was captured in 1937 and turned over the Japanese puppet government in China at that time. The Japanese took her over in 1943 refit her with 6 x 127mm dual-purpose guns, and commissioned her as Ioshima in June of 1944. She was active off the coast of China until the submarine USS Shad (SS-235) sank her off Honshu, Japan on November 19, 1944.

CL Yasoshima (1935 ex-P'ing Hai) (1937-1944)
Displacement: 2,461 tons Dimensions: 350 (pp) 360 (oa) x 39 x 13 feet. Propulsion: 2-shaft geared Turbines. Speed: 22 knots. Crew: 340 Armament: 6 x 127mm guns, 3 x 80mm guns, 4 x 21 inch torpedo tubes, Hangers for 2 aircraft (there is no information showing that any aircraft were ever carried).

Yasoshima was built in China as the Chinese Navy's light cruiser Ping Hai (second of the Ning Hai class). Being of Japanese design she was outfitted with Japanese armament and equipment.

Her construction was delayed by the rising tension between Japan and China in 1931 (I.e. the Mukden Incident and the Invasion of Manchuria) and 1932 (I.e. the Japanese occupation of Shanghai and Harbin. And the Japanese creation of Manzhou Guo (the Japanese name for Manchuria) formally independent from China). Which was leading up to the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).

She was completed in June 1935. In August of 1937 full-scale war began with Japan, Ping Hai was sent up the Yangtze River as part of the defense of Nanking, China's capital city. While there she was attacked by carrier planes from the Kaga and sunk in shallow water. She was re-floated in 1938 and towed to Japan to be used as an accommodation hulk. The need for escort vessels to defend against Allied submarines in 1944 saw the Japanese refit her for active service January - June 1944. She was commissioned as Yasoshima and was assigned as convoy escort from July through September 1944. After which she underwent refit to be used as a flagship. Work was finished in November and she was ordered to the Philippines. While escorting 3 transports off the coast of Luzon on November 25, 1944 she was attacked by U.S. carrier planes and sunk.

http://www.geocities.com/dutcheastindies/christmas.html
http://www.combinedfleet.com/kaigun.htm
http://www.ndu.edu/inss/press/jfq_pages/1920.pdf
http://www.history.navy.mil/download/car-5.pdf
http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V2%20P1/macarthurv2.htm#contents
http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/5-2/5-2_4.htm
http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/J/a/Japanese_3_Fleet.html#1_Surprise_Attack_Force
http://ww2db.com/ref.php?q=O&c=x
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-CN-ESols/index.html
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/USMC-C-Guadalcanal.html
http://www.navweaps.com/index_oob/OOB_WWII_Pacific/index_OOB_WWII_Pacific.htm

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 619
RE: Need help!!! - 1/3/2008 6:50:59 AM   
Shannon V. OKeets

 

Posts: 18270
Joined: 5/19/2005
From: Honolulu, Hawaii
Status: online
But your Japanese is impeccable now, right?

Nice stuff.

_____________________________

Steve

Perfection is an elusive goal.

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 620
RE: Need help!!! - 1/3/2008 6:25:42 PM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
Joined: 2/9/2004
From: Tulsa Oklahoma
Status: offline

quote:

ORIGINAL: Shannon V. OKeets

But your Japanese is impeccable now, right?

Nice stuff.


Hai! Ichi ban hanchô Shannon san

(in reply to Shannon V. OKeets)
Post #: 621
RE: Need help!!! - 1/3/2008 11:41:25 PM   
Toed

 

Posts: 55
Joined: 8/5/2006
From: Sweden
Status: offline
Amazing work Mziln. One quick question. This keeps ending the writeups ...X was removend from the list in... What list? Just curious.

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 622
RE: Need help!!! - 1/4/2008 2:48:03 AM   
Shannon V. OKeets

 

Posts: 18270
Joined: 5/19/2005
From: Honolulu, Hawaii
Status: online

quote:

ORIGINAL: Toed

Amazing work Mziln. One quick question. This keeps ending the writeups ...X was removend from the list in... What list? Just curious.

I believe it is the offical list of the nation's ships - referred to simply as "the list". Stricken from the list(s) means it is no longer considered part of the nation's navy. The opposite end of being commissioned.

Curiously, when a ship takes on water (i.e., is beginning to sink), and starts to tilt to one side, it is said to 'list'; no relationship to the other use of the word - just a coincidence.

_____________________________

Steve

Perfection is an elusive goal.

(in reply to Toed)
Post #: 623
RE: Need help!!! - 1/4/2008 4:18:29 AM   
Toed

 

Posts: 55
Joined: 8/5/2006
From: Sweden
Status: offline
Thank you

(in reply to Shannon V. OKeets)
Post #: 624
RE: Need help!!! - 1/4/2008 11:14:13 AM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
Joined: 2/9/2004
From: Tulsa Oklahoma
Status: offline
Steve is right it is the navys list of commissioned ships.

The number, such as Langley (CV-1), is called the "pennant number" of the ship.

The name pennant number (sometimes referred to as pendant numbers) is used because ships were originally allocated a pennant (flag) identifying their flotilla or a particular type of vessel. The pennant number consists of letters and numbers this way ships can be uniquely identified.

I included this for the US an CW because there were duplicate named ships with different pennant numbers.

I didn't do this for the Japanese because there were no duplicate named ships and to avoid confusion.

< Message edited by Mziln -- 1/4/2008 11:15:35 AM >

(in reply to Shannon V. OKeets)
Post #: 625
RE: Need help!!! - 1/4/2008 12:20:15 PM   
Froonp


Posts: 7898
Joined: 10/21/2003
From: Marseilles, France
Status: offline
quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

Steve is right it is the navys list of commissioned ships.

The number, such as Langley (CV-1), is called the "pennant number" of the ship.

The name pennant number (sometimes referred to as pendant numbers) is used because ships were originally allocated a pennant (flag) identifying their flotilla or a particular type of vessel. The pennant number consists of letters and numbers this way ships can be uniquely identified.

I included this for the US an CW because there were duplicate named ships with different pennant numbers.

I didn't do this for the Japanese because there were no duplicate named ships and to avoid confusion.

Japanese ships used Pennant numbers too ?
I would be interested with a list of those numbers and the ships associated. For curiosity.
Mziln, thanks for the splendid research about the Japanese ships. I did not read them all, only a couple, and this is very good. Each of those put the designated ship into perspective as if it was the center of the world, and you re live its career. Great !

(in reply to Mziln)
Post #: 626
RE: Need help!!! - 1/4/2008 6:39:24 PM   
Mziln


Posts: 1107
Joined: 2/9/2004
From: Tulsa Oklahoma
Status: offline

quote:

ORIGINAL: Froonp

quote:

ORIGINAL: Mziln

Steve is right it is the navys list of commissioned ships.

The number, such as Langley (CV-1), is called the "pennant number" of the ship.

The name pennant number (sometimes referred to as pendant numbers) is used because ships were originally allocated a pennant (flag) identifying their flotilla or a particular type of vessel. The pennant number consists of letters and numbers this way ships can be uniquely identified.

I included this for the US an CW because there were duplicate named ships with different pennant numbers.

I didn't do this for the Japanese because there were no duplicate named ships and to avoid confusion.

Japanese ships used Pennant numbers too ?
I would be interested with a list of those numbers and the ships associated. For curiosity.
Mziln, thanks for the splendid research about the Japanese ships. I did not read them all, only a couple, and this is very good. Each of those put the designated ship into perspective as if it was the center of the world, and you re live its career. Great !


This is not a complete list but the site says pictures are from the 1943 Naval Recognition Manual.

Select ~ Ships of WW 2 (top of the window) ~ Imperial Japanese Navy

(in reply to Froonp)
Post #: 627
RE: Need help!!! - 2/2/2008 3:28:53 PM   
capitan


Posts: 694
Joined: 7/29/2006
Status: offline
Status-report on Landunits (all countries):
614 out of 1062 units done (58%)

DONE:
Siberian Russia 4/4 (Adam) DONE!
Finland 8/8 (Adam) DONE!
Rumania 10/10 (Adam) DONE!
Mongolia 1/1 (Adam) DONE!
Switzerland 6/6 (Adam) DONE!
Phillipines 1/1 (Adam) DONE!
Afghanistan 2/2 (Adam) DONE!
Australia 8/8 (Michaelbaldur) DONE!
New Zeeland 3/3 (Michaelbaldur) DONE!
South Africa 5/5 (Michaelbaldur) DONE!
Denmark 1/1 (Michaelbaldur) DONE!
Norway 3/3 (Michaelbaldur) DONE!
Poland 14/14 (Michaelbaldur) DONE!
AOI 1/1 (Mziln) DONE!
Croatia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Ecuador 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Peru 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
French Somalia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Ivory Coast 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
French Sudan 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Senegal 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Middle Congo 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Niger 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Indo-China 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
N. East Indies 2/2 (Capitan) DONE!
Belgian Congo 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Saudi Arabia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Iraq 2/2 (Capitan) DONE!
Liberia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Cameroon 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Gabon 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Madagascar 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Morroco 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Algeria 2/2 (Capitan) DONE!
Tunisia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Syria 2/2 (Capitan) DONE!
Sudan 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Nigeria 2/2 (Capitan) DONE!
Sierra Leone 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
British Somalialand 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Egypt 2/2 (Capitan) DONE!
Kenya 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Uganda 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Tanganyika 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Northern Rhodesia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Southern Rhodesia 1/1 (Capitan)
Palestine 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Aden 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
New Caledonia 1/1 (Capitan) DONE!
Sweden 13/13 (Toed) DONE!
Ireland 2/2 (bj_rodhe) DONE!
Hungary 6/6 (Grisouille) DONE!
Bulgaria 3/3 (Grisouille) DONE!
France 68/68(Grisouille)DONE
Greece 4/4 (Grisouille) DONE!
SS-Germany 19/19 (Grisouille) DONE!
Netherlands 2/2 (Grisouille) DONE!
Yugoslavia 9/9 (Dale) (DONE!)

ASSIGNED but NOT DONE:
USA 50/99 (Adam)
Russia 124/146 (Adam)
Ukraine 0/8 (Adam)
Communist China 16/18 (Wosung)
Nat. China 34/38 (Wosung)
Korea 0/2 (Wosung)
Manchuko 0/4 (Wosung)
Formosa 0/1 (Wosung)
Italy 22/61 (Jimm)
Libya 0/3 (Jimm)
Eritrea 0/1 (Jimm)
Italian Somalialand 0/2 (Jimm)
Burma 1/2 (Capitan)
Germany 83/128 (Capitan)
Thailand 0/1 (Capitan)
Northern Ireland 0/1 (Capitan)
Belgium 0/4 (BredsjöMagnus)
Nat. Spain 2/14 (SPerdomo) ACTIVE?
UK 18/57 (Rob)
Canada 5/10 (Rob)
India 1/13 (Rob)
Brasil 0/5 (Horaf) ACTIVE?
Argentina 0/3 (Horaf) ACTIVE?
Mexico 0/6 (Jeff)
Panama 0/2 (Jeff)
Colombia 0/1 (Jeff)
Venezuela 0/1 (Jeff)
Bolivia 0/1 (Jeff)
Paraguay 0/1 (Jeff)
Uruguay 0/1 (Jeff)
Chile 0/2 (Jeff)


UNASSIGNED:
Japan 11/76
Zoya and Tito 0/2
------------------
Iran 0/2
Portugal 0/2
Turkey 1/13

LOW PRIORITY:
Ethiopia 1/6
Rep. Spain 1/14
Czeckoslovakia 1/15
Austria 0/3
-------------
"NEW UNITS" 7/61

Also the ART (including ART, AA and AT) for all nations is being done by STABILO

Anyone who like to pitch in with any of the unassigned countries is welcome to take part! Just send me a PM and I will help you get started!

EVERYONE ALREADY INVOLVED BUT NOT IN CONTACT PLEASE SEND ME A PM FOR A HEADS-UP!

- Capitan

< Message edited by capitan -- 2/17/2008 8:34:46 PM >

(in reply to capitan)
Post #: 628
RE: Need help!!! - 2/10/2008 11:26:48 PM   
capitan


Posts: 694
Joined: 7/29/2006
Status: offline
A small update:
* Adam is alive and back in the game! Welcome back mate!
* Grisouille has of course finished the dutch. An oversight on my part!
* Stabilo has joined the MWIF writersguild and has taken on all the ART, and is doing good progress! Thanks for helping out!
* I will get cracking at incorporating all the writeups written but not yet in the game.
* Warspite1 and Hanshafen have both expressed willingsness to help out but we have not yet reached any decisions.

I will give the people listed as inactive (BredsjöMagnus, Horaf, IDG, Dale, MichaelBaldur, bj_rodhe) some time to get back to me but in time, we will need to finish the British and the Japanese. So far we have little progress on them and this concerns me a bit. Fortunatly, in that perspective, we have more time to finish it all.

Anyone willing to lend a hand, if it is only with 1 writeup, it is much appreciated.


< Message edited by capitan -- 2/10/2008 11:40:50 PM >

(in reply to capitan)
Post #: 629
RE: Need help!!! - 2/11/2008 1:55:13 PM   
capitan


Posts: 694
Joined: 7/29/2006
Status: offline
Another quick update!

Warspite1 (Rob) has taken on the UK! Big round of applause for him! He even finished one writeup.

Stabilo (Klaus) has finished a few ART already so things are really looking up for all our ART!

The french are now mostly done. Only a few "new" units need some attention but we are on it.

I have located the Dales Yugoslav forces (don´t understand how I missed them really) but they are not formatted so I need to do that before considering them done.

A new talent, Doug, has stepped up to do some more writeups but we are still deciding on which country to attack so to speak.

Japan is still open and in desperate need of attention.

(in reply to capitan)
Post #: 630
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